Allergic contact dermatitis: From pathophysiology to development of new preventive strategies.


:As the body's first line of defense, the skin is the organ most frequently exposed to chemicals present in personal hygiene products, household products, or materials used in the work environment. In this context, skin disorders account for more than 40 % of all occupational and work-related diseases, constituting a significant public health burden. Among skin disorders, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most prevalent occupational disease and the most common form of immunotoxicity in humans. ACD is a T-cell-mediated skin inflammation resulting from the priming and expansion of allergen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The clinical condition is characterized by local skin rash, itchiness, redness, swelling, and lesions, being mainly diagnosed by the patch test. Upon ACD diagnosis, avoiding the exposure to the triggering allergen is the mainstay of treatment to prevent future flares. In cases where avoidance is not possible, the use of a standard of care interim treatments such as steroid creams or ointments, barrier creams, and moisturizers are strongly recommended to alleviate symptoms. In this review, we sought to provide the reader with an overview of the pathophysiology of ACD as well as the currently available pharmacological treatment options. Furthermore, a comprehensive outline of several preventive strategies is also provided.


Pharmacol Res


Pharmacological research


Brites GS,Ferreira I,Sebastião AI,Silva A,Carrascal M,Neves BM,Cruz MT




Has Abstract


2020-12-01 00:00:00












  • PI3K signal and DNA repair: a short commentary.

    abstract::PI3K was originally discovered as a lipid kinase involved in the phosphorylation of the inositol ring in position -3, leading to the synthesis of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-4 bisphosphate. The enzyme purified from rat liver is an heterodimer of two subunits of 85 and 110 KD respectively: it phosphorylates the D3 hydroxyl...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chiarugi V

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Protective effects of Mangifera indica L. extract, mangiferin and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced biomolecules oxidation and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice.

    abstract::We compared the protective abilities of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract (Vimang) 50-250 mgkg(-1), mangiferin 50 mgkg(-1), vitamin C 100 mgkg(-1), vitamin E 100 mgkg(-1)and beta -carotene 50 mgkg(-1)against the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative damage in serum, liver, brain as well as i...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sánchez GM,Re L,Giuliani A,Núñez-Sellés AJ,Davison GP,León-Fernández OS

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Progression of renal failure with anaemia and multiple effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in rats with renal mass reduction.

    abstract::Several factors such as proteinuria and renal fibrosis may be important in the progression of many forms of chronic renal diseases. The purposes of the current study were to investigate the progressive renal failure of the rats with surgical renal mass reduction (RMR) and the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzym...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yatsu T,Sanagi M,Fujimori A,Tomura Y,Hayashi K,Tanahashi M,Inagaki O

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Penetration of levofloxacin into paranasal sinuses mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis after a single 500 mg oral dose.

    abstract::Respiratory fluoroquinolones are currently considered by several guidelines among the most effective antimicrobial agents for the treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. The aim of this study was to assess levofloxacin penetration into paranasal sinuses mucosa of 15 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis 1h (n = 4)...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pea F,Marioni G,Pavan F,Staffieri C,Bottin R,Staffieri A,Furlanut M

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • The role of small molecule Flt3 receptor protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of Flt3-positive acute myelogenous leukemias.

    abstract::Flt3 is expressed by early myeloid and lymphoid progenitor cells and it regulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Flt3 is activated by the Flt3 ligand, the monomeric form of which is a polypeptide of about 200 amino acid residues. Both membrane-associated and soluble Flt3 ligands, which a...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Roskoski R Jr

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • iRAGE as a novel carboxymethylated peptide that prevents advanced glycation end product-induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    abstract::Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) have been linked to numerous diabetic vascular complications. RAGE activation promotes a self-sustaining state of chronic inflammation and has been shown to induce apoptosis in various cell types. Although previous studies in vascular smooth muscle ...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maltais JS,Simard E,Froehlich U,Denault JB,Gendron L,Grandbois M

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • A pharmacological assessment of agonists and modulators at α4β2γ2 and α4β2δ GABAA receptors: The challenge in comparing apples with oranges.

    abstract::Extrasynaptically located γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors type A are often characterized by the presence of a δ subunit in the receptor complex. δ-Containing receptors respond to low ambient concentrations of GABA, or respond to spillover of GABA from the synapse, and give rise to tonic inhibitory currents. In ce...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahring PK,Bang LH,Jensen ML,Strøbæk D,Hartiadi LY,Chebib M,Absalom N

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • The rise and fall of compartmental analysis.

    abstract::The concept of compartment evolved in the contexts of radioactivity, physiology, pharmacology and tracer kinetics. Recently compartmental models have been compared with 'physiological models', even though in most cases the same, or stricter hypotheses, are necessary for the validity of these latter models. This paper ...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rescigno A

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of vaporized ethanol on [1-14C]pyruvate kinetics in mice using a four-compartment closed model.

    abstract::The effect of the inhalation of vaporized ethanol on injected [1-14C]pyruvate kinetics was studied in mice. The [1-14C]pyruvate kinetics were modelled by means of a four-compartment closed model, i.e. injected site, blood, periphery and expired 14CO2. The results show that the inhalation of vaporized ethanol can stimu...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu G

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

    abstract::Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of t...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Capogrosso RF,Cozzoli A,Mantuano P,Camerino GM,Massari AM,Sblendorio VT,De Bellis M,Tamma R,Giustino A,Nico B,Montagnani M,De Luca A

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of conivaptan, a combined vasopressin V(1a) and V(2) receptor antagonist, on vasopressin-induced cardiac and haemodynamic changes in anaesthetised dogs.

    abstract::The neurohormonal factor arginine vasopressin (AVP) produces potent systemic vasoconstriction as well as water retention in the kidneys via the V(1a) and V(2) receptors, respectively. Therefore, AVP may be considered as an aggravating factor of cardiac failure. In the present study, the effects of intravenous (i.v.) i...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yatsu T,Kusayama T,Tomura Y,Arai Y,Aoki M,Tahara A,Wada K,Tsukada J

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Hypolipidaemic activity in rodents of boron analogs of phosphonoacetates and cyanoborane adducts of dialkyl aminomethylphosphonates.

    abstract::Boron analogues of phosphonoacetates proved to be potent hypolipidaemic agents in rodents, lowering both serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (C2H5O)3PBH2COOCH3 proved to be the most effective agent in mice, lowering serum cholesterol 46% and serum triglycerides 54% after 16 days. (C2H5O)3PBH2COOH and Na+H+(C2H5...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hall IH,Wong OT,Sood A,Sood CK,Spielvogel BF,Shrewsbury RP,Morse KW

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • An in vitro study of inhibitory activity of gossypol, a cottonseed extract, in human carcinoma cell lines.

    abstract::Gossypol, a cottonseed extract, has been shown to have antiproliferative activity in a variety of cancer cell lines. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of gossypol on cell proliferation. Five human carcinoma cell lines were evaluated including endometrial (RL95-2), ovarian (SKOV-3), me...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Le Blanc M,Russo J,Kudelka AP,Smith JA

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Prolonged effect of the tricyclic antidepressant, mianserin on the serotonin and histamine content of young rats' white blood cells and mast cells. A case of late-imprinting.

    abstract::Perinatal encounter of a hormone and its developing target receptor sets the receptor-hormone-signal transduction complex for life (hormonal imprinting). In this critical period excess of the appropriate hormone or foreign molecules able to bind the receptor can cause faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. At ...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Csaba G,Kovács P,Pállinger E

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of Artemisia copa extracts.

    abstract::The aqueous extract from aerial parts of Artemisia copa Phil. (Compositae), was evaluated for antinociceptive activity using writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests in mice. A dose-related antinociceptive response was obtained in the writhing test at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o. (percentage of inhibition 23.3 and ...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miño J,Moscatelli V,Hnatyszyn O,Gorzalczany S,Acevedo C,Ferraro G

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cholinergic responses of seminal vesicles isolated from rats exposed perinatally to hydrocortisone.

    abstract::This study was performed in order to investigate the cholinomimetic response of seminal vesicles isolated from rats treated with hydrocortisone acetate during perinatal life. At the adult phase, the body weight and the wet weight of the seminal vesicle of these animals were unchanged. However, these male rats exhibite...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pereira OC,Yasuhara F,Arena AC

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Back to the heart: the protective role of adiponectin.

    abstract::Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and the prevalence of obesity and diabetes are increasing. In obesity, adipose tissue increases the secretion of bioactive mediators (adipokines) that may represent a key mechanism linking obesity to CVD. Adiponectin, extensively studied in metabolic...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Caselli C,D'Amico A,Cabiati M,Prescimone T,Del Ry S,Giannessi D

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Curcumin and allopurinol ameliorate fructose-induced hepatic inflammation in rats via miR-200a-mediated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition.

    abstract::Excess fructose consumption causes high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and inflammatory liver diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of curcumin and allopurinol in high fructose-induced hepatic inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were ...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ding XQ,Wu WY,Jiao RQ,Gu TT,Xu Q,Pan Y,Kong LD

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • The distribution of catecholamines between plasma and platelets in cyclosporin A-induced hypertensive rats.

    abstract::One of the most serious side effects of the immunosuppressive agent, cyclosporin A (CsA), is drug-related hypertension. As it is generally accepted, the sympathetic nervous system may play an important role in the development or maintenance of this abnormal pathophysiological situation. This study is aimed at assessin...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reis F,Tavares P,Teixeira F

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cosmetovigilance survey: are cosmetics considered safe by consumers?

    abstract::Cosmetics are largely diffused substances topically applied to wash, to perfume or to improve the look, nevertheless the number of reported adverse reactions is very low, probably because of underreporting. This could be due to self-diagnosis and self-medication that is common in the presence of not severe reactions. ...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Di Giovanni C,Arcoraci V,Gambardella L,Sautebin L

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and vein graft failure and the therapeutic potential of ET-1 receptor antagonists.

    abstract::Despite the exploration of a large number of disparate drugs in animal models and clinical trials, no pharmacological intervention, with the exception of aggressive lipid lowering therapy has reduced late vein graft failure in man. The importance of devising more effective strategies is exemplified by the enormous eco...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jeremy JY,Shukla N,Angelini GD,Wan S

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of curcumin on HDL functionality.

    abstract::Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol, is a yellow pigment of the Curcuma longa (turmeric) plant. Curcumin has many pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it has been found that curcumin affects lipid metabolism, and subseque...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ganjali S,Blesso CN,Banach M,Pirro M,Majeed M,Sahebkar A

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Tachykinin NK3-receptor deficiency does not inhibit pulmonary eosinophilia in allergic mice.

    abstract::Tachykinins are important in the development of pulmonary inflammation in mice but the tachykinin receptor subtype mediating this response has not been defined. To elucidate the role of tachykinin NK3-receptors on allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation, studies were performed on ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized and challen...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kung TT,Crawley Y,Jones H,Luo B,Gilchrest H,Greenfeder S,Anthes JC,Lira S,Wiekowski M,Cook DN,Hey JA,Egan RW,Chapman RW

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Boldo and boldine: an emerging case of natural drug development.

    abstract::Boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a Chilean tree traditionally employed in folk medicine and recognized as a herbal remedy in a number of pharmacopoeias, mainly for the treatment of liver ailments, has recently been the subject of increasing attention. Boldine, in particular, the major and most characteristic alkaloidal con...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Speisky H,Cassels BK

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    abstract::The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibite...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Panda S,Kar A

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacokinetic registration file for NDA and ANDA procedures.

    abstract::Pharmacokinetics is a relatively young branch of the life sciences, which has developed rapidly in the last 15-20 years, thanks to a series of analytical achievements that have allowed drug concentrations to be measured in biological matrices with highly selective and sensitive methods. Most old drugs and all new drug...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Marzo A

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Stereoselective biotransformation of cicletanine in cultured rat and human hepatocytes.

    abstract::Cicletanine [(+/-)-C] is a racemic furopyridine derivative used as an antihypertensive agent. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies have shown that cicletanine is rapidly and almost fully metabolized into sulfo- and glucuro-conjugated metabolites. However, the stereoselective metabolism of cicletanine is not well-know...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Menard C,Lamiable D,Vistelle R,Morin E,Ratanasavanh D

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapies on body mass index in patients with psoriasis.

    abstract::Psoriasis is a lifelong, chronic and immune-mediated skin disease affecting approximately 1-3% of the Caucasian population. Pathogenesis of psoriasis is associated with an increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). TNF-alpha is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and important mediator of cachexia. Anti-...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saraceno R,Schipani C,Mazzotta A,Esposito M,Di Renzo L,De Lorenzo A,Chimenti S

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Extensive characterization of the human DDAH1 transgenic mice.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH:Overexpression of the human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase type 1 (hDDAH1) gene was reported to have beneficial cardiovascular effects in mice. To date, it is unclear whether these effects are related to enhanced metabolic clearance of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and l-N(G)-mono-...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwedhelm E,von Leitner EC,Atzler D,Schmitz C,Jacobi J,Meinertz T,Münzel T,Baldus S,Cooke JP,Böger RH,Maas R,Sydow K

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Hypochlorous acid-induced responses in sheep isolated pulmonary artery rings.

    abstract::The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) appears to play a significant role in many pathological states including cystic fibrosis and asthma. Although stimulated inflammatory cells represent a major source of oxygen metabolites and these cells are able to generate the potent oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) effe...

    journal_title:Pharmacological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turan NN,Demiryürek AT,Kanzik I

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00