Objective Ocular Discomfort: Noninvasive Evaluation by Functional Near-Infrared Ray Spectroscopy.


Purpose:Patients express their discomfort by subjective complaints, which may not clearly express the extent of their discomfort. This study noninvasively and objectively quantified ocular discomfort, a form of feeling, from the prefrontal cortex by functional near-infrared ray spectroscopy topography. Methods:This case-controlled study enrolled six dry eye patients (male:female, 1:1; 51.8 ± 15.9 years) with ocular discomfort and six normal controls (male:female, 1:1; 48.8 ± 15.2 years). Ocular discomfort was created by Schirmer 1 test in normal controls. The extent of prefrontal cortex activity was evaluated as the number of signal-positive channels using the system by using an eye-opening task with spontaneous blinking in the dark. Changes in the signal-positive channels count by lubricant or anesthetics instillation were analyzed. Results:Low prefrontal cortex activation was detected in normal controls without ocular discomfort, and high activation was detected in both normal controls and dry eye with ocular discomfort. Prefrontal cortex activity was confirmed with ocular discomfort when the eyes were open, decreased with lubricant, and almost disappeared with anesthetic for all participants. Conclusions:These changes in the prefrontal cortex activity exhibited a significant correlation to subjective complaint scores, suggesting that such discomfort may be objectively quantifiable, independent of subjective expressions.


Ono M,Takano Y,Haida M




Has Abstract


2018-09-04 00:00:00














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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haynes RJ,McElveen JE,Dua HS,Tighe PJ,Liversidge J

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  • Riboflavin Concentrations at the Endothelium During Corneal Cross-Linking in Humans.

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seiler TG,Batista A,Frueh BE,Koenig K

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  • Impact of vitamin A supplementation on prevalence and incidence of xerophthalmia in Nepal.

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


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  • Cell proliferation and interleukin-6-type cytokine signaling are implicated by gene expression responses in early optic nerve head injury in rat glaucoma.

    abstract:PURPOSE:In glaucoma, the optic nerve head (ONH) is the principal site of initial axonal injury, and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the predominant risk factor. However, the initial responses of the ONH to elevated IOP are unknown. Here the authors use a rat glaucoma model to characterize ONH gene expression cha...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson EC,Doser TA,Cepurna WO,Dyck JA,Jia L,Guo Y,Lambert WS,Morrison JC

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  • Contribution of TNF-alpha to leukocyte adhesion, vascular leakage, and apoptotic cell death in endotoxin-induced uveitis in vivo.

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  • FoxO1 gene confers genetic predisposition to acute anterior uveitis with ankylosing spondylitis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Recent studies have shown that a decrease of regulatory T (Treg) cells may contribute to the activity of acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A number of immunogenetic factors including IL2RA, miR-27a, miR-182, and FoxO1 are associated with Treg cell function. In this study, we investig...

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    更新日期:2014-11-20 00:00:00

  • Involvement of the Erk-MAP kinase pathway in TNFalpha regulation of trabecular matrix metalloproteinases and TIMPs.

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

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    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Defects in cortisol-metabolizing enzymes in primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1985-06-01 00:00:00

  • Photoreceptor Cells Produce Inflammatory Mediators That Contribute to Endothelial Cell Death in Diabetes.

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tonade D,Liu H,Kern TS

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fortune B,Hood DC

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cain C,Phillips TE

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00