Total, direct, and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations and metabolic syndrome among the Korean population.


:Total bilirubin, not direct or indirect bilirubin, has been reported to associate inversely with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between bilirubin subtypes and metabolic syndrome among the Korean population. This study included 5,231 Koreans (3,008 men, 2,223 women) aged 30-87 years, who visited the Health promotion centers in Seoul from April, 2006 to June, 2007. The associations of direct, indirect, and total bilirubin classified in quartiles with metabolic syndrome were measured by logistic regression analyses in men and women. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the lowest, 2nd and 3rd quartiles of direct serum bilirubin compared with the highest quartile (reference) were 2.3 (1.6-3.2), 1.8 (1.3-2.4), and 1.8 (1.4-2.4) among men, and 5.5 (2.6-11.5), 3.1 (1.5-6.7), and 1.9 (0.9-4.3) among women, respectively. In a multivariable adjusted model, however, the significance of inverse associations with total and indirect bilirubin became attenuated. The relation was consistent particularly with direct bilirubin in subgroups of metabolic syndrome components such as central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and low HDL-cholesterol in both men and women. Of the three subtypes of serum bilirubin, the inverse association of metabolic syndrome was significantly apparent and consistent with direct bilirubin.






Jo J,Yun JE,Lee H,Kimm H,Jee SH




Has Abstract


2011-04-01 00:00:00












  • AT1 receptor antagonist induces thermogenic beige adipocytes in the inguinal white adipose tissue of obese mice.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS:Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graus-Nunes F,Rachid TL,de Oliveira Santos F,Barbosa-da-Silva S,Souza-Mello V

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Interference at work: a case report of a malfunctioning insulin pump.

    abstract::Insulin pumps operate almost universally in the work environment. Tubeless insulin pumps are a relatively recent development for management of insulin-dependent diabetes. This is the first report of location-dependent failure of insulin pump function, possibly due to external interference, occurring only in the settin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reiher AE,Gallagher TA,Emanuele MA

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Growth hormone and aging.

    abstract::Aging is associated with a significant decline in secretion of growth hormone. This in turn leads to reduced circulating IGF-I and changes in IGF-binding proteins. Growth hormone replacement to growth hormone-deficient individuals has been shown to improve quality of life, enhance bone and muscle mass, and reduce card...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rosen CJ

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of multiresistant prolactinomas with a combination of cabergoline and octreotide LAR.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Dopamine agonist (DA)-resistant prolactinomas are rare but they constitute a real challenge, since there are few therapeutic alternatives left for these patients. DESIGN AND SETTING:Proof-of-concept study at a tertiary care, referral center. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The studied population consis...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Sosa-Eroza E,Espinosa E,Ramírez-Rentería C,Mendoza V,Arreola R,Mercado M

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro and in vivo inhibition of mTOR by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to improve early diabetic nephropathy via the DDIT4/TSC2/mTOR pathway.

    abstract::We investigated whether 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) could improve early diabetic nephropathy through the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4/tuberous sclerosis 2/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Rat mesangial cells were cultured in media containing normal glucose or high glucose and were treated with o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang H,Wang J,Qu H,Wei H,Ji B,Yang Z,Wu J,He Q,Luo Y,Liu D,Duan Y,Liu F,Deng H

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Association of the common rs9939609 variant of FTO gene with polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women.

    abstract::Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have recently been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus among different ethnic populations. Given that the phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) overlaps with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we hypothesize that the common rs9939609 varia...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yan Q,Hong J,Gu W,Zhang Y,Liu Q,Su Y,Zhang Y,Li X,Cui B,Ning G

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of ethanol on regulation of (Na + K)-adenosine triphosphatase by aldosterone and dexamethasone in cultured renal papillary collecting duct cells.

    abstract::Chronic ethanol exposure causes alterations in biologic membranes of different cell types. (Na + K) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), a membrane-bound enzyme inhibited by the acute presence of ethanol, increases its activity in rat kidney after chronic ethanol consumption. The aim of this investigation was to evaluat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodrigo R,Rivera G,Lucero Y,Larraguibel C

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Healthcare utilization and costs among patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) have a substantial impact on patients' health status, yet research on the extent of healthcare utilization and costs among these patients is scarce. The objective was to determine healthcare usage, associated costs, and their determinants among patients treated for an N...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lobatto DJ,van den Hout WB,Zamanipoor Najafabadi AH,Steffens ANV,Andela CD,Pereira AM,Peul WC,van Furth WR,Biermasz NR,Vliet Vlieland TPM

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • The human A1 adenosine receptor: ligand binding properties, sites of somatic expression and chromosomal localization.

    abstract::The A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) exerts important biological effects in the mammalian biology. To provide insights into the role A1AR action in human physiology, we characterized the pharmacologic properties of the human A1AR, examined somatic sites of A1AR gene expression, and identified the chromosomal location of t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rivkees SA,Lasbury ME,Stiles GS,Henegariu O,Curtis C,Vance G

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of oxidative status in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    abstract::Data on the antioxidant levels enzyme in patients with hyperthyroidism are limited and conflicting. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative status using an automated method in patients with hyperthyroidism. Thirty-six subjects with hyperthyroidism and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aslan M,Cosar N,Celik H,Aksoy N,Dulger AC,Begenik H,Soyoral YU,Kucukoglu ME,Selek S

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with changes in handgrip strength in Japanese community-dwelling persons.

    abstract::Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, has positive effects on several muscle groups. Muscle strength and mass decrease with age, and recently, this decrease is defined as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia may be triggered by oxidative stress. We investigated whether changes in the oxidative stress m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kawamoto R,Kohara K,Katoh T,Kusunoki T,Ohtsuka N,Abe M,Kumagi T,Miki T

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pituitary-adrenal axis and peripheral cortisol metabolism in obese patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIM:A close relationship between adiposity and increased cortisol levels is well established in patients with endogenous hypercortisolism. Nevertheless, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation in overweight subjects is still a matter of concern. We studied free cortisol (urinary free cortiso...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ceccato F,Lizzul L,Barbot M,Scaroni C

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of peripheral nerve protection between insulin-based glucose control and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat.

    abstract::Strict glucose control is a well-proven therapeutic approach for peripheral neuropathies in patients with diabetes. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) has also been accepted as a therapeutic agent for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in the respect of pathogenesis. However, the potential of ALA as a treatment for DPN in comp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee KA,Lee NY,Park TS,Jin HY

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Biochemical evidence of the functional recovery and regeneration of adrenal autotransplants in the rat spleen.

    abstract::Adrenal transplantation may restore adrenal function after bilateral adrenalectomy or when adrenal function is lost. Thus, animal experiments could provide useful information before clinical application of adrenal transplantation. Using an experimental model of autotransplantion of a complete adrenal gland in the sple...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allende G,Chavira R,Quintana-Stephan A

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Elements in the pathophysiology of diminished growth hormone (GH) secretion in aging humans.

    abstract::Remarkable decreases in growth hormone (GH) secretion accompany healthy aging. The pathophysiology of this hyposomatotropism is confounded by concurrent changes in body composition (with increased visceral fat), physiological declines in estrogen and androgen concentrations, differences in gender responses to aging, a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Veldhuis JD,Iranmanesh A,Weltman A

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Optimal cutoffs for low skeletal muscle mass related to cardiovascular risk in adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    abstract::The possible association between low skeletal muscle mass and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors necessitates estimation of muscle mass even in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI). This study was aimed to investigate optimal cutoffs for skeletal muscle mass reflecting CVD risk factors and to evaluate the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim Y,Han BD,Han K,Shin KE,Lee H,Kim TR,Cho KH,Kim DH,Kim YH,Kim H,Nam GE

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Liquid L-thyroxine versus tablet L-thyroxine in patients on L- thyroxine replacement or suppressive therapy: a meta-analysis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To compare the effectiveness of liquid L-T4 (L-thyroxine) and tablet L-T4 in patients on L-T4 replacement or suppressive therapy. METHODS:The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant articles. All prospective or randomized controlled studies (RCTs) compa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Laurent I,Tang S,Astère M,Wang KR,Deng S,Xiao L,Li QF

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg): a novel secreted protein up-regulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has insulin resistance (IR) or reduced β-cell mass, partially due to an increased β-cell apoptosis rate. Pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg) is a secretory protein produced in the pancreas and up-regulated dramatically during pancreatic disease. Recent studies reveal...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang J,Li L,Raptis D,Li X,Li F,Chen B,He J,Graf R,Sun Z

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic performance of Gallium-68 somatostatin receptor PET and PET/CT in patients with thoracic and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: a meta-analysis.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Gallium-68 somatostatin receptor (SMSR) positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) are valuable diagnostic tools for patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). To date, a meta-analysis about the diagnostic accuracy of these imaging methods is lacking. A...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Treglia G,Castaldi P,Rindi G,Giordano A,Rufini V

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolic syndrome and cancer: holistic or reductionist?

    abstract::Metabolic syndrome has become a major public health problem worldwide and represents a common clinical condition in countries with a high incidence of obesity and western dietary patterns. Metabolic syndrome associates with common cancers at many sites, including liver, colorectal, and bladder cancers in men, and endo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Esposito K,Capuano A,Giugliano D

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • High-resolution-cone beam tomography analysis of bone microarchitecture in patients with acromegaly and radiological vertebral fractures.

    abstract::Vertebral fractures are an emerging complication of acromegaly but their prediction is still difficult occurring even in patients with normal bone mineral density. In this study we evaluated the ability of high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography to provide information on skeletal abnormalities associated with ve...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maffezzoni F,Maddalo M,Frara S,Mezzone M,Zorza I,Baruffaldi F,Doglietto F,Mazziotti G,Maroldi R,Giustina A

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of capsaicin treatment on the regulation of ovarian compensatory hypertrophy and compensatory ovulation.

    abstract::The present study investigates the effects of functional sensorial denervation, induced by administering capsaicin to hemiovariectomized adult female rats in each day of the estrus cycle, on ovulation and serum concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. The results indicate that the establishment of compensatory ova...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trujillo A,Morales L,Vargas X,Alba L,Domínguez R

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Sedentary behavior, gestational diabetes mellitus, and type 2 diabetes risk: where do we stand?

    abstract::A substantial number of pregnancies are complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and up to 70 % of women with GDM go on to develop type 2 diabetes. Given the extensive body of research suggesting physical activity reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes, facilitating physical activity, and reducing sedentary tim...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Johnson ST,Lynch B,Vallance J,Davenport MH,Gardiner PA,Butalia S

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sustained activity of luteal cytosolic phospholipase A2 during luteolysis in pseudopregnant rats: its possible implication in tissue involution.

    abstract::We investigated the expression and activity of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in the corpus luteum during spontaneous and induced luteolysis in pseudopregnant rats. In both models, luteal PLA2 activity rose in association with functional regression and persisted during the following structural regression. Tissue c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kurusu S,Sakaguchi S,Kawaminami M,Hashimoto I

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of a novel germline FOXE1 variant in patients with familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC).

    abstract::The familial forms of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) represent approximately 5 % of thyroid neoplasms. Nine FNMTC susceptibility loci have been mapped; however, only the DICER1 and SRGAP1 susceptibility genes have been identified. The transcription factors NKX2-1, FOXE1, PAX8, and HHEX are involved in the mor...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pereira JS,da Silva JG,Tomaz RA,Pinto AE,Bugalho MJ,Leite V,Cavaco BM

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Androgen receptor expression in the testes and epididymides of prenatal and postnatal Sprague-Dawley rats.

    abstract::The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in sexual differentiation and in the virilization of the male reproductive system. A clear understanding of AR expression at the early stages of sexual development will help elucidate the sensitivity of perinatal animals to endocrine modulation by external agents, such ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: You L,Sar M

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Calculation of therapeutic activity of radioiodine in Graves' disease by means of Marinelli's formula, using technetium (99mTc) scintigraphy.

    abstract::The therapeutic activity of 131I administered to patients with Graves' disease can be calculated by means of Marinelli's formula. The thyroidal iodine uptake (131IUmax) needed for the calculation is usually determined with the use of 131I. The purpose of the paper was to estimate 131IUmax on the basis of technetium up...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Szumowski P,Mojsak M,Abdelrazek S,Sykała M,Amelian-Fiłonowicz A,Jurgilewicz D,Myśliwiec J

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Higher direct bilirubin levels during mid-pregnancy are associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::Bilirubin concentrations have been recently reported to be negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between bilirubin concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a prospective cohort study, 2969 pregnant women were recruited prior to 16 weeks of gestation and were follo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu C,Zhong C,Zhou X,Chen R,Wu J,Wang W,Li X,Ding H,Guo Y,Gao Q,Hu X,Xiong G,Yang X,Hao L,Xiao M,Yang N

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • One-year GH replacement therapy reduces early cardiac target organ damage (TOD) in adult GHD patients.

    abstract::Hypopituitarism reduces life expectancy and increases the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, as well as death. Abnormalities in the cardiovascular system may be independently related to GH deficiency (GHD). The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate coronary flow reserve and diastolic fun...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boschetti M,Agosti S,Albanese V,Casalino L,Teti C,Bezante GP,Brunelli C,Albertelli M,Ferone D

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of patient-reported outcomes data in structured diabetes education intervention: 2-year follow-up data of patient empowerment programme.

    abstract::To examine the effects of a structured group-based education programme, patient empowerment programme (PEP), compared with usual care on 2-year changes in patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A prospective observational study of 715 patients (PEP/non-PEP: 390/325) was conducted to c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong CK,Lam CL,Wan EY,Chan AK,Pak CH,Chan FW,Wong WC

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00