Dynamic Metabolic Zonation of the Hepatic Glucose Metabolism Is Accomplished by Sinusoidal Plasma Gradients of Nutrients and Hormones.

Abstract:

:Being the central metabolic organ of vertebrates, the liver possesses the largest repertoire of metabolic enzymes among all tissues and organs. Almost all metabolic pathways are resident in the parenchymal cell, hepatocyte, but the pathway capacities may largely differ depending on the localization of hepatocytes within the liver acinus-a phenomenon that is commonly referred to as metabolic zonation. Metabolic zonation is rather dynamic since gene expression patterns of metabolic enzymes may change in response to nutrition, drugs, hormones and pathological states of the liver (e.g., fibrosis and inflammation). This fact has to be ultimately taken into account in mathematical models aiming at the prediction of metabolic liver functions in different physiological and pathological settings. Here we present a spatially resolved kinetic tissue model of hepatic glucose metabolism which includes zone-specific temporal changes of enzyme abundances which are driven by concentration gradients of nutrients, hormones and oxygen along the hepatic sinusoids. As key modulators of enzyme expression we included oxygen, glucose and the hormones insulin and glucagon which also control enzyme activities by cAMP-dependent reversible phosphorylation. Starting with an initially non-zonated model using plasma profiles under fed, fasted and diabetic conditions, zonal patterns of glycolytic and gluconeogenetic enzymes as well as glucose uptake and release rates are created as an emergent property. We show that mechanisms controlling the adaptation of enzyme abundances to varying external conditions necessarily lead to the zonation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first kinetic tissue model which takes into account in a semi-mechanistic way all relevant levels of enzyme regulation.

journal_name

Front Physiol

journal_title

Frontiers in physiology

authors

Berndt N,Holzhütter HG

doi

10.3389/fphys.2018.01786

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-12-12 00:00:00

pages

1786

issn

1664-042X

journal_volume

9

pub_type

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