The many ways tissue phagocytes respond to dying cells.


:Apoptosis is an important component of normal tissue physiology, and the prompt removal of apoptotic cells is equally essential to avoid the undesirable consequences of their accumulation and disintegration. Professional phagocytes are highly specialized for engulfing apoptotic cells. The recent ability to track cells that have undergone apoptosis in situ has revealed a division of labor among the tissue resident phagocytes that sample them. Macrophages are uniquely programmed to process internalized apoptotic cell-derived fatty acids, cholesterol and nucleotides, as a reflection of their dominant role in clearing the bulk of apoptotic cells. Dendritic cells carry apoptotic cells to lymph nodes where they signal the emergence and expansion of highly suppressive regulatory CD4 T cells. A broad suppression of inflammation is executed through distinct phagocyte-specific mechanisms. A clever induction of negative regulatory nodes is notable in dendritic cells serving to simultaneously shut down multiple pathways of inflammation. Several of the genes and pathways modulated in phagocytes in response to apoptotic cells have been linked to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Our collective understanding of old and new phagocyte functions after apoptotic cell phagocytosis demonstrates the enormity of ways to mediate immune suppression and enforce tissue homeostasis.


Immunol Rev


Immunological reviews


Blander JM




Has Abstract


2017-05-01 00:00:00












  • VH-gene representation in autoantibodies reflects the normal human B-cell repertoire.

    abstract::The recurrence in the V-gene repertoire of individual germline VH genes can now be extended from the restricted B-cell populations of the fetus, autoantibodies and B-cell malignancies to the expressed V-gene repertoire of normal adults. Why the human B cell preferentially utilizes these individual VH genes remains spe...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stewart AK,Huang C,Long AA,Stollar BD,Schwartz RS

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring lymphocyte differentiation pathways.

    abstract::Highlights in a 4-decade exploration of lymphocyte differentiation begin with comparative studies in birds and mammals leading to recognition of the separate T- and B-cell differentiation pathways and their cooperative interaction. The global effects of aborting IgM B-cell development with anti-mu antibodies indicated...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cooper MD

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • T and B cell tolerance and responses to viral antigens in transgenic mice: implications for the pathogenesis of autoimmune versus immunopathological disease.

    abstract::Experiments with transgenic mice illustrate clonal elimination of T cells specific for antigens expressed appropriately in the thymus, but presence of inducible T cells when the antigen presented on class I MHC antigens is expressed exclusively on non-lymphohemopoietic cells in the periphery (pancreatic beta islet cel...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zinkernagel RM,Pircher HP,Ohashi P,Oehen S,Odermatt B,Mak T,Arnheiter H,Bürki K,Hengartner H

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • T cells and immunopathogenesis of experimental African trypanosomiasis.

    abstract:SUMMARY:African trypanosomes are pathogens for humans and livestock. They are single-cell, extra-cellular parasites that cause persistent infections of the blood and induce profound immunosuppression. Here, we review recent work on experimental African trypanosomiasis, especially infections with Trypanosoma congolense,...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tabel H,Wei G,Shi M

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Two-photon imaging of effector T-cell behavior: lessons from a tumor model.

    abstract::Recent advances in two-photon microscopy have provided a new way of visualizing the behavior of fluorescently tagged cells within their natural microenvironment. This technology has allowed for generating a detailed picture of the cellular interaction dynamics operant in the activation of T cells and B cells during pr...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ng LG,Mrass P,Kinjyo I,Reiner SL,Weninger W

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Rapid leukocyte integrin activation by chemokines.

    abstract::Chemokines control selective targeting of circulating leukocytes to the microvasculature by triggering inside-out signal transduction pathways leading to integrin-dependent adhesion. Integrin activation by chemokines is very rapid, is downmodulated within minutes and appears to involve both enhanced heterodimer latera...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Laudanna C,Kim JY,Constantin G,Butcher E

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cytokines in cancer immunity and immunotherapy.

    abstract::The concept that the immune system recognizes and controls cancer was first postulated over a century ago, and cancer immunity has continued to be vigorously debated and experimentally tested. Mounting evidence in humans and mice supports the involvement of cytokines in tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. The id...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Smyth MJ,Cretney E,Kershaw MH,Hayakawa Y

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Insights from in situ analysis of TCR-pMHC recognition: response of an interaction network.

    abstract::Recognition of peptide presented by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecule by the T-cell receptor (TCR) determines T-cell selection, development, differentiation, fate, and function. Despite intensive studies on the structures, thermodynamic properties, kinetic rates, and affinities of TCR-pMHC interacti...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhu C,Jiang N,Huang J,Zarnitsyna VI,Evavold BD

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Structural and functional identification of complement components of the bony fish, carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    abstract::Complement is a humoral factor of innate immunity and plays important roles in immune surveillance and clearance of invading pathogens. Mammalian complement consists of the classical (antibody-dependent), the alternative (antibody-independent) and the lectin (triggered by mannose-binding lectin) pathways of activation...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nakao M,Yano T

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • gammadelta T-cell receptors: functional correlations.

    abstract::The gammadelta T-cell receptors (TCRs) are limited in their diversity, suggesting that their natural ligands may be few in number. Ligands for gammadeltaTCRs that have thus far been determined are predominantly of host rather than foreign origin. Correlations have been noted between the Vgamma and/or Vdelta genes a ga...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: O'Brien RL,Roark CL,Jin N,Aydintug MK,French JD,Chain JL,Wands JM,Johnston M,Born WK

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Live or let die: posttranscriptional gene regulation in cell stress and cell death.

    abstract::Studies of the regulation of gene expression historically focused on transcription. However, during stress and apoptosis, profound gene expression changes occur more rapidly and globally than is possible by regulating transcription. Posttranscriptional changes in mRNA processing and translation in response to diverse ...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Thomas MP,Lieberman J

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in hematologic malignancies.

    abstract::Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process that regulates several critical cellular processes. Ubiquitination is orchestrated by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), which constitutes a cascade of enzymes that transfer ubiquitin onto protein substrates. The UPS catalyzes the destruction of many crit...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sahasrabuddhe AA,Elenitoba-Johnson KS

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • PSGL-1 function in immunity and steady state homeostasis.

    abstract::The substantial importance of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) in leukocyte trafficking has continued to emerge beyond its initial identification as a selectin ligand. PSGL-1 seemed to be a relatively simple molecule with an extracellular mucin domain extended as a flexible rod, teleologically consistent with...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carlow DA,Gossens K,Naus S,Veerman KM,Seo W,Ziltener HJ

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Amino acid insertions and deletions contribute to diversify the human Ig repertoire.

    abstract::The sequence analysis of Ig variable region genes transcribed within different B-cell subpopulations from human tonsil led us to identify a rare DNA sequence modification event consisting of bp insertions and/or deletions (I/D). Although these events were previously reported, they had never been formally associated wi...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wilson P,Liu YJ,Banchereau J,Capra JD,Pascual V

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • The role of IL-21 in regulating B-cell function in health and disease.

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    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ettinger R,Kuchen S,Lipsky PE

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Role of autoreactive CD8+ T cells in organ-specific autoimmune diseases: insight from transgenic mouse models.

    abstract::There is now convincing evidence that autoreactive CD8+ T cells can contribute to the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. In the non-obese diabetic mouse, there is direct evidence that beta-islet cell-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells have a pathogenic effect. In human diseases such as autoimmune diabete...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vizler C,Bercovici N,Cornet A,Cambouris C,Liblau RS

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Tumor necrosis factor-mediated interactions between inflammatory response and tumor vascular bed.

    abstract::Solid tumor therapy with chemotherapeutics greatly depends on the efficiency with which drugs are delivered to tumor cells. The typical characteristics of the tumor physiology promote but also appose accumulation of blood-borne agents. The leaky tumor vasculature allows easy passage of drugs. However, the disorganized...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: ten Hagen TL,Seynhaeve AL,Eggermont AM

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • TAM receptor tyrosine kinases as emerging targets of innate immune checkpoint blockade for cancer therapy.

    abstract::Cancer immunotherapy utilizing T-cell checkpoint inhibitors has shown tremendous clinical success. Yet, this mode of treatment is effective in only a subset of patients. Unresponsive patients tend to have non-T-cell-inflamed tumors that lack markers associated with the activation of adaptive anti-tumor immune response...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Akalu YT,Rothlin CV,Ghosh S

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • T-cell intrinsic effects of GITR and 4-1BB during viral infection and cancer immunotherapy.

    abstract::GITR [glucocorticoid inducible tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-related protein] and 4-1BB are costimulatory TNFR family members that are expressed on regulatory and effector T cells as well as on other cells of the immune system. Here we discuss the role of GITR and 4-1BB on T cells during viral infections and i...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Snell LM,Lin GH,McPherson AJ,Moraes TJ,Watts TH

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Human cytomegalovirus and natural killer-mediated surveillance of HLA class I expression: a paradigm of host-pathogen adaptation.

    abstract::Among various strategies to evade the host immune response, some viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) interfere with surface MHC class I expression and antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. The ability of natural killer (NK) cells to detect MHC class I molecules through inhibitory receptors can be envisaged as a...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: López-Botet M,Llano M,Ortega M

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptive immune responses mediated by natural killer cells.

    abstract::Adaptive immunity has traditionally been considered a unique feature of vertebrate physiology. Unlike innate immune responses, which remain essentially unchanged upon exposure to a recurrent challenge with the same stimulus, adaptive immune cells possess the ability to learn and remember. Thus, secondary adaptive resp...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Paust S,Senman B,von Andrian UH

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Coevolution of T-cell receptors with MHC and non-MHC ligands.

    abstract::The structure and amino acid diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR), similar in nature to that of Fab portions of antibodies, would suggest that these proteins have a nearly infinite capacity to recognize antigen. Yet all currently defined native T cells expressing an α and β chain in their TCR can only sense antigen ...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Castro CD,Luoma AM,Adams EJ

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • The role of genetically-determined primary alterations of the target organ in the development of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in obese strain (OS) chickens.

    abstract::Immunologists working in the field of autoimmunity tend to concentrate all their efforts on the elucidation of possible malfunctions of the immune system, particularly pathologic changes of immune regulation. Also in the OS model various groups of investigators emphasized this approach, although it was already clear e...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wick G,Hála K,Wolf H,Ziemiecki A,Sundick RS,Stöffler-Meilicke M,DeBaets M

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Lessons from the bare lymphocyte syndrome: molecular mechanisms regulating MHC class II expression.

    abstract::Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules drive the development, activation and homeostasis of CD4* T-helper cells. They play a central role in key processes of the adaptive immune system, such as the generation of T-cell-mediated immune responses, the regulation of antibody production and the develo...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Waldburger JM,Masternak K,Muhlethaler-Mottet A,Villard J,Peretti M,Landmann S,Reith W

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Multifaceted effects of Francisella tularensis on human neutrophil function and lifespan.

    abstract::Francisella tularensis in an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes a potentially lethal disease called tularemia. Studies performed nearly 100 years ago revealed that neutrophil accumulation in infected tissues correlates directly with the extent of necrotic damage during F. tularensis infection. However, the d...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kinkead LC,Allen LA

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Delineation of the human hematolymphoid system: potential applications of defined cell populations in cellular therapy.

    abstract::Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the capacity to reconstitute all the blood cells in the body. HSC are rare, representing on average 0.05% of the mononuclear cells present in healthy human bone marrow. Due to their capacity for self-renewal and their pluripotent, long-term reconstituting potential, HSC are consider...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chen BP,Galy AM,Fraser C,Hill B

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of gene conversion on polymorphic patterns at major histocompatibility complex loci.

    abstract::The pattern of polymorphisms at MHC loci was studied by computer simulations and by DNA sequence analyses, with special reference to synonymous and non-synonymous divergence among alleles. A model of overdominance plus short-term selection was simulated for a gene family with allelic and non-allelic gene conversion. I...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ohta T

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cytokine-producing B cells: a translational view on their roles in human and mouse autoimmune diseases.

    abstract::B-cell depletion therapy has beneficial effects in autoimmune diseases. This is only partly explained by an elimination of autoantibodies. How does B-cell depletion improve disease? Here, we review preclinical studies showing that B cells can propagate autoimmune disorders through cytokine production. We also highligh...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lino AC,Dörner T,Bar-Or A,Fillatreau S

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • The development of effector and memory T cells in cutaneous leishmaniasis: the implications for vaccine development.

    abstract::Leishmania major infections induce the development of a CD4(+) T-helper 1 (Th1) response that not only controls the primary infection but also results in life-long immunity to reinfection. How that immunity is maintained is unknown, although because of the existence of infection-induced immunity, there has been an ass...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Scott P,Artis D,Uzonna J,Zaph C

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • NF-κB function in B lymphocytes.

    abstract::NF-κB proteins were identified in the search for mechanisms that regulate B-lymphocyte-specific transcription of immunoglobulin κ light chain genes. Twenty-five years later, though the function of the κB site in the enhancer remains enigmatic, NF-κB proteins have been shown to have important roles in B-cell developmen...

    journal_title:Immunological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kaileh M,Sen R

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00