Cannabinoid signaling in glial cells.


:The cannabinoid signaling system is composed of cannabinoid (CB) receptors, their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, and the enzymes that produce and inactivate them. It is well known that neurons communicate between each other through this signaling system. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive compound of marijuana, interacts with CB receptors, impinging on this communication and inducing profound behavioral effects such as memory impairment and analgesia. Recent evidence suggests that glial cells also express components of the cannabinoid signaling system and marijuana-derived compounds act at CB receptors expressed by glial cells, affecting their functions. This review summarizes this evidence, discusses how glial cells might use the cannabinoid signaling system to communicate with neighboring cells, and argues that nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, both marijuana-derived and synthetic, likely constitute lead compounds for therapy aimed at reducing acute and chronic neuroinflammation, such as occurs in multiple sclerosis.






Stella N




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2004-12-01 00:00:00














  • Calcium-mobilizing and electrophysiological effects of bradykinin on cortical astrocyte subtypes in culture.

    abstract::The possible consequences of activating bradykinin (Bk) receptors on identified astrocyte subtypes derived from rat cortex have been investigated in terms of: 1) mobilization of intracellular Ca2+; and 2) electrophysiological response. Bk induced a rapid, transient rise in intracellular Ca2+ in 63% of cortical type-1-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stephens GJ,Cholewinski AJ,Wilkin GP,Djamgoz MB

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Reperfusion paradox: a novel mode of glial cell injury.

    abstract::We have attempted to reconstruct in vitro the events that may occur in vivo during reperfusion injury after ischemia in the central nervous system. The phenomenon is induced by previous exposure to low calcium solutions ("calcium paradox") before the reperfusion episode. Intracellular calcium alterations during reperf...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim-Lee MH,Stokes BT,Yates AJ

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of the Krüppel-type zinc finger protein rKr2 in the developing nervous system.

    abstract::Zinc finger transcription factors of the Krüppel-class figure prominently in cell fate specification and differentiation in the nervous system. One of the Krüppel-type genes that was originally cloned from an oligodendrocyte library by virtue of its homology with the prototypic Krüppel motif is the rat rKr2 gene (Pott...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lovas G,Li W,Pott U,Verga T,Hudson LD

    更新日期:2001-04-15 00:00:00

  • Prostaglandin E1, E2, and cholera toxin increase transcription of the brain creatine kinase gene in human U87 glioblastoma cells.

    abstract::The creatine kinase isoenzymes play an important role in maintaining ATP levels in some cell types during times of high energy demand. We have previously shown in primary cell cultures from rat brain that glial cells express much higher levels of brain creatine kinase (CKB) mRNA than neurons. In a separate earlier stu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuzhikandathil EV,Molloy GR

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Interferon regulatory factor 3 inhibits astrocyte inflammatory gene expression through suppression of the proinflammatory miR-155 and miR-155*.

    abstract::Astrocytes, together with microglia and macrophages, participate in innate inflammatory responses in the CNS. Although inflammatory mediators such as interferons generated by astrocytes may be critical in the defense of the CNS, sustained unopposed cytokine signaling could result in harmful consequences. Interferon re...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tarassishin L,Loudig O,Bauman A,Shafit-Zagardo B,Suh HS,Lee SC

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration.

    abstract::Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin L,Liu Y,Hong JS,Crews FT

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • T- and B-cell responses to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis.

    abstract::The identification of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) as a target for autoantibody-mediated demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) resulted in the re-evaluation of the role of B cell responses to myelin autoantigens in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. MOG is a central n...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Iglesias A,Bauer J,Litzenburger T,Schubart A,Linington C

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Laminin molecules in freeze-treated nerve segments are associated with migrating Schwann cells that display the corresponding alpha6beta1 integrin receptor.

    abstract::Isolated acellular nerve segments protected from migration of Schwann cells and the acellular nerve segments joined with the distal nerve stumps were prepared by a repeated freeze-thaw procedure in the rat sciatic nerves. The presence of laminin-1 and -2, as well as alpha6 and beta1 integrin chains, was detected by in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dubový P,Svízenská I,Klusáková I,Zítková A,Houst'Ava L,Haninec P

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Compromised blood-nerve barrier, astrogliosis, and myelin disruption in optic nerves during fatal murine cerebral malaria.

    abstract::We examined the optic nerve, as an analogous tissue to brain white matter, to assess possible relationships between changes in the blood-nerve barrier, axonal integrity, and astrocyte morphology in the central nervous system during fatal murine cerebral malaria (FMCM). In the FMCM model, namely, CBA mice infected with...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma N,Madigan MC,Chan-Ling T,Hunt NH

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion disease.

    abstract::Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion disease are characterized neuropathologically by extracellular deposits of Abeta and PrP amyloid fibrils, respectively. In both disorders, these cerebral amyloid deposits are co-localized with a broad variety of inflammation-related proteins (complement factors, acute-phase protein, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Eikelenboom P,Bate C,Van Gool WA,Hoozemans JJ,Rozemuller JM,Veerhuis R,Williams A

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cell autonomous and noncell-autonomous role of NF-κB p50 in astrocyte-mediated fate specification of adult neural progenitor cells.

    abstract::In previous work, we demonstrated that NF-κB p50 acts as crucial regulator of adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells (ahNPC). Indeed, NF-κB p50 knockout (KO) mice are characterized by remarkably reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. As a follow up to that work, herein we show that when cultured in vitro, ahNPC from wil...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cvijetic S,Bortolotto V,Manfredi M,Ranzato E,Marengo E,Salem R,Canonico PL,Grilli M

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Phagocytosis of neuronal debris by microglia is associated with neuronal damage in multiple sclerosis.

    abstract::Neuroaxonal degeneration is a pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) contributing to irreversible neurological disability. Pathological mechanisms leading to axonal damage include autoimmunity to neuronal antigens. In actively demyelinating lesions, myelin is phagocytosed by microglia and blood-borne macroph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huizinga R,van der Star BJ,Kipp M,Jong R,Gerritsen W,Clarner T,Puentes F,Dijkstra CD,van der Valk P,Amor S

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Functional characterization of mannose receptor expressed by immunocompetent mouse microglia.

    abstract::The mannose receptor is a pattern-recognition receptor involved in innate and adaptive immunity. The receptor is mainly expressed by macrophages and, within the brain, by astrocytes and microglia. This study reports for the first time the effects of two classical proinflammatory (interferon-gamma, IFNgamma) and anti-i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zimmer H,Riese S,Régnier-Vigouroux A

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of beta-adrenergic receptors by astrocytes isolated from adult rat cortex.

    abstract::Astrocytes are the most numerous cell type in the central nervous system. When cultured, these cells express a wide variety of receptors for neurotransmitters. Nonetheless, it has yet to be firmly established that adult astrocytes in situ express receptors for neurotransmitters. In this report the technique of combine...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salm AK,McCarthy KD

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Haplotype matching is not an essential requirement to achieve remyelination of demyelinating CNS lesions.

    abstract::Transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) results in efficient remyelination in animal models of demyelination. However, the experiments so far undertaken have not addressed the need for tissue-type matching to achieve graft-mediated remyelination. Examination of MHC expression (main determinant of all...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tepavcević V,Blakemore WF

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Structural organization of the perivascular astrocyte endfeet and their relationship with the endothelial glucose transporter: a confocal microscopy study.

    abstract::Despite the increasing evidence for a prominent role played by the perivascular endfeet of astrocytes in the functional metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons, a clear picture of their spatial organization is still lacking. To examine the three-dimensional structure of the astrocyte endfeet and their relati...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kacem K,Lacombe P,Seylaz J,Bonvento G

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Decreased estradiol release from astrocytes contributes to the neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    abstract::Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a deadly neurodegenerative disease often caused by mutation in a gene called NPC1, which results in the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the endosomal-lysosomal system. Most studies on the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in NPC have focused on neur...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen G,Li HM,Chen YR,Gu XS,Duan S

    更新日期:2007-11-15 00:00:00

  • Molecular imaging of microglia/macrophages in the brain.

    abstract::Neuroinflammation perpetuates neuronal damage in many neurological disorders. Activation of resident microglia and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages contributes to neuronal injury and synaptic damage. Noninvasive imaging of these cells in vivo provides a means to monitor progression of disease as well as assess ef...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Venneti S,Lopresti BJ,Wiley CA

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Basic principles of immunological surveillance of the normal central nervous system.

    abstract::Unlike most bodily organs, the central nervous system (CNS) exists behind a blood-tissue barrier designed to minimize the passage of cells and macromolecules into the neural parenchyma. Yet, the CNS is routinely and effectively surveyed by the immune system. This review examines the mechanisms and participants in this...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hickey WF

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of anandamide uptake inhibition in the production of nitric oxide and in the release of cytokines in astrocyte cultures.

    abstract::Astrocytes play a key role regulating aspects of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Several enzymes, such as the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), along with different inflammatory mediators such as the free radical nitric oxide (NO) or proinflammatory cytokines, ha...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ortega-Gutiérrez S,Molina-Holgado E,Guaza C

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • DBcAMP effect on the expression of GFAP and of its encoding mRNA in astroglial primary cultures.

    abstract::Short term and chronic dBcAMP effects on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in astroglial primary cultures are investigated. Short (48 h) and long (more than 7 days) treatments with the cAMP derivative induce both cell shape changes and an increase in GFAP immunolabelling. Such effects are only a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Le Prince G,Fages C,Rolland B,Nunez J,Tardy M

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • beta-catenin mediates insulin-like growth factor-I actions to promote cyclin D1 mRNA expression, cell proliferation and survival in oligodendroglial cultures.

    abstract::By promoting cell proliferation, survival and maturation insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is essential to the normal growth and development of the central nervous system. It is clear that IGF-I actions are primarily mediated by the type I IGF receptor (IGF1R), and that phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-Akt kinases and MAP ki...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ye P,Hu Q,Liu H,Yan Y,D'ercole AJ

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • High-yield isolation of murine microglia by mild trypsinization.

    abstract::Microglia can be isolated with high purity but low yield by shaking off loosely adherent cells from mixed glial cultures. Here we describe a new technique for isolating microglia with an average yield close to 2,000,000 microglial cells/mouse pup, more than five times higher than that of the shaking method. Confluent ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saura J,Tusell JM,Serratosa J

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Downregulation of miR-7116-5p in microglia by MPP+ sensitizes TNF-α production to induce dopaminergic neuron damage.

    abstract::Activation of microglia resulting in exacerbated inflammation expression plays an important role in degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, how this enhanced inflammation is induced in microglia remains largely unclear. Here, in the mouse PD model induced by ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: He Q,Wang Q,Yuan C,Wang Y

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Sodium channels contribute to microglia/macrophage activation and function in EAE and MS.

    abstract::Loss of axons is a major contributor to nonremitting deficits in the inflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Based on biophysical studies showing that activity of axonal sodium channels can trigger axonal degeneration, recent studies have tested sodium channel-blocking drugs in experimental autoimm...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Craner MJ,Damarjian TG,Liu S,Hains BC,Lo AC,Black JA,Newcombe J,Cuzner ML,Waxman SG

    更新日期:2005-01-15 00:00:00

  • Pure astrocyte cultures derived from cells isolated from mature brain.

    abstract::Enriched preparations of oligodendrocytes, isolated either from adult bovine brain or from 30-day-old rat brain, eventually yield cultures in MEM-15% calf serum that contain, in addition to oligodendrocytes, proliferating astrocytes and variable numbers of fibroblast-like cells. If these cultures are switched to a ser...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Norton WT,Farooq M,Chiu FC,Bottenstein JE

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Rapid uptake and degradation of glycine by astroglial cells in culture: synthesis and release of serine and lactate.

    abstract::Free glycine is known to have vital functions in the mammalian brain, where it serves mainly as both neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. Despite its importance, little is known about the metabolic pathways of glycine synthesis and degradation in the central nervous system. In this study, the pathway of glycine metabo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verleysdonk S,Martin H,Willker W,Leibfritz D,Hamprecht B

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • ERK1/2 signaling is essential for the chemoattraction exerted by human FGF2 and human anosmin-1 on newborn rat and mouse OPCs via FGFR1.

    abstract::Signaling through fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) is essential for many cellular processes including proliferation and migration, as well as differentiation events such as myelination. Anosmin-1 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein that interacts with the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1)...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murcia-Belmonte V,Medina-Rodríguez EM,Bribián A,de Castro F,Esteban PF

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Quantification of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in human and cat optic nerve: implications for endogenous repair in multiple sclerosis.

    abstract::In multiple sclerosis (MS), one strategy to reduce disability is enhancement of endogenous repair by remyelinating oligodendrocytes derived from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OP). An important prerequisite is determining the abundance of OP relative to oligodendrocytes in normal human central nervous system (CNS),...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jennings A,Carroll W

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Tripchlorolide protects neuronal cells from microglia-mediated beta-amyloid neurotoxicity through inhibiting NF-kappaB and JNK signaling.

    abstract::Recent research has focused on soluble oligomeric assemblies of beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) as the proximate cause of neuroinflammation, synaptic loss, and the eventual dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, tripchlorolide (T4), an extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F (TWHF), was stud...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pan XD,Chen XC,Zhu YG,Chen LM,Zhang J,Huang TW,Ye QY,Huang HP

    更新日期:2009-08-15 00:00:00