Staging of bladder cancer.


:Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a heterogeneous disease with multiple possible treatment modalities and a wide spectrum of clinical outcome. Treatment decisions and prognostic expectations hinge on accurate and precise staging, and the recently published American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, 8th edition, should be the basis for staging of urinary bladder tumours. It is unfortunate that the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) 8th edition failed to incorporate new data which is considered in the AJCC 8th edition. Thus, the AJCC 8th edition is the focus of this review. Several critical changes and clarifications are made by the AJCC 8th edition relative to the 7th edition. Although the most obvious changes in the 8th edition are in the N (i.e. perivesical lymph node involvement now classified as N1) and M (i.e. M1 is subdivided into M1a and M1b) categories, several points are clarified in the T category (e.g. substaging of pT1 should be attempted). Further optimisation, however, is required. No particular method of substaging pT1 is formally recommended. In this review, these modifications are discussed, as well as points, which require further study and optimisation.






Magers MJ,Lopez-Beltran A,Montironi R,Williamson SR,Kaimakliotis HZ,Cheng L




Has Abstract


2019-01-01 00:00:00












  • Being fully digital: perspective of a Dutch academic pathology laboratory.

    abstract::The introduction of fast and robust whole slide scanners has facilitated the implementation of 'digital pathology' with various uses, the final challenge being full digital diagnostics. In this article, we describe the implementation process of a fully digital workflow for primary diagnostics in 2015 at the University...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stathonikos N,Nguyen TQ,Spoto CP,Verdaasdonk MAM,van Diest PJ

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemical antibodies used to distinguish between benign and malignant pleural disease: a systematic review of published reports.

    abstract:AIMS:A systematic review of published reports that have evaluated the ability of immunohistochemistry and argyrophil nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) staining to distinguish between benign and malignant pleural disease. METHODS:Nineteen relevant papers published during the period 1979-2005 were identified. Individu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: King J,Thatcher N,Pickering C,Hasleton P

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Venous invasion in oesophageal adenocarcinoma: enhanced detection using elastic stain and association with adverse histological features and clinical outcomes.

    abstract:AIMS:In oesophageal adenocarcinoma, detection rates of venous invasion using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and elastic stains have not been compared. The aims of this study were to investigate whether or not elastic stains facilitate the detection of venous invasion, and to determine the prognostic significance of venou...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castonguay MC,Li-Chang HH,Driman DK

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Mixed pulmonary blastoma and carcinosarcoma.

    abstract::Pulmonary blastomas and carcinosarcomas are uncommon tumours, accounting for less than 1% of all lung neoplasms. Three previously described mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumours having both adult and embryonal elements were termed 'transitional'. We report a similar case and evaluate the application of the term 'tr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olenick SJ,Fan CC,Ryoo JW

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Liquid-based cytological and immunohistochemical study of nasopharyngeal swab from persons under investigation for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:We describe cytologic and immunohistologic findings in virus transport medium on cases under investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS:Cytologic findings in cases under investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection from one hundred consecutive nasopharyngeal swab were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry and SARSC...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parada D,Peña KB,Gumà J,Guilarte C,Riu F

    更新日期:2020-09-24 00:00:00

  • Dataset for reporting of carcinoma of the urethra (in urethrectomy specimens): recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR).

    abstract::The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is a not-for-profit organisation sponsored by the Royal Colleges of Pathologists of Australasia and the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, the Canadian Association of Pathologists in association with the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shanks JH,Srigley JR,Brimo F,Comperat E,Delahunt B,Koch M,Lopez-Beltran A,Reuter VE,Samaratunga H,Tsuzuki T,van der Kwast T,Varma M,Grignon D

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • The histopathology of congenital haemangioma and its clinical correlations: a long-term follow-up study of 55 cases.

    abstract:AIMS:Congenital haemangiomas (CHs) can be subdivided into different subtypes [rapidly involuting CHs (RICHs), non-involuting CHs (NICHs), and partially involuting CHs (PICHs)]. During the first few days of life, RICHs may be associated with transient but sometimes marked thrombocytopenia. We sought to assess the histol...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: El Zein S,Boccara O,Soupre V,Vieira AF,Bodemer C,Coulomb A,Wassef M,Fraitag S

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • The renin-secreting cell in polyarteritis--an immunocytochemical study.

    abstract::We studied kidney sections from 15 cases of polyarteritis using an immunocytochemical technique to demonstrate cells containing immunoreactive renin. Ten cases of classical polyarteritis nodosa showed hyperplasia of renin-containing cells in areas of renal cortex with histological evidence of ischaemia--appearances in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graham PC,Lindop GB

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Squamous carcinoma arising in a giant peri-anal condyloma associated with human papillomavirus types 6 and 11.

    abstract::A case is reported of squamous carcinoma of the peri-anal region arising in a giant condyloma. In situ DNA hybridization showed human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. These HPV types are commonly demonstrated in ano-genital condylomas but have not previously been reported in association with malignant change at th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wells M,Robertson S,Lewis F,Dixon MF

    更新日期:1988-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of the reactive microenvironment on the bone marrow involvement of follicular lymphoma.

    abstract:AIMS:  Follicular lymphoma (FL) is associated with bone marrow (BM) involvement in approximately 40-70% of cases. Previous studies have suggested that the immune-microenvironment of FL plays an important role in the clinical behaviour of the disease. To investigate the role of the microenvironment in BM involvement of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rajnai H,Bödör C,Balogh Z,Gagyi E,Csomor J,Krenács T,Tóth E,Matolcsy A

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic gold standard for soft tissue tumours: morphology or molecular genetics?

    abstract::The recognition of recurrent genetic alterations in specific tumour types has provided the basis for the reclassification of certain soft tissue neoplasms, and molecular analysis of patient material has the potential to provide both diagnostic and prognostic information. In this review, we evaluate the role of molecul...


    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pfeifer JD,Hill DA,O'Sullivan MJ,Dehner LP

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Intramucosal cysts in gastric mucosa adjacent to carcinoma and peptic ulcer: a histochemical study.

    abstract::Histochemical characteristics and the distribution of gastric intramucosal cysts were studied in 50 cancerous and 51 benign gastrectomy specimens. The frequency of such cysts was significantly higher in stomachs with carcinoma (70%) than in stomachs with peptic ulcer (43%) (P less than 0.01). Intramucosal cysts were c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu FG,Deng XJ,Cheng NJ

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Quantitative, microscopical, computer-aided diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in individual patients.

    abstract::There are many significant differences, but also considerable overlap between the quantitative histopathological features of mild and marked atypical endometrial hyperplasias and well and moderately differentiated carcinomas, thus preventing its application to individual patient care. To try to overcome this problem, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baak JP,Kurver PH,Overdiep SH,Delemarre JF,Boon ME,Lindeman J,Diegenbach PC

    更新日期:1981-11-01 00:00:00

  • Quantification of extraprostatic extension in prostate cancer: different parameters correlated to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    abstract:AIMS:Different methods to substage extraprostatic extension (EPE) were correlated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS AND RESULTS:  A total of 157 consecutive RP specimens with EPE were completely embedded. Twenty-three patients with adjuvant therapy or detectable postoperative ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Veggel BA,van Oort IM,Witjes JA,Kiemeney LA,Hulsbergen-van de Kaa CA

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Eosinophilic granuloma of lymph nodes--a variant of histiocytosis X.

    abstract::A clinicopathologic study of histiocytosis X in lymph nodes disclosed a special variant: primary eosinophilic granuloma of lymph nodes. This variant involves one or more lymph nodes, but does not infiltrate any other organs. Histologically, the infiltration of lymph nodes by histiocytosis X cells and eosinophils is si...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Motoi M,Helbron D,Kaiserling E,Lennert K

    更新日期:1980-11-01 00:00:00

  • Botryomycosis of the liver.

    abstract::A case of visceral botryomycosis of the liver in a 50-year-old man is reported. The clinical diagnosis was hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathological examination of the surgically resected specimen demonstrated microabscesses containing gram- positive microorganisms with surrounding fibrosis replacing liver parenchyma. An...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Omar T,Cooper K

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor system is involved in angiogenesis in human neuroblastoma.

    abstract:AIMS:Previous studies have shown that increased vascularity is associated with tumour progression in human neuroblastoma (NB). The involvement of erythropoietin (Epo) in tumour angiogenesis has also been reported. The aim of this study was to correlate microvascular density and Epo/Epo-receptor (EpoR) expression in end...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ribatti D,Poliani PL,Longo V,Mangieri D,Nico B,Vacca A

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in the brain of adults with fatal falciparum malaria is a non-specific response to severe disease.

    abstract:AIMS:Pathological or neuroprotective mechanisms in the brain in severe malaria may arise from microvascular obstruction with malaria-parasitized erythrocytes. This study aimed to investigate the role of hypoxia and induction of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway in the neuropathophysiology of severe ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Medana IM,Day NP,Roberts R,Sachanonta N,Turley H,Pongponratn E,Hien TT,White NJ,Turner GD

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Renal interstitial foam cells are macrophages.

    abstract::Immunohistochemical studies on renal biopsies from eight patients with various types of glomerulonephritis showed that the interstitial foam cells belonged to the monocyte-macrophage lineage. There was a strong association between hypercholesterolaemia and the presence of renal interstitial foam cells. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Franco M,Schmitt F,Rejaili WA,Viero RM,Bacchi CE

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Co-expression of markers for hepatitis delta and hepatitis B viruses in human liver.

    abstract::Delta hepatitis (HDV) infection can only occur in the presence of hepatitis B (HBV) infection, as HDV requires a coat of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for assembly of complete virus. A number of studies have examined the variation of HBV markers in serum and liver during establishment of HDV infection, but none has syst...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ryley NG,Heryet AR,Goldin R,Monjardino J,Saldanha J,Fleming KA

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma remains a diagnostic challenge using frozen sections: a clinicopathological analysis of 59 cases.

    abstract:AIMS:Using intraoperative frozen sections to diagnose pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma is always challenging. However, an accurate diagnosis is needed to guide surgical management and prevent unnecessary treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the most frequently misdiagnosed histological patterns and eval...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang CH,Lee LY

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • RBM10-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma characterised by paracentric inversion with consistent closely split signals in break-apart fluorescence in-situ hybridisation: study of 10 cases and a literature review.

    abstract:AIMS:Xp11 rearrangement in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) typically involves gene fusion to the gene encoding transcription factor E3 (TFE3), a member of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor family on chromosome Xp11.2. Dual-colour break-apart fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) is recommended to confir...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kato I,Furuya M,Baba M,Kameda Y,Yasuda M,Nishimoto K,Oyama M,Yamasaki T,Ogawa O,Niino H,Nakaigawa N,Yano Y,Sakamoto K,Urata Y,Mikami K,Yamasaki S,Tanaka R,Takagi T,Kondo T,Nagashima Y

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Gene-expression signature of adhesion/growth-regulatory tissue lectins (galectins) in transitional cell cancer and its prognostic relevance.

    abstract:AIMS:Lectins, and especially galectins, appear to be important in malignancy-associated processes. The aim was to analyse comprehensively the presence of galectins in urothelial tumours. METHODS AND RESULTS:Non-cross-reactive antibodies against seven family members from the three subgroups (prototype: galectin-1, -2 a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Langbein S,Brade J,Badawi JK,Hatzinger M,Kaltner H,Lensch M,Specht K,André S,Brinck U,Alken P,Gabius HJ

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Handling and reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens in Europe: a web-based survey by the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP).

    abstract:AIMS:To survey current European practices in handling and reporting of radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. METHODS AND RESULTS:A European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was organized for the dissemination of information, survey studies and research collaborations. Contact data of uropathologists were collected from ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Egevad L,Algaba F,Berney DM,Boccon-Gibod L,Griffiths DF,Lopez-Beltran A,Mikuz G,Varma M,Montironi R,European Network of Uropathology.

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • The expression and prognostic significance of bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 in rectal cancer following neoadjuvant therapy.

    abstract:AIMS:bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1) is a nuclear protein that binds to bcl-related proteins and can induce apoptosis and autophagy. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of BCLAF1 in a series of rectal cancers following neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS:Immunohistochemistry w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown GT,Cash B,Alnabulsi A,Samuel LM,Murray GI

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Interobserver agreement in the reporting of colorectal polyp pathology among bowel cancer screening pathologists in Wales.

    abstract:AIMS:To assess the interobserver agreement in the reporting of colorectal polyps among histopathologists participating in the Welsh Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) programme. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twelve benign polyps representative of BCS cases were identified from pathology files and reported by 28 BCS histopathologists ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turner JK,Williams GT,Morgan M,Wright M,Dolwani S

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic imbalances with impact on survival in colorectal cancer patients.

    abstract:AIMS:To investigate the prognostic significance of chromosomal alterations in colorectal cancer patients. Histopathological tumour classification is still considered to be the gold standard for the characterization of solid tumours. However, it is well known that such established parameters do not satisfactorily predic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knösel T,Schlüns K,Stein U,Schwabe H,Schlag PM,Dietel M,Petersen I

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 expression levels in blood and tissue predict breast tumour clinical behaviour.

    abstract:AIMS:Several studies have demonstrated that Na(+) /H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) protein, which is overexpressed and heterogeneously distributed in different stages of breast cancer, could be used as a tumour marker for prognosis in molecular detection strategies. We observed that tumour-infiltrated lymph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bellizzi A,Mangia A,Malfettone A,Cardone RA,Simone G,Reshkin SJ,Paradiso A

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Why do histology on retinal haemorrhages in suspected non-accidental injury?

    abstract::The detailed documentation of ocular pathology has become an important component in the autopsy investigation of suspected cases of non-accidental injury in infants and young children. Careful histological examination of retinal haemorrhages is of critical importance, but there remains debate about the significance of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gilliland MG,Luthert P

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Detailed analysis of the T-cell lymphocytic infiltrate in penile lichen sclerosus: an immunohistochemical and molecular investigation.

    abstract:AIM:To determine the extent of clonal outgrowth in the lymphocytic tissue infiltrate of lichen sclerosus (LS). The presence of T cells with a monoclonally rearranged T-cell receptor gamma-gene (TCRgamma) has been described in up to 50% of biopsies of vulvar and penile LS. MATERIAL AND RESULTS:We analysed 33 foreskin s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Regauer S,Beham-Schmid C

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00