Activation of transcription by two factors that bind promoter and enhancer sequences of the human metallothionein gene and SV40.


:Genetic analysis of eukaryotic transcriptional promoters has revealed that protein-coding genes often contain a complex array of cis-control elements consisting of upstream activator sequences and enhancer elements. The metallothionein genes provide a useful example for dissecting the action of multiple interspersed control elements that govern both basal level and regulated expression in animal cells. The human metallothionein (hMTIIA) promoter has been analysed in detail and found to contain no less than five distinct control elements in the 5' flanking regions of the gene that mediate specificity and regulation of transcription. These different control elements can be functionally subdivided into two categories: basal and induced elements. There are several distinct basal recognition sequences, which include a TATA-box, a GC-box, and at least two basal level enhancer (BLE) sequences, that function like classical enhancer elements. The hMTIIA gene also responds to induction by heavy metals and by steroid hormones through the action of metal regulatory elements (MRE) and glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE). Here we report the identification of two cellular DNA-binding proteins that interact selectively with sequences governing the basal level expression of hMTIIA. One of these factors is a novel activator protein (AP1) that interacts with sequences in the BLE of hMTIIA and also binds to a site within the 72-base pair (bp) repeats of the simian virus 40 (SV40) enhancer region. The second protein has been purified to homogeneity and shown to be transcription factor Sp1 which recognizes and binds to a single GC-box element within the hMTIIA promoter.






Lee W,Haslinger A,Karin M,Tjian R




Has Abstract


1987-01-22 00:00:00














  • The codon CUG is read as serine in an asporogenic yeast Candida cylindracea.

    abstract::Deviations from the universal genetic code have been reported for several microorganisms. Termination codons are used for coding some amino acids in Paramecium, Mycoplasma or Tetrahymena, and in Escherichia coli, the UGA termination codon is used to code for selenocysteine. In mitochondria, the changes of sense codons...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kawaguchi Y,Honda H,Taniguchi-Morimura J,Iwasaki S

    更新日期:1989-09-14 00:00:00

  • Analysis of gain-of-function mutations of the lin-12 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    abstract::Certain cell fate decisions are specified by cell-cell interactions during the development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. For example, in a wild-type hermaphrodite gonad, two cells, Z1.ppp and, have the potential to become the anchor cell (AC). Intercellular communication establishes their fates and en...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greenwald I,Seydoux G

    更新日期:1990-07-12 00:00:00

  • Defining brain wiring patterns and mechanisms through gene trapping in mice.

    abstract::The search to understand the mechanisms regulating brain wiring has relied on biochemical purification approaches in vertebrates and genetic approaches in invertebrates to identify molecular cues and receptors for axon guidance. Here we describe a phenotype-based gene-trap screen in mice designed for the large-scale i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leighton PA,Mitchell KJ,Goodrich LV,Lu X,Pinson K,Scherz P,Skarnes WC,Tessier-Lavigne M

    更新日期:2001-03-08 00:00:00

  • Distinct descending motor cortex pathways and their roles in movement.

    abstract::Activity in the motor cortex predicts movements, seconds before they are initiated. This preparatory activity has been observed across cortical layers, including in descending pyramidal tract neurons in layer 5. A key question is how preparatory activity is maintained without causing movement, and is ultimately conver...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Economo MN,Viswanathan S,Tasic B,Bas E,Winnubst J,Menon V,Graybuck LT,Nguyen TN,Smith KA,Yao Z,Wang L,Gerfen CR,Chandrashekar J,Zeng H,Looger LL,Svoboda K

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • A developmental coordinate of pluripotency among mice, monkeys and humans.

    abstract::The epiblast (EPI) is the origin of all somatic and germ cells in mammals, and of pluripotent stem cells in vitro. To explore the ontogeny of human and primate pluripotency, here we perform comprehensive single-cell RNA sequencing for pre- and post-implantation EPI development in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasciculari...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamura T,Okamoto I,Sasaki K,Yabuta Y,Iwatani C,Tsuchiya H,Seita Y,Nakamura S,Yamamoto T,Saitou M

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Live-cell delamination counterbalances epithelial growth to limit tissue overcrowding.

    abstract::The development and maintenance of an epithelium requires finely balanced rates of growth and cell death. However, the mechanical and biochemical mechanisms that ensure proper feedback control of tissue growth, which when deregulated contribute to tumorigenesis, are poorly understood. Here we use the fly notum as a mo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marinari E,Mehonic A,Curran S,Gale J,Duke T,Baum B

    更新日期:2012-04-15 00:00:00

  • Conformation of sister chromatids in the replicated human genome.

    abstract::The three-dimensional organization of the genome supports regulated gene expression, recombination, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C)1,2 analysis has revealed a complex genomic landscape of internal chromosomal structures in vertebrate cells3-7, but the ident...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mitter M,Gasser C,Takacs Z,Langer CCH,Tang W,Jessberger G,Beales CT,Neuner E,Ameres SL,Peters JM,Goloborodko A,Micura R,Gerlich DW

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Five decades of northern land carbon uptake revealed by the interhemispheric CO2 gradient.

    abstract::The global land and ocean carbon sinks have increased proportionally with increasing carbon dioxide emissions during the past decades1. It is thought that Northern Hemisphere lands make a dominant contribution to the global land carbon sink2-7; however, the long-term trend of the northern land sink remains uncertain. ...


    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Ciais P,Tan J,Wang X,Roedenbeck C,Chevallier F,Piao SL,Moriarty R,Broquet G,Le Quéré C,Canadell JG,Peng S,Poulter B,Liu Z,Tans P

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment.

    abstract::Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behaviour towards other people depends not only on what they have done to us but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works through reputation. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: p...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohtsuki H,Iwasa Y,Nowak MA

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Enzymes trapped and zapped for use outside cells.

    abstract:: ...


    pub_type: 评论,新闻


    authors: Narayan A

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Remote triggering of fault-strength changes on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield.

    abstract::Fault strength is a fundamental property of seismogenic zones, and its temporal changes can increase or decrease the likelihood of failure and the ultimate triggering of seismic events. Although changes in fault strength have been suggested to explain various phenomena, such as the remote triggering of seismicity, the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taira T,Silver PG,Niu F,Nadeau RM

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain.

    abstract::Molecular approaches to understanding the functional circuitry of the nervous system promise new insights into the relationship between genes, brain and behaviour. The cellular diversity of the brain necessitates a cellular resolution approach towards understanding the functional genomics of the nervous system. We des...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lein ES,Hawrylycz MJ,Ao N,Ayres M,Bensinger A,Bernard A,Boe AF,Boguski MS,Brockway KS,Byrnes EJ,Chen L,Chen L,Chen TM,Chin MC,Chong J,Crook BE,Czaplinska A,Dang CN,Datta S,Dee NR,Desaki AL,Desta T,Diep E,Dol

    更新日期:2007-01-11 00:00:00

  • Destabilization of beta-catenin by mutations in presenilin-1 potentiates neuronal apoptosis.

    abstract::Mutations of the presenilin-1 gene are a major cause of familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin-1 can associate with members of the catenin family of signalling proteins, but the significance of this association is unknown. Here we show that presenilin-1 forms a complex with beta-catenin in vivo that incr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang Z,Hartmann H,Do VM,Abramowski D,Sturchler-Pierrat C,Staufenbiel M,Sommer B,van de Wetering M,Clevers H,Saftig P,De Strooper B,He X,Yankner BA

    更新日期:1998-10-15 00:00:00

  • Effect of age on benzodiazepine-induced behavioural convulsions in rats.

    abstract::The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs used to alleviate anxiety. As such they constitute one of the most commonly prescribed compounds, due in part to their efficacy and safety. The physiological effect of these drugs is probably through interactions with a low affinity benzodiazepine binding site and two (types 1 ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barr GA,Lithgow T

    更新日期:1983-03-31 00:00:00

  • In vivo alteration of telomere sequences and senescence caused by mutated Tetrahymena telomerase RNAs.

    abstract::Mutating the CAACCCCAA sequence in the RNA component of telomerase causes the synthesis in vivo of new telomere sequences corresponding to the mutated RNA sequence, demonstrating that the telomerase contains the template for telomere synthesis. These mutations also lead to nuclear and cell division defects, and senesc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu GL,Bradley JD,Attardi LD,Blackburn EH

    更新日期:1990-03-08 00:00:00

  • The zootype and the phylotypic stage.

    abstract::What is it that defines an animal? The definition provided here, made on the basis of developmental biology, suggests methods for resolving phylogenetic problems. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slack JM,Holland PW,Graham CF

    更新日期:1993-02-11 00:00:00

  • Single gene circles in dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes.

    abstract::Photosynthetic dinoflagellates are important aquatic primary producers and notorious causes of toxic 'red tides'. Typical dinoflagellate chloroplasts differ from all other plastids in having a combination of three envelope membranes and peridinin-chlorophyll a/c light-harvesting pigments. Despite evidence of a dinofla...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang Z,Green BR,Cavalier-Smith T

    更新日期:1999-07-08 00:00:00

  • A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf.

    abstract::Most stars become white dwarfs after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel (the Sun will be one such). Between one-quarter and one-half of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements ought to sink rapidly into the stellar interiors (unless they are occasionally repl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vanderburg A,Johnson JA,Rappaport S,Bieryla A,Irwin J,Lewis JA,Kipping D,Brown WR,Dufour P,Ciardi DR,Angus R,Schaefer L,Latham DW,Charbonneau D,Beichman C,Eastman J,McCrady N,Wittenmyer RA,Wright JT

    更新日期:2015-10-22 00:00:00

  • Structure of the cro repressor from bacteriophage lambda and its interaction with DNA.

    abstract::The three-dimensional structure of the 66-amino acid cro repressor protein of bacteriophage lambda suggests how it binds to its operator DNA. We propose that a dimer of cro protein is bound to the B-form of DNA with the 2-fold axis of the dimer coincident with the 2-fold axis of DNA. A pair of 2-fold-related alpha-hel...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anderson WF,Ohlendorf DH,Takeda Y,Matthews BW

    更新日期:1981-04-30 00:00:00

  • Regulation of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 by blue-light-dependent phosphorylation.

    abstract::Cryptochromes are blue/ultraviolet-A light receptors that mediate various light responses in plants and animals. But the initial photochemical reaction of cryptochrome is still unclear. For example, although most photoreceptors are known to undergo light-dependent protein modification such as phosphorylation, no blue-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shalitin D,Yang H,Mockler TC,Maymon M,Guo H,Whitelam GC,Lin C

    更新日期:2002-06-13 00:00:00

  • Maximized electron interactions at the magic angle in twisted bilayer graphene.

    abstract::The electronic properties of heterostructures of atomically thin van der Waals crystals can be modified substantially by moiré superlattice potentials from an interlayer twist between crystals1,2. Moiré tuning of the band structure has led to the recent discovery of superconductivity3,4 and correlated insulating phase...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kerelsky A,McGilly LJ,Kennes DM,Xian L,Yankowitz M,Chen S,Watanabe K,Taniguchi T,Hone J,Dean C,Rubio A,Pasupathy AN

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Predominant use of a V alpha gene segment in mouse T-cell receptors for cytochrome c.

    abstract::The T-cell receptor is a cell surface heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta chain that binds foreign antigen in the context of a cell surface molecule encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), thus restricting the T-cell response to the surface of antigen presenting cells. The variable (V) domain ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Winoto A,Urban JL,Lan NC,Goverman J,Hood L,Hansburg D

    更新日期:1986-12-18 00:00:00

  • C. elegans unc-4 gene encodes a homeodomain protein that determines the pattern of synaptic input to specific motor neurons.

    abstract::The creation of neural circuits depends on the formation of synapses between specific sets of neurons. Little is known, however, of the molecular mechanisms governing synaptic choice. A mutation in the unc-4 gene alters the pattern of synaptic input to one class of motor neurons in the Caenorhabditis elegans ventral n...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller DM,Shen MM,Shamu CE,Bürglin TR,Ruvkun G,Dubois ML,Ghee M,Wilson L

    更新日期:1992-02-27 00:00:00

  • Structural and functional characterization of the short acidic transcriptional activation region of yeast GCN4 protein.

    abstract::Derivatives of the yeast GCN4 transcription factor containing acidic regions of 35 to 40 amino acids fused directly to the DNA-binding domain are fully functional in vivo. High resolution deletion analysis and proteolytic mapping suggest that the activation region is a repeated structure composed of small units acting...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hope IA,Mahadevan S,Struhl K

    更新日期:1988-06-16 00:00:00

  • Tetrapeptides of the eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) enhance eosinophil Fc receptor.

    abstract::Certain mast cell products, including the tetrapeptides Ala-Gly-Ser-Glu (Ala4) and Val-Gly-Ser-Glu (Val4) of the eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) and histamine, are preferentially chemotactic for eosinophils in vitro. Amino acid substitutions or modifications of the ECF-A tetrapeptides may substant...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Capron M,Capron A,Goetzl EJ,Austen KF

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Extracellular domains mediating epsilon subunit interactions of muscle acetylcholine receptor.

    abstract::Ligand-gated ion channels, a major class of cell-surface proteins, have a pseudosymmetric structure with five highly homologous subunits arranged around a central ion pore. The correct assembly of each channel, whose subunit composition varies with cell type and stage of development, requires specific recognition betw...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu XM,Hall ZW

    更新日期:1991-07-04 00:00:00

  • Purkinje neuron synchrony elicits time-locked spiking in the cerebellar nuclei.

    abstract::An unusual feature of the cerebellar cortex is that its output neurons, Purkinje cells, release GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid). Their high intrinsic firing rates (50 Hz) and extensive convergence predict that their target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei would be largely inhibited unless Purkinje cells pause their spiking...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Person AL,Raman IM

    更新日期:2011-12-25 00:00:00

  • How thick is the lithosphere?

    abstract::A rapid decrease in shear velocity in the suboceanic mantle is used to infer the thickness of the lithosphere. It is proposed that new and highly precise group velocity data constrain the solutions and imply a thickness near 70 km. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanamori H,Press F

    更新日期:1970-04-25 00:00:00

  • wingless refines its own expression domain on the Drosophila wing margin.

    abstract::The imaginal discs of Drosophila, which give rise to the adult appendages, are patterned during a period of intense cell proliferation. The specification of differing regions occurs in some cases by subdividing the disc epithelium into lineage compartments. However, in most cases precise boundaries are formed between ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rulifson EJ,Micchelli CA,Axelrod JD,Perrimon N,Blair SS

    更新日期:1996-11-07 00:00:00

  • Mitochondrial complex III is essential for suppressive function of regulatory T cells.

    abstract::Regulatory T cells (Treg cells), a distinct subset of CD4+ T cells, are necessary for the maintenance of immune self-tolerance and homeostasis1,2. Recent studies have demonstrated that Treg cells exhibit a unique metabolic profile, characterized by an increase in mitochondrial metabolism relative to other CD4+ effecto...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weinberg SE,Singer BD,Steinert EM,Martinez CA,Mehta MM,Martínez-Reyes I,Gao P,Helmin KA,Abdala-Valencia H,Sena LA,Schumacker PT,Turka LA,Chandel NS

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00