Nitric oxide as a metabolic regulator during exercise: effects of training in health and disease.

Abstract:

:1. Accumulating animal and human data suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is important for both coronary and peripheral haemodynamic control and metabolic regulation during performance of exercise. 2. While still controversial, NO of endothelial origin is thought to potentiate exercise-induced hyperaemia, both in the peripheral and coronary circulations. The mechanism of release may include both acetylcholine derived from the neuromuscular junction and vascular shear stress. 3. A splice variant of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nNOSmicro, incorporating an extra 34 amino acids, is expressed in human skeletal muscle. In addition to being a potential modulator of blood flow, skeletal muscle-derived NO is an important regulator of muscle contraction and metabolism. In particular, recent human data indicate that NO modulates muscle glucose uptake during exercise, independently of blood flow. 4. Exercise training in healthy individuals promotes adaptations in the various NO systems, which can increase NO bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including increased NOS enzyme expression and activity. Such adaptations likely contribute to increased exercise capacity and protection from cardiovascular events. 5. Cardiovascular risk factors, including hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, diabetes and smoking, as well as established disease, are associated with impairment of the various NO systems. Given that NO is an important signalling mechanism during exercise, such impairment may contribute to limitations in exercise capacity through inadequate coronary or peripheral blood delivery and via metabolic effects. 6. Exercise training in individuals with elevated cardiovascular risk or established disease can increase NO bioavailability and may represent an important mechanism by which exercise training provides benefit in the setting of secondary prevention.

authors

Kingwell BA

doi

10.1046/j.1440-1681.2000.03232.x

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2000-04-01 00:00:00

pages

239-50

issue

4

eissn

0305-1870

issn

1440-1681

journal_volume

27

pub_type

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