Sites of clonidine action to inhibit gut propulsion in mice: demonstration of a central component.


:The role of central (supraspinal and spinal) and peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors in the regulation of gastrointestinal propulsion in the mouse was studied using clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. Clonidine produced a dose-dependent inhibition of propulsion when given intracerebroventricularly, intrathecally, or subcutaneously, but was most potent when given intracerebroventricularly. The antitransit effects of centrally given clonidine were antagonized by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) yohimbine, but higher doses were required when this antagonist was given peripherally. Whereas i.c.v. and s.c. administration of clonidine were effective in inhibiting gut transit in spinally transected mice, intrathecal ( administration of this agonist was not. A supraspinal site of clonidine action is suggested based upon (a) the higher central to peripheral potency of clonidine; (b) the greater potency of i.c.v., compared with s.c., administration of yohimbine in blocking i.c.v. clonidine; (c) the lack of effect of administration of clonidine in spinally transected mice; and (d) the reduced potency of i.c.v., but not s.c., administration of clonidine in spinally transected mice. Additionally, a peripheral site of clonidine action is suggested by (a) the lower potency of i.c.v. yohimbine in blocking s.c., compared with i.c.v., clonidine; (b) the lower potency of i.c.v. yohimbine in blocking i.c.v. clonidine in transected mice (compared with normal mice); (c) the equal potency of s.c. clonidine in slowing propulsion in normal and spinally transected mice; and (d) the equal potency of i.c.v. yohimbine in blocking s.c. clonidine in normal and spinally transected mice. These data in mice would thus support the concept that normal (peripheral) therapeutic administration of clonidine would affect gut motor function by interactions within the brain and directly at the level of the gut.






Jiang Q,Sheldon RJ,Porreca F




Has Abstract


1988-11-01 00:00:00














  • Pancreatic stenting prevents pancreatitis after biliary sphincterotomy in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are at high risk of developing pancreatitis after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Impaired pancreatic drainage caused by pancreatic sphincter hypertension is the likely explanation for this increased risk. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was co...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Tarnasky PR,Palesch YY,Cunningham JT,Mauldin PD,Cotton PB,Hawes RH

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperplasia of histamine-depleted enterochromaffinlike cells in rat stomach using omeprazole and alpha-fluoromethylhistidine.

    abstract::In the rat, gastric histamine is stored mainly in the enterochromaffinlike cells. Gastrin releases histamine from these cells, and long-term hypergastrinemia results in hyperplasia. The effect of sustained hypergastrinemia on histamine-depleted enterochromaffinlike cells was studied by measuring histidine decarboxylas...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andersson K,Håkanson R,Mattsson H,Ryberg B,Sundler F

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Antroduodenal resistance to flow in the control of duodenogastric bile reflux during fasting.

    abstract::Our objectives in this study were (a) to determine the role of antroduodenal resistance in the control of fasting duodenogastric bile reflux in the dog and (b) to elucidate the contribution of the pylorus both to resistance and to reflux. Thus, we measured simultaneously throughout the interdigestive motor cycle (a) a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mearin F,Azpiroz F,Malagelada JR,Zinsmeister AR

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • Risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Studies implicating primary sclerosing cholangitis as a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis have been limited by small sample size and referral bias. The aim of this study was to determine the relative risk and cumulative incidence of colorectal neoplasia in a larg...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loftus EV Jr,Sandborn WJ,Tremaine WJ,Mahoney DW,Zinsmeister AR,Offord KP,Melton LJ 3rd

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology, Presentation, and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease.

    abstract::The incidence of celiac disease is increasing, partly because of improved recognition of, and testing for, the disease. The rise in incidence is also due to a real increase of this immune-based disorder, independent of disease detection. The reasons for this true rise in recent decades are unknown but may be related t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lebwohl B,Rubio-Tapia A

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • The forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 regulates proliferation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The Forkhead box gene, group O (FoxO) family of Forkhead transcription factors is phopsphorylated and inactivated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway and regulates a variety of cellular functions. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in liver fibrosis. A fibrotic stimu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adachi M,Osawa Y,Uchinami H,Kitamura T,Accili D,Brenner DA

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of smoking on healing rate of duodenal ulcer in response to cimetidine or high-dose antacid.

    abstract::Fifty consecutive patients with symptomatic endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer were randomized double-blind to Mylanta II or cimetidine treatment schedules. Smoking habits were noted, but patients were not advised to alter these. Healing was determined by reendoscopy at 6 wk. Eighty percent of patients on active cim...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Korman MG,Shaw RG,Hansky J,Schmidt GT,Stern AI

    更新日期:1981-06-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of colorectal cancer surveillance for ulcerative colitis in an integrated health care delivery system.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The absence of grade A supporting evidence for surveillance colonoscopy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) has led to controversy regarding its benefit, yet it is routinely recommended in practice guidelines. Limited data are available on rates of colonoscopy surveillance and factors associated ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Velayos FS,Liu L,Lewis JD,Allison JE,Flowers N,Hutfless S,Abramson O,Perry GS,Herrinton LJ

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Tropheryma whipplei Increases Expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G on Monocytes to Reduce Tumor Necrosis Factor and Promote Bacterial Replication.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Infection with Tropheryma whipplei has a range of effects-some patients can be chronic carriers without developing any symptoms, whereas others can develop systemic Whipple disease, characterized by a lack a protective inflammatory immune response. Alterations in HLA-G function have been associated wi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ben Azzouz E,Boumaza A,Mezouar S,Bardou M,Carlini F,Picard C,Raoult D,Mège JL,Desnues B

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Randomized comparative study of therapeutic paracentesis with and without intravenous albumin in cirrhosis.

    abstract::It has recently been shown that repeated large-volume paracentesis associated with intravenous albumin infusion is a rapid, effective, and safe therapy of ascites in cirrhosis. To investigate whether intravenous albumin infusion is necessary in the treatment of cirrhotics with large-volume paracentesis, 105 patients w...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ginès P,Titó L,Arroyo V,Planas R,Panés J,Viver J,Torres M,Humbert P,Rimola A,Llach J

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • Allelic variations of the multidrug resistance gene determine susceptibility and disease behavior in ulcerative colitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The MDR1 gene encodes P-glycoprotein 170, an efflux transporter that is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. The MDR1 exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C3435T and G2677T have been shown to correlate with activity/expression of P-glycoprotein 170. METHODS:This was a case-cont...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ho GT,Nimmo ER,Tenesa A,Fennell J,Drummond H,Mowat C,Arnott ID,Satsangi J

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • The Intestinal Microenvironment and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    abstract::For decades, interactions between the enteric neuromuscular apparatus and the central nervous system have served as the primary focus of pathophysiological research in the functional gastrointestinal disorders. The accumulation of patient reports, as well as clinical observations, has belatedly led to an interest in t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barbara G,Feinle-Bisset C,Ghoshal UC,Quigley EM,Santos J,Vanner S,Vergnolle N,Zoetendal EG

    更新日期:2016-02-18 00:00:00

  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes CD34(+) cells and improves survival of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) develops in patients with chronic liver disease and has high mortality. Mobilization of bone marrow-derived stem cells with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) could promote hepatic regeneration. METHODS:Consecutive patients with ACLF were randomly assi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Garg V,Garg H,Khan A,Trehanpati N,Kumar A,Sharma BC,Sakhuja P,Sarin SK

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of liquid versus solid diet on colonic transit in humans. Evaluation by standard colonic transit scintigraphy.

    abstract::The effects of liquid versus solid diet on human colonic transit were investigated, and transit following cecal instillation of tracer was compared with transit following instillation in the proximal jejunum. In a randomized cross-over, single-blind fashion, 6 normal volunteers ingesting either normal solid foods or a...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kaufman PN,Richter JE,Chilton HM,Kerr RM,Cowan RC,Gelfand DW,Ott DJ

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of a catheter in the pharynx on the frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations.

    abstract::Transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is observed fairly frequently during prolonged continuous monitoring of the LES. The aim of this study was to test whether the presence of a catheter in the pharynx through the stimulation of mechanoreceptors may induce transient LES relaxation. LES and esop...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mittal RK,Stewart WR,Schirmer BD

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of changes in infusion rate versus glucose concentration on absorption in infant miniature pig small intestine.

    abstract::The effect of changes in the rate of infusion versus glucose concentration on glucose, water, and sodium absorption was studied in 20 infant miniature pigs using the single-pass small intestinal perfusion technique. During infusions of glucose loads of up to 75.0 mumol/min, glucose absorption increased similarly wheth...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shulman RJ,Lifschitz CH

    更新日期:1988-03-01 00:00:00

  • Adefovir dipivoxil added to ongoing lamivudine in chronic hepatitis B with YMDD mutant hepatitis B virus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Prolonged lamivudine therapy is associated with treatment-resistant YMDD mutant hepatitis B virus (HBV). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of adding adefovir dipivoxil to lamivudine in 135 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and YMDD mutant HBV. METHODS:Ninety-five patients with compensated ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Perrillo R,Hann HW,Mutimer D,Willems B,Leung N,Lee WM,Moorat A,Gardner S,Woessner M,Bourne E,Brosgart CL,Schiff E

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Heterotopic liver transplantation for fulminant Wilson's disease.

    abstract::Wilson's disease may present with severe acute hepatocellular failure. The only effective treatment for fulminant Wilson's disease is liver transplantation, which may lead to reversal of the underlying disease. Some patients with cirrhosis who are too ill to undergo orthotopic liver transplantation have been treated w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stampfl DA,Muñoz SJ,Moritz MJ,Rubin R,Armenti VT,Jarrell BE,Maddrey WC

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative hemodialysis patients by monoclonal radioimmunoassays.

    abstract::We studied 375 chronic hemodialysis patients for evidence of hepatitis B virus infection using first- and second-generation monoclonal radioimmunoassays. These assays employ high-affinity monoclonal antibodies produced against antigenic determinants that reside on hepatitis B surface antigen. Such assays have a lower ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fujita YK,Kamata K,Kameda H,Isselbacher KJ,Wands JR

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Pathological findings of lymphangiectasia of the large intestine in a patient with protein-losing enteropathy.

    abstract::Lymphangiectasia of the large intestine associated with protein-losing enteropathy is reported. A 33-yr-old man suffered from diarrhea, sometimes mixed with blood. Colonoscopic study revealed reddish and edematous mucosa with multiple flat elevated lesions and giant folds in the localized segment of the rectosigmoid. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asakura H,Tsuchiya M,Katoh S,Kobayashi K,Yonei Y,Yoshida T,Hamada Y,Miura S,Morita A,Kuramochi S

    更新日期:1986-09-01 00:00:00

  • Endotoxin-induced alterations in rat colonic water and electrolyte transport.

    abstract::This study examines the effects of endotoxin on intestinal water and electrolyte transport in adult male rats. Endotoxin (1.55 mg/kg, intravenously) reduced in vivo colonic saline absorption 61% in 1 hour. In vitro unidirectional and net 22Na and 36Cl fluxes showed that endotoxin significantly decreased net colonic 22...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ciancio MJ,Vitiritti L,Dhar A,Chang EB

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Direct transhepatic measurement of portal vein pressure using a thin needle. Comparison with wedged hepatic vein pressure.

    abstract::A technique for the direct measurement of portal vein pressure in fully conscious patients is described. This uses a percutaneous transhepatic approach with a thin Chiba needle and is shown to be simple and safe. The technique has been applied to 123 patients with a variety of liver disorders and the pressure measurem...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boyer TD,Triger DR,Horisawa M,Redeker AG,Reynolds TB

    更新日期:1977-04-01 00:00:00

  • Intestinal Dysbiosis Featuring Abundance of Ruminococcus gnavus Associates With Allergic Diseases in Infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS:We studied fecal specimens pros...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chua HH,Chou HC,Tung YL,Chiang BL,Liao CC,Liu HH,Ni YH

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mortality in celiac disease.

    abstract::The mortality experienced by a cohort of 653 patients with celiac disease in Edinburgh and the Lothian region has been analyzed. Mortality overall was 1.9-fold (95% confidence limits, 1.5-2.2) that of the general population (115 deaths observed, 61.8 expected; p less than 0.0001). The increased mortality was greatest ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Logan RF,Rifkind EA,Turner ID,Ferguson A

    更新日期:1989-08-01 00:00:00

  • Application of the crypt-isolation technique to flow-cytometric analysis of DNA content in colorectal neoplasms.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Conventional flow-cytometric analysis of colorectal tumor DNA content includes both tumor and stromal cell DNA. To improve the method, we evaluated the DNA content of purified epithelial cells using the crypt-isolation technique. METHODS:Normal and neoplastic crypts were isolated from fresh resected co...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamura S,Goto J,Kitayama M,Kino I

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro characterization of human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    abstract::Enriched populations of human intestinal and colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes were isolated separate from lamina propria lymphocytes. These populations, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were characterized for membrane features, lymphocyte subsets, and proliferative potential to the nonspecific mitogenic lect...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greenwood JH,Austin LL,Dobbins WO 3rd

    更新日期:1983-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Access Expansion to Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Through Primary Care Providers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major burden on individuals and health care systems. The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO) enables primary care providers to deliver best-practice care for complex conditions to underserved populations. The US Congress passed the ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rattay T,Dumont IP,Heinzow HS,Hutton DW

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • A 1-year trial of telbivudine, lamivudine, and the combination in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:A previous 4-week trial of telbivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B indicated marked antiviral effects with good tolerability, leading to the present 1-year phase 2b trial. METHODS:This randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of telbivudine 400 or 600 mg/...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Lai CL,Leung N,Teo EK,Tong M,Wong F,Hann HW,Han S,Poynard T,Myers M,Chao G,Lloyd D,Brown NA,Telbivudine Phase II Investigator Group.

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Urocortin reduces food intake and gastric emptying in lean and ob/ob obese mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Gastric emptying plays an important role in regulating food intake. This study was designed to investigate whether intraperitoneally injected urocortin reduces gastric emptying, feeding, and body weight in lean and ob/ob obese mice. METHODS:Food intake and body weight were measured after intraperiton...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asakawa A,Inui A,Ueno N,Makino S,Fujino MA,Kasuga M

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Communication via gap junctions modulates bile secretion in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Bile secretion is regulated in part by adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and cytosolic Ca2+ (Ca2+i). Hormone receptors that link to these second messengers are not uniformly distributed across the hepatic lobule, but both cAMP and Ca2+i cross gap junctions, so we tested whether gap junctiona...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nathanson MH,Rios-Velez L,Burgstahler AD,Mennone A

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00