Beyond PSA: The Role of Prostate Health Index (phi).


BACKGROUND:Widespread use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in screening procedures allowed early identification of an increasing number of prostate cancers (PCas), mainly including indolent cancer. Availability of different therapeutic strategies which have a very different impact on the patient's quality of life suggested a strong need for tools able to identify clinically significant cancer at diagnosis. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance showed very good performance in pre-biopsy diagnosis. However, it is an expensive tool and requires an experienced radiologist. In this context, a simple blood-based test is worth investigating. In this context, researchers focused their attention on the development of a laboratory test able to minimize overdiagnosis without losing the identification of aggressive tumors. RESULTS:Recent literature data on PCa biomarkers revealed a clear tendency towards the use of panels of biomarkers or a combination of biomarkers and clinical variables. Phi, the 4Kscore, and Stockholm3 as circulating biomarkers and the Mi-prostate score, Exo DX Prostate, and Select MD-X as urinary biomarker-based tests have been developed. In this scenario, phi is worthy of attention as a noninvasive test significantly associated with aggressive PCa. CONCLUSIONS:Literature data showed that phi had good diagnostic performance to identify clinically significant (cs) PCa, suggesting that it could be a useful tool for personalized treatment decision-making. In this review, phi potentialities, limitations, and comparisons with other blood- and urinary-based tests were explored.


Int J Mol Sci


Ferro M,De Cobelli O,Lucarelli G,Porreca A,Busetto GM,Cantiello F,Damiano R,Autorino R,Musi G,Vartolomei MD,Muto M,Terracciano D




Has Abstract


2020-02-11 00:00:00










  • Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in the Molecular Mechanism of Pericarp Elongation and Differences in Sucrose and Starch Accumulation between Vegetable and Grain Pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    abstract::Pea (Pisum sativum L.), as a major source of plant protein, is becoming one of the major cultivated crop species worldwide. In pea, the pericarp is an important determinant of the morphological characteristics and seed yield. To investigate the molecular mechanism of pericarp elongation as well as sucrose and starch a...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang P,Li Z,Wu C,Luo Y,Li J,Wang P,Gao X,Gao J,Feng B

    更新日期:2019-12-05 00:00:00

  • Principal component analysis of HPLC retention data and molecular modeling structural parameters of cardiovascular system drugs in view of their pharmacological activity.

    abstract::Evaluation of relationships between molecular modeling structural parameters and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) retention data of 11 cardiovascular system drugs by principal component analysis (PCA) in relation to their pharmacological activity was performed. The six retention data parameters were deter...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stasiak J,Koba M,Bober L,Baczek T

    更新日期:2010-07-09 00:00:00

  • IFN-β: A Contentious Player in Host-Pathogen Interaction in Tuberculosis.

    abstract::Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health threat to the human population worldwide. The etiology of the disease is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a highly successful intracellular pathogen. It has the ability to manipulate the host immune response and to make the intracellular environment suitable for its survival. Many ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sabir N,Hussain T,Shah SZA,Zhao D,Zhou X

    更新日期:2017-12-16 00:00:00

  • Metagenomics: A New Way to Illustrate the Crosstalk between Infectious Diseases and Host Microbiome.

    abstract::Microbes have co-evolved with human beings for millions of years. They play a very important role in maintaining the health of the host. With the advancement in next generation sequencing technology, the microbiome profiling in the host can be obtained under different circumstances. This review focuses on the current ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhang Y,Lun CY,Tsui SK

    更新日期:2015-11-03 00:00:00

  • The HGF/Met/NF-κB Pathway Regulates RANKL Expression in Osteoblasts and Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.

    abstract::Multiple myeloma (MM)-induced bone disease occurs through hyperactivation of osteoclasts by several factors secreted by MM cells. MM cell-secreted factors induce osteoclast differentiation and activation via direct and indirect actions including enhanced expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RA...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsubaki M,Seki S,Takeda T,Chihara A,Arai Y,Morii Y,Imano M,Satou T,Shimomura K,Nishida S

    更新日期:2020-10-24 00:00:00

  • Acid-denatured Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase.

    abstract::Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used in several molecular and cellular biology applications, since it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, native GFP is resistant to the most common chemical denaturants; however, a low fluorescence signal has been observed after acid-induced denatu...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mares RE,Meléndez-López SG,Ramos MA

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Role of the IL-23/IL-17 Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Spondyloarthritis.

    abstract::Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a subset of seronegative rheumatic-related autoimmune diseases that consist of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic spondylitis (PsA), reactive spondylitis (re-SpA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated spondylitis, and unclassifiable spondylitis. These subsets share clinical phenot...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tsukazaki H,Kaito T

    更新日期:2020-09-03 00:00:00

  • Carbamazepine Restores Neuronal Signaling, Protein Synthesis, and Cognitive Function in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    abstract::Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a leading genetic disorder of intellectual disability caused by the loss of the functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). To date, there is no efficacious mechanism-based medication for FXS. With regard to potential disease mechanisms in FXS, it is widely accepted that the lac...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ding Q,Zhang F,Feng Y,Wang H

    更新日期:2020-12-07 00:00:00

  • Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Detect Differential Expression Genes in Bradysia odoriphaga after Exposure to Insecticides.

    abstract::Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the most important pest of Chinese chive. Insecticides are used widely and frequently to control B. odoriphaga in China. However, the performance of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and clothianidin in controlling the Chinese chive maggot is quite different. Using next generati...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen H,Lin L,Ali F,Xie M,Zhang G,Su W

    更新日期:2017-11-17 00:00:00

  • An algorithm for emulsion stability simulations: account of flocculation, coalescence, surfactant adsorption and the process of Ostwald ripening.

    abstract::The first algorithm for Emulsion Stability Simulations (ESS) was presented at the V Conferencia Iberoamericana sobre Equilibrio de Fases y Diseño de Procesos [Luis, J.; García-Sucre, M.; Urbina-Villalba, G. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Emulsion Stability In: Equifase 99. Libro de Actas, 1(st) Ed., Tojo J., Arce, A....

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Urbina-Villalba G

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy.

    abstract::A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS)) database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50)-based classes as a response an...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chavan S,Friedman R,Nicholls IA

    更新日期:2015-05-21 00:00:00

  • Crossbridge Recruitment Capacity of Wild-Type and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-Related Mutant Troponin-T Evaluated by X-ray Diffraction and Mechanical Study of Cardiac Skinned Fibers.

    abstract::X-ray diffraction and tension measurement experiments were conducted on rat left ventricular skinned fibers with or without "troponin-T treatment," which exchanges the endogenous troponin T/I/C complex with exogenous troponin-T. These experiments were performed to observe the structural changes in troponin-T within a ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamaguchi M,Kimura M,Ohno T,Nakahara N,Akiyama N,Takemori S,Yagi N

    更新日期:2020-05-15 00:00:00

  • Newly Developed CK1-Specific Inhibitors Show Specifically Stronger Effects on CK1 Mutants and Colon Cancer Cell Lines.

    abstract::Protein kinases of the CK1 family can be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. Dysregulated expression and/or activity as well as mutation of CK1 isoforms have previously been linked to tumorigenesis. Among all neoplastic diseases, colon and rectal cancer (CRC) represent the fourth leadi...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu C,Witt L,Ianes C,Bischof J,Bammert MT,Baier J,Kirschner S,Henne-Bruns D,Xu P,Kornmann M,Peifer C,Knippschild U

    更新日期:2019-12-07 00:00:00

  • In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae.

    abstract::Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kurotani A,Sakurai T

    更新日期:2015-08-20 00:00:00

  • Production of MCM-41 Nanoparticles with Control of Particle Size and Structural Properties: Optimizing Operational Conditions during Scale-Up.

    abstract::The synthesis of Mobil Composition of Matter 41 (MCM-41) mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of controlled sizes and porous structure has been performed at laboratory and pilot plant scales. Firstly, the effects of the main operating conditions (TEOS -Tetraethyl ortosilicate- addition rate, nanoparticle maturation ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castillo RR,de la Torre L,García-Ochoa F,Ladero M,Vallet-Regí M

    更新日期:2020-10-24 00:00:00

  • A Pilot Study for the Feasibility of Exome-Sequencing in Circulating Tumor Cells Versus Single Metastatic Biopsies in Breast Cancer.

    abstract::The comparison of the landscape of somatic alterations in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) versus metastases is challenging. Here, we comprehensively characterized the somatic landscape in bulk (amplified and non-amplified), spike-in breast cancer cells, CTCs, and metastases from breast cancer patients using whole-exome...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaur P,Campo D,Porras TB,Ring A,Lu J,Chairez Y,Su Y,Kang I,Lang JE

    更新日期:2020-07-08 00:00:00

  • Pre-Analytical Considerations for Successful Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS): Challenges and Opportunities for Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Tissue (FFPE) Samples.

    abstract::In cancer drug discovery, it is important to investigate the genetic determinants of response or resistance to cancer therapy as well as factors that contribute to adverse events in the course of clinical trials. Despite the emergence of new technologies and the ability to measure more diverse analytes (e.g., circulat...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arreaza G,Qiu P,Pang L,Albright A,Hong LZ,Marton MJ,Levitan D

    更新日期:2016-09-20 00:00:00

  • Impaired Photic Entrainment of Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in Mice Overexpressing Human Mutant α-Synuclein.

    abstract::Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by distinct motor and non-motor symptoms. Sleep disorders are the most frequent and challenging non-motor symptoms in PD patients, and there is growing evidence that they are a consequence of disruptions within the circadian system. PD is characterized by a progressive degener...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pfeffer M,Zimmermann Z,Gispert S,Auburger G,Korf HW,von Gall C

    更新日期:2018-06-03 00:00:00

  • Structural Insights into Ankyrin Repeat-Containing Proteins and Their Influence in Ubiquitylation.

    abstract::Ankyrin repeat (AR) domains are considered the most abundant repeat motif found in eukaryotic proteins. AR domains are predominantly known to mediate specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) without necessarily recognizing specific primary sequences, nor requiring strict conformity within its own primary sequence....

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kane EI,Spratt DE

    更新日期:2021-01-09 00:00:00

  • GABA-Alleviated Oxidative Injury Induced by Salinity, Osmotic Stress and their Combination by Regulating Cellular and Molecular Signals in Rice.

    abstract::This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of priming with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at 0.5 mM on rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress (OS) induced by polyethylene glycol (30 g/L PEG 6000); and salinity stress (S, 150 mM NaCl) and their combination (OS+S). Priming with GABA sign...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sheteiwy MS,Shao H,Qi W,Hamoud YA,Shaghaleh H,Khan NU,Yang R,Tang B

    更新日期:2019-11-14 00:00:00

  • Review of PIP2 in Cellular Signaling, Functions and Diseases.

    abstract::Phosphoinositides play a crucial role in regulating many cellular functions, such as actin dynamics, signaling, intracellular trafficking, membrane dynamics, and cell-matrix adhesion. Central to this process is phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2). The levels of PIP2 in the membrane are rapidly altered by the acti...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mandal K

    更新日期:2020-11-06 00:00:00

  • Eclipsed acetaldehyde as a precursor for producing vinyl alcohol.

    abstract::The MP2 and DFT/B3LYP methods at 6-311++G(d,p) and aug-cc-pdz basis sets have been used to probe the origin of relative stability preference for eclipsed acetaldehyde over its bisected counterpart. A relative energy stability range of 1.02 to 1.20 kcal/mol, in favor of the eclipsed conformer, was found and discussed. ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osman OI,Alyoubi AO,Elroby SA,Hilal RH,Aziz SG

    更新日期:2012-11-20 00:00:00

  • Noncanonical reactions of flavoenzymes.

    abstract::Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sobrado P

    更新日期:2012-11-05 00:00:00

  • Splicing and Polyadenylation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 mRNAs.

    abstract::The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) life cycle can be divided into an early stage in which the HPV16 genomic DNA is replicated, and a late stage in which the HPV16 structural proteins are synthesized and virions are produced. A strong coupling between the viral life cycle and the differentiation state of the infe...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wu C,Kajitani N,Schwartz S

    更新日期:2017-02-09 00:00:00

  • Deep Insight into the Transcriptome of the Single Silk Gland of Bombyx mori.

    abstract::The silk gland synthesizes and secretes a large amount of protein and stores liquid silk protein at an extremely high concentration. Interestingly, silk proteins and serine protease inhibitors are orderly arranged in the silk gland lumen and cocoon shells. Silk fiber formation and the spinning mechanism have not been ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shi R,Ma S,He T,Peng J,Zhang T,Chen X,Wang X,Chang J,Xia Q,Zhao P

    更新日期:2019-05-20 00:00:00

  • Cell Death Conversion under Hypoxic Condition in Tumor Development and Therapy.

    abstract::Hypoxia, which is common during tumor progression, plays important roles in tumor biology. Failure in cell death in response to hypoxia contributes to progression and metastasis of tumors. On the one hand, the metabolic and oxidative stress following hypoxia could lead to cell death by triggering signal cascades, like...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Qiu Y,Li P,Ji C

    更新日期:2015-10-23 00:00:00

  • Integrated Systems Pharmacology, Urinary Metabonomics, and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis to Uncover Targets and Metabolic Pathways of the You-Gui Pill in Treating Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome.

    abstract::Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome (KYDS) is a metabolic disease caused by a neuro-endocrine disorder. The You-gui pill (YGP) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for the treatment of KYDS and has been widely used to warm and recuperate KYDS clinically for hundreds of years in China. However, it is unk...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen R,Wang J,Zhan R,Zhang L,Wang X

    更新日期:2019-07-26 00:00:00

  • Ligand Binding Mechanism and Its Relationship with Conformational Changes in Adenine Riboswitch.

    abstract::Riboswitches are naturally occurring RNA aptamers that control the expression of essential bacterial genes by binding to specific small molecules. The binding with both high affinity and specificity induces conformational changes. Thus, riboswitches were proposed as a possible molecular target for developing antibioti...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu G,Li H,Xu S,Wang J

    更新日期:2020-03-11 00:00:00

  • Cancer stem cells: biological functions and therapeutically targeting.

    abstract::Almost all tumors are composed of a heterogeneous cell population, making them difficult to treat. A small cancer stem cell population with a low proliferation rate and a high tumorigenic potential is thought to be responsible for cancer development, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Stem cells were reported to be...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ciurea ME,Georgescu AM,Purcaru SO,Artene SA,Emami GH,Boldeanu MV,Tache DE,Dricu A

    更新日期:2014-05-09 00:00:00

  • The Combination of Arginine Deprivation and 5-Fluorouracil Improves Therapeutic Efficacy in Argininosuccinate Synthetase Negative Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    abstract::Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), a key enzyme to synthesize arginine is down regulated in many tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Similar to previous reports, we have found the decrease in ASS expression in poorly differentiated HCC. These ASS(-) tumors are auxotrophic for arginine. Pegylated arginine...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thongkum A,Wu C,Li YY,Wangpaichitr M,Navasumrit P,Parnlob V,Sricharunrat T,Bhudhisawasdi V,Ruchirawat M,Savaraj N

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00