Lipoprotein(a): is it more, less or equal to LDL as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality?


PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize the recent studies directly comparing LDL and lipoprotein(a) as causal factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS:In approximately 100,000 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study for risk of myocardial infarction, in observational analyses per 39 mg/dl (1 mmol/l) cholesterol increase, the hazard ratio was 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-1.3) for LDL cholesterol and 1.6 (1.4-1.9) for lipoprotein(a) cholesterol. In corresponding genetic analyses, the causal risk ratio was 2.1 (1.3-3.4) for LDL and 2.0 (1.6-2.6) for lipoprotein(a). Also, a 15 mg/dl (0.39 mmol/l) cholesterol increase was associated with a hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality of 1.05 (1.04-1.07) for LDL cholesterol and 1.18 (1.12-1.25) for lipoprotein(a) cholesterol. Corresponding values for all-cause mortality were 1.01 (1.00-1.01) for LDL cholesterol and 1.07 (1.04-1.10) for lipoprotein(a) cholesterol. In genetic, causal analyses, the mortality increases for elevated lipoprotein(a) appeared to be through apolipoprotein(a) kringle IV-2 rather than through lipoprotein(a) levels per se. SUMMARY:On cholesterol scales, lipoprotein(a) and LDL appeared equal as causal factors for myocardial infarction; however, lipoprotein(a) was most important for mortality. Lipoprotein(a) effects may not only be due to cholesterol content but could also be due to the structure of lipoprotein(a) resembling plasminogen.


Curr Opin Lipidol


Langsted A,Nordestgaard BG




Has Abstract


2020-06-01 00:00:00












  • Role of sortilin in lipid metabolism.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Sortilin, encoded SORT1 gene at chromosome 1p13.3, is a multiligand receptor that traffics protein from the Golgi to the endosomes, secretory vesicles, and the cell surface. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed an association between sortilin and reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) as we...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Conlon DM

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Lipoprotein(a): more interesting than ever after 50 years.

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dubé JB,Boffa MB,Hegele RA,Koschinsky ML

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolic effects of thia fatty acids.

    abstract::Thia substituted fatty acids are saturated fatty acids which are modified by insertion of a sulfur atom at specific positions in the carbon backbone. During the last few years pleiotropic effects of the 3-thia fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid have been revealed. The biological responses to tetradecylthioacetic aci...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Berge RK,Skorve J,Tronstad KJ,Berge K,Gudbrandsen OA,Grav H

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Statins and the risk of new-onset diabetes: a review of recent evidence.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Statins are the most prescribed medications worldwide with a proven ability to reduce major cardiovascular events. Recent data have revealed that statin therapy is associated with an increased risk for developing diabetes. We discuss the relevant data including newly published results, which demonstra...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Preiss D,Sattar N

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular risk factors in inflammatory arthritis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To assess factors that promote atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, to determine how control of inflammation with conventional and biological antirheumatic drugs affects cardiovascular risk. RECENT FINDINGS:An excess risk of CVD occurs early in the RA dis...

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wierzbicki AS

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Possible contributions of lipoproteins and cholesterol to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2.

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: von Eckardstein A,Sibler RA

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


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    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Graaf J,Stalenhoef AF

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

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    authors: Balvers M,van den Born BH,Levin E,Nieuwdorp M

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


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    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Norata GD,Pirillo A,Catapano AL

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Romeo S,Huang-Doran I,Baroni MG,Kotronen A

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Nutrition recommendations emphasize that not only dietary fat quantity but also fat quality plays a role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence for dietary fat and risk of T2D, to highlight recent findings and point out future research direction...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schlesinger S,Schwingshackl L,Neuenschwander M

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Doris MK,Dweck MR,Fayad ZA

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cariou B,Si-Tayeb K,Le May C

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Dollet L,Pendergrast LA,Zierath JR

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van der Valk FM,van Wijk DF,Stroes ES

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The new risk-based guidelines on blood cholesterol treatment from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association reflect the now widespread international agreement that lipid-lowering treatment decisions should be based primarily on individuals' predicted cardiovascular disease ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jackson R

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mackness MI,Durrington PN,Mackness B

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:It is well accepted that LDLs and its modified form oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL) play a major role in the development of atherosclerosis and foam cell formation. Whereas the majority of these cells have been demonstrated to be derived from macrophages, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) give rise to a significant nu...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chaabane C,Coen M,Bochaton-Piallat ML

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Davidson WS,Silva RA

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brown JM,Rudel LL

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Riksen NP,Stienstra R

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Seidah NG,Chrétien M,Mbikay M

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Evans M,Khan N,Rees A

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Apolipoprotein A-I-containing lipoproteins and atherosclerosis.

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Leroy A,Dallongeville J,Fruchart JC

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kindt I,Mata P,Knowles JW

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00