Contraception and HIV infection in women.


BACKGROUND:More than 15 million women, many of reproductive age, were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the end of 2007. As the HIV epidemic evolves, heterosexual intercourse is increasingly risky: the risk of infection in exposed young women is 4- to 7-fold higher than in young men and nearly half a million newborns annually have HIV. This review aims to show the effect of contraceptive choices on risk of HIV and on the course of disease in women with HIV. METHODS:Relevant citations were selected by agreement between the authors after a search of MEDLINE using the terms HIV/AIDS and contraception. RESULTS:Risk of transmission of HIV varies from 1 in 200 to 1 in 10 000 coital incidents, depending in part on the integrity of the vaginal epithelium. Consistent use of male condoms has been proven to reduce horizontal transmission of HIV by 80% among HIV-serodiscordant couples. Hormonal contraception may increase the risk of HIV acquisition in high-risk women such as commercial sex workers, but not in women at low risk of HIV. While hormonal contraception did not affect progression of disease in two cohort studies involving 370 women, in a randomized trial among women not receiving antiretroviral medication, clinical disease accelerated in the oral contraception group (13.2/100 woman-years) compared with the copper intrauterine devices group (8.6/100 woman-years; hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.1). Hormonal contraception does not interfere with antiviral drug effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS:All the available reversible contraceptive methods can generally be used by women at risk of HIV infection and by HIV-infected women. Further studies are needed to investigate the safety and efficiency of hormonal contraception in women living with HIV/AIDS.


Hum Reprod Update


Heikinheimo O,Lähteenmäki P




Has Abstract


2009-03-01 00:00:00














  • Changes in basement membrane thickness in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    abstract::We have examined aspects of the fine structure of the basal laminae associated with the luminal and glandular epithelium and small blood vessels in the human endometrium. Four short studies are presented and reviewed. Study 1 examined biopsies from 20 fertile women taken on days after the luteinizing hormone surge (LH...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dockery P,Khalid J,Sarani SA,Bulut HE,Warren MA,Li TC,Cooke ID

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • The Transnational Study on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women. Methods, results, new analyses and the healthy user effect.

    abstract::The results of the Transnational Study on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women studies are reviewed, potential biases shown, and new analyses are presented. The initial finding was a slight increase in the risk of venous thromboboembolism (VTE) when users of third generation OC (containing the progestins ...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lewis MA

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Noncontraceptive health benefits of combined oral contraception.

    abstract::Contraception is one of the keystones of reproductive health. The availability of effective contraception has helped to change dramatically the structure of the world's population during the last 50 years, through a demographic transition involving lower fertility rates and longer survival. As the transition evolves m...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: ESHRE Capri Workshop Group.

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Neonatal exposure to potent and environmental oestrogens and abnormalities of the male reproductive system in the rat: evidence for importance of the androgen-oestrogen balance and assessment of the relevance to man.

    abstract::The effects on reproductive tract development in male rats, of neonatal exposure to potent (reference) oestrogens, diethylstilboestrol (DES) and ethinyl oestradiol (EE), with those of two environmental oestrogens, octylphenol and hisphenol A were systematically compared. Other treatments, such as administration of a g...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Williams K,McKinnell C,Saunders PT,Walker M,Fisher JS,Turner KJ,Atanassova N,Sharpe M

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Pituitary-ovarian dysfunction and endometriosis.

    abstract::Significant association between endometriosis, including minor endometriosis, and infertility (or strictly subfertility) is shown by prevalence studies, but a causal relationship has not been established. This review focuses on evidence for pituitary-ovarian dysfunction as a cause for the subfertility. A methodologica...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cahill DJ,Hull MG

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Endometriosis and nuclear receptors.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Endometriosis is recognized as a steroid-dependent disorder; however, the precise roles of nuclear receptors (NRs) in steroid responsiveness and other signaling pathways are not well understood. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE:Over the past several years, a number of paradigm-shifting breakthroughs have occurred in...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yilmaz BD,Bulun SE

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Protamines and male infertility.

    abstract::Protamines are the major nuclear sperm proteins. The human sperm nucleus contains two types of protamine: protamine 1 (P1) encoded by a single-copy gene and the family of protamine 2 (P2) proteins (P2, P3 and P4), all also encoded by a single gene that is transcribed and translated into a precursor protein. The protam...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Oliva R

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The Fifth Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Meeting discussed knowledge regarding contemporary genetics in female reproduction. METHODS:Specialist reproductive medicine clinicians and geneticists delivered presentations based on published literature and current research. The content of this report i...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update



    authors: Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Group 2010.,Fauser BC,Diedrich K,Bouchard P,Domínguez F,Matzuk M,Franks S,Hamamah S,Simón C,Devroey P,Ezcurra D,Howles CM

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Reproductive, obstetric, and perinatal outcomes of women with adenomyosis and endometriosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The reproductive impact of adenomyosis and endometriosis is widely researched but the extent of these impacts remains elusive. It has been demonstrated that endometriosis, in particular, is known to result in subfertility but endometriosis and adenomyosis are increasingly linked to late pregnancy complicatio...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Horton J,Sterrenburg M,Lane S,Maheshwari A,Li TC,Cheong Y

    更新日期:2019-09-11 00:00:00

  • Results of conservative management of epithelial malignant and borderline ovarian tumours.

    abstract::Conservative management of at least part of both the ovary and uterus can be proposed in patients with borderline ovarian tumour, in order to preserve fertility potential. This conservative management could be carried out even in patients with borderline ovarian tumour associated with non-invasive peritoneal implants ...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Morice P,Camatte S,Wicart-Poque F,Atallah D,Rouzier R,Pautier P,Pomel C,Lhommé C,Duvillard P,Castaigne D

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Assisted reproduction practice in Europe: legal and ethical aspects.

    abstract::This report describes the ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that have been instituted in European countries. The data were collected from questionnaires circulated to fertility centres in 39 countries in Europe. Ninety six ART centres were located in 30 of these countries. Nine coun...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schenker JG

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Are routine breast and pelvic examinations necessary for women starting combined oral contraception?

    abstract::Millions of women worldwide use combined oral contraception (COC). Most of them are in good health and have no contraindications to using any contraceptive method. Although extremely safe for the vast majority of women and even though the absolute risk of complications is very small, COC is associated with an increase...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Scott A,Glasier AF

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • Low-dose aspirin for in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::Despite recent advances in ovarian stimulation regimens and laboratory techniques, the pregnancy rate of assisted reproduction remains relatively low. New methods that would potentially improve implantation rates are needed. One proposed strategy involves enhancement of blood flow at the implantation site with the use...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Gelbaya TA,Kyrgiou M,Li TC,Stern C,Nardo LG

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of the ovarian transcriptome through the use of differential analysis of gene expression methodologies.

    abstract::Prior to the development of high-throughput methods for the analysis of differential gene expression, genes required for proper ovarian function were identified on a case-by-case basis. Recently, however, several techniques have been developed that enable investigators to study large-scale changes in gene expression u...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hennebold JD

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Is it time for a paradigm shift in drug research and development in endometriosis/adenomyosis?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The drug research and development (R&D) for endometriosis/adenomyosis has been painfully slow. Most completed clinical trials on endometriosis did not publish their results, and presumably failed. While few published trials did report how they foundered, the reasons why they failed are often completely uncle...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guo SW,Groothuis PG

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Smoking and reproduction: gene damage to human gametes and embryos.

    abstract::Assisted conception is a useful methodology for detecting disturbances in clinical outcome, meiotic maturation, and genetic integrity of human gametes. Germinal cells are vulnerable to genetic damage from smoking, but can repair damage during meiosis. In ejaculated spermatozoa, repair capacity declines drastically. Sm...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zenzes MT

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation: preliminary findings and implications for cancer patients.

    abstract::Cancer treatment modalities are increasingly more effective in achieving complete remission and cure. Aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as bone marrow transplantation, results in >90% cure in many cancers of children and young women. As a result of this success however, a new problem has arisen. Many y...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Oktay K

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological aspects and clinical sequelae of energy deficiency and hypoestrogenism in exercising women.

    abstract::Amenorrhoea associated with reduced caloric intake and strenuous exercise leads to hypoestrogenism and is associated with clinical manifestations that include disordered eating, stress fractures, osteoporosis, and, as recently reported, a potential increase in the risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Disordered e...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: De Souza MJ,Williams NI

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of periconceptional maternal lifestyle on clinical features and biomarkers of placental development and function: a systematic review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Worldwide, placenta-related complications contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and preterm birth, with implications for the future health of mothers and offspring. The placenta develops in the periconception period and forms the interface between mother an...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reijnders IF,Mulders AGMGJ,van der Windt M,Steegers EAP,Steegers-Theunissen RPM

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • The role of proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily in the intraovarian regulation of follicular development.

    abstract::Ovarian follicular development occurs in a hierarchical manner with each follicle having a unique biochemical composition at any moment in time. It has long been understood that a precise coordination between the growth and maturation of the oocyte and adjacent follicular cells (i.e. somatic cells) is essential in ord...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Juengel JL,McNatty KP

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Recurrent pregnancy loss: diagnostic workup after two or three pregnancy losses? A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) occurs in 1-3% of all couples trying to conceive. No consensus exists regarding when to perform testing for risk factors in couples with RPL. Some guidelines recommend testing if a patient has had two pregnancy losses whereas others advise to test after three losses. OBJECTIVE...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: van Dijk MM,Kolte AM,Limpens J,Kirk E,Quenby S,van Wely M,Goddijn M

    更新日期:2020-04-15 00:00:00

  • Individualization of controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF using ovarian reserve markers: from theory to practice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The main objective of individualization of treatment in IVF is to offer every single woman the best treatment tailored to her own unique characteristics, thus maximizing the chances of pregnancy and eliminating the iatrogenic and avoidable risks resulting from ovarian stimulation. Personalization of treatmen...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: La Marca A,Sunkara SK

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nutrition and reproduction in women.

    abstract::Malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and obesity and eating disorders are increasingly common in developing as well as developed countries. The reproductive axis is closely linked to nutritional status, especially undernutrition in the female, and inhibitory pathways involving detectors in the hind...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: ESHRE Capri Workshop Group.

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical implications of uterine malformations and hysteroscopic treatment results.

    abstract::Uterine malformations consist of a group of miscellaneous congenital anomalies of the female genital system. Their mean prevalence in the general population and in the population of fertile women is approximately 4.3%, in infertile patients approximately 3.5% and in patients with recurrent pregnancy losses approximate...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Grimbizis GF,Camus M,Tarlatzis BC,Bontis JN,Devroey P

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in assisted reproductive pregnancies.

    abstract::The wide use of assisted conception methods has risen dramatically. The greater proportion of singletons, twins and high order of multiplicity conceived by those methods have already focused the medical community to various obstetric complications. Recently, there have been suggestions that the levels of mid-gestation...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maymon R,Dreazen E,Weinraub Z,Bukovsky I,Herman A

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical profiling of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH; Puregon): relationship between serum FSH and efficacy.

    abstract::Single-dose and multiple-rising dose studies of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) in hypogonadotrophic male and female volunteers demonstrated that the rate of FSH absorption after i.m. injection is higher in men than in women. In the absence of endogenous FSH, a correlation between serum FSH and body we...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mannaerts BM,Rombout F,Out HJ,Coelingh Bennink H

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with cancer and contemplating fertility preservation treatment?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although fertility preservation (FP) treatment options have increased, the existing evidence suggests that many women with cancer do not feel well supported in making these decisions, but find them stressful and complex and fail to take up fertility care at this crucial time. Whilst existing reviews have all...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jones G,Hughes J,Mahmoodi N,Smith E,Skull J,Ledger W

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Hormonal contraception: what is new?

    abstract::Hormonal contraception has become more effective and more widely used, while the world population has grown from 3000 million in 1960 to 6000 million in 2000. There is a need for improved contraception, because legal abortion is used in a high proportion of pregnancies and illegal abortion continues to be common in so...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审



    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Sirtuins in gamete biology and reproductive physiology: emerging roles and therapeutic potential in female and male infertility.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of f...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tatone C,Di Emidio G,Barbonetti A,Carta G,Luciano AM,Falone S,Amicarelli F

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Pregnancy and child outcome after oocyte donation.

    abstract::During the last decade oocyte donation has been highly successful for treating women previously thought to be hopelessly infertile. The pregnancy rate after oocyte donation is among the highest reported for any fertility-enhancing procedure. Most investigators have noted an increased rate of obstetric complications in...

    journal_title:Human reproduction update

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Söderström-Anttila V

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00