Evaluation of brain and nerve pathology in rats chronically dosed with ddI or isoniazid.


:The antiviral adenosine analog, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), and the antitubercular nicotinic acid analogue, isoniazid, have recently received widespread clinical application in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Clinical studies indicate that the primary dose limiting side effect of both drugs is neurological in nature. Most clinical studies are confounded by the fact that the observed neuropathy must be evaluated in the presence of the ongoing disease process associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a rat model of ddI-and isoniazid-induced neuropathy in the absence of any disease-induced pathology. Myelin splitting and intramyelin edema were the most frequent abnormalities observed in the sciatic nerves of ddI-dosed animals, whereas whorls, extracellular debris, macrophages, and reduced myelinated axon number were seen following chronic isoniazid administration. Isoniazid also resulted in myelinopathy of the CNS. Thus, contrary to previous reports, the rodent is a suitable model for ddI- and isoniazid-induced neuropathies.


Neurotoxicol Teratol


Schmued LC,Albertson CM,Andrews A,Sandberg JA,Nickols J,Slikker W Jr




Has Abstract


1996-09-01 00:00:00














  • Developmental exposure to an organophosphate flame retardant alters later behavioral responses to dopamine antagonism in zebrafish larvae.

    abstract::Human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) is widespread, including pregnant women and young children with whom developmental neurotoxic risk is a concern. Given similarities of OPFRs to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, research into the possible neurotoxic impacts of developmental OPFR exposure has be...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliveri AN,Ortiz E,Levin ED

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Toxic exposure to ethylene dibromide and mercuric chloride: effects on laboratory-reared octopuses.

    abstract::The effects of acute and chronic exposure to either ethylene dibromide (EDB) or mercuric chloride (MC) were studied in laboratory-reared Octopus joubini, O. maya and O. bimaculoides. The advantages of using octopuses were that the responses were immediate, highly visible and sensitive. All species demonstrated signs o...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adams PM,Hanlon RT,Forsythe JW

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal exposure to anti-HIV drugs. long-term neurobehavioral effects of lamivudine (3TC) in CD-1 mice.

    abstract::The present study was aimed at investigating the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to lamivudine (3TC), an antiretroviral drug used in clinical practice alone or in combination with zidovudine (AZT) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the HIV virus. Pregnant CD-1 mice were given per os twice daily either 3...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Calamandrei G,Venerosi A,Branchi I,Valanzano A,Alleva E

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Low-level Pb and cardiovascular responses to acute stress in children: the role of cardiac autonomic regulation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:A number of studies suggest that Pb exposure increases cardiovascular disease risk in humans. As a potential mechanism for this effect, we recently reported a significant association between early childhood Pb levels and cardiovascular response to acute stress. The current study considers the association betw...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gump BB,Mackenzie JA,Bendinskas K,Morgan R,Dumas AK,Palmer CD,Parsons PJ

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced auditory acuity in rat pups from excess and deficient omega-3 fatty acid consumption by the mother.

    abstract::Consumption of the nutrients omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation is considered beneficial to fetal and infant development. It may also reduce the incidence and severity of preterm births by prolonging gestational length. However several recent human and animal studies have reported that ove...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Church MW,Jen KL,Stafferton T,Hotra JW,Adams BR

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced expression of α5GABAA receptors elicits autism-like alterations in EEG patterns and sleep-wake behavior.

    abstract::A reduction in the activity of GABAA receptors, particularly α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (α5GABAARs), has been implicated in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Genetically modified mice that lack α5GABAARs (Gabra5-/-) exhibit autism-like behaviors and both enhanced and impaired learning and mem...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mesbah-Oskui L,Penna A,Orser BA,Horner RL

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Ethanol effects on the developing zebrafish: neurobehavior and skeletal morphogenesis.

    abstract::Exposure to ethanol during development can lead to a constellation of congenital anomalies, resulting in prenatal and postnatal failure to thrive, central nervous system (CNS) deficits, and a number of patterning defects that lead to defects in the cardiovascular system, facial structures, and limbs. The cellular, bio...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carvan MJ 3rd,Loucks E,Weber DN,Williams FE

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Lead and conditioned fear to contextual and discrete cues.

    abstract::Male Fischer 344 rats received either tap water or water containing 250 ppm lead for 90 days prior to training in either Pavlovian fear conditioning or consummatory contrast, an aversive reward reduction paradigm. In Experiment 1, lead-exposed and -unexposed rats were trained in operant chambers over a 6-min session. ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salinas JA,Huff NC

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Neurobehavioral deficits in neonatal rhesus monkeys exposed to cocaine in utero.

    abstract::In spite of significant efforts, the neurobehavioral deficits in infants born from cocaine-abusing mothers have not been clearly defined. In the present study, we examined the presence of these abnormalities in a rhesus monkey model of prenatal cocaine exposure using a nonhuman primate adaptation of the Neonatal Behav...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: He N,Bai J,Champoux M,Suomi SJ,Lidow MS

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of perinatal AZT exposure on the acoustic startle response in adult rats.

    abstract::AZT (azidothymidine, zidovudine, ZDV) has become the standard medication to prevent the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus from mother to fetus. The present study was designed to assess the acoustic startle response (ASR) in adult rats that had been perinatally exposed to AZT. Each litter was randomly as...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Melnick SM,Weedon J,Dow-Edwards DL

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ototoxicity of the three xylene isomers in the rat.

    abstract::Numerous experiments have shown that the aromatic solvents can affect the auditory system in the rat, the cochlea being targeted first. Solvents differ in cochleotoxic potency: for example, styrene is more ototoxic than toluene or xylenes. The goal of this study was to determine the relative ototoxicity of the three i...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maguin K,Lataye R,Campo P,Cossec B,Burgart M,Waniusiow D

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • This is your teen brain on drugs: In search of biological factors unique to dependence toxicity in adolescence.

    abstract::Response variability across the lifespan is an important consideration in toxicology and risk assessment, and the toxic effects of drugs and chemicals during adolescence need more research. This paper summarizes a workshop presented in March 2019, at the Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, tha...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kwan LY,Eaton DL,Andersen SL,Dow-Edwards D,Levin ED,Talpos J,Vorhees CV,Li AA

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Distribution of cocaine and metabolites in the pregnant rat and fetus in a chronic subcutaneous injection model.

    abstract::We examined the distribution of cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and norcocaine (NOR) in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and fetuses following twice-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of 20 mg/kg cocaine HCl from gestational day (GD) 8 through GD 20. On GD 21, the animals received a single injection and...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collins LM,Pahl JA,Meyer JS

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of amphetamine on serotoninergic and GABAergic expression of developing brain.

    abstract::Roles of age and withdrawal were explored in mechanisms underlying the action of amphetamine (Amph), by monitoring the serotonergic and GABAergic expression in key brain regions of the rat. Postnatal 21 and 60 day-old male rats were intraperitoneally injected with D-Amph, 5 mg/kg, or saline, three times daily for 14 d...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yin HS,Tan HW

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Dysmorphic and anthropometric outcomes in 6-year-old prenatally cocaine-exposed children.

    abstract::Dysmorphologic and anthropometric assessments were performed on 154 6-year-old children prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) and 131 high-risk controls (NCE) of similar race and social class. Adjusted mean height z scores demonstrated a dose-response with metahydroxybenzoylecgonine above a threshold of 100 ng/g of meco...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Minnes S,Robin NH,Alt AA,Kirchner HL,Satayathum S,Salbert BA,Ellison L,Singer LT

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission by amitraz in primary hippocampal cells.

    abstract::Amitraz is a formamidine pesticide that has been reported to be a neurotoxic compound that induces convulsions among other effects. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated mainly by glutamate and GABA, respectively, so their alteration could be responsible for induction of seizures. In this regard, ami...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Del Pino J,Frejo MT,Baselga MJ,Moyano P,Díaz MJ

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Interpreting epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicity: conceptual and analytic issues.

    abstract::This paper discusses issues pertaining to the validity, precision, and interpretation of epidemiologic studies of neurotoxicity. With regard to validity, the critical issues pertain to the appropriate strategy for confounder adjustment, particularly when confounders are complex, multi-faceted constructs, and to the ne...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bellinger DC

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental toxicity of the environmental pollutant 4-nonylphenol in zebrafish.

    abstract::4-Nonylphenol (4-NP), an estrogen mimicking compound is produced by biodegradation of alkylethoxylates. It is well established that 4-NP can affect the development of aquatic animals by disrupting the endocrine signals. Here we show for the first time in zebrafish that 4-NP does not only target the neuroendocrine syst...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chandrasekar G,Arner A,Kitambi SS,Dahlman-Wright K,Lendahl MA

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to AZT: a preliminary investigation with the D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in mice.

    abstract::Zidovudine (AZT) is the main therapeutic agent against HIV vertical transmission and is routinely administered to seropositive pregnant women and their newborns. Toxicity after chronic administration as well as citogenetic effects following developmental AZT exposure has been reported. Furthermore, recent animal data ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Venerosi A,Valanzano A,Puopolo M,Calamandrei G

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of cocaine/polydrug exposure and maternal psychological distress on infant birth outcomes.

    abstract::To assess teratogenic effects of cocaine exposure and maternal psychological distress on birth outcomes, we conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 415 infants (218 cocaine-exposed--CE, 197 nonexposed--NE). Drug exposure was determined through a combination of maternal self-report, urine, and meconium screens. M...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singer LT,Salvator A,Arendt R,Minnes S,Farkas K,Kliegman R

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of repeated administration of soman on schedule-controlled behavior and brain in the rat.

    abstract::The effects of repeated SC administration of soman on schedule-controlled performance and brain pathology were studied in the rat. Soman suppressed response rates in both components of a multiple fixed interval 50-sec fixed-ratio 25 (mult. FI 50-sec FR 25) schedule of reinforcement, although all animals revealed marke...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hymowitz N,Ploshnick A,Laemle L,Brezenoff H

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Central auditory processing in school-age children prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke.

    abstract::One hundred and ten, 6- to 11-year-old children from a low-risk, predominantly middle class sample who are participants in an ongoing longitudinal drug study were assessed using a central auditory processing task (SCAN) that made perceptual rather than linguistic demands. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was linearly...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: McCartney JS,Fried PA,Watkinson B

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Correlation of behavior with brain damage after in utero exposure to toxic agents.

    abstract::Early postnatal behaviors involving sensorimotor integration were measured along with thickness of the sensorimotor cortex in rats irradiated with 1.0 Gy on gestational day 11 or 17. Body weight and morphology of anterior pituitary cells were recorded. Irradiation on day 17 was more effective in reducing cortical thic...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Norton S,Kimler BF

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • An update on incidence of FAS: FAS is not an equal opportunity birth defect.

    abstract::The incidence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is now estimated at 0.97 cases per 1,000 live births in the general obstetric population and 4.3% among "heavy" drinkers. The general incidence is more than 20 times higher in the United States (1.95 per 1,000) compared to Europe and other countries (0.08 per 1,000). Within the ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Abel EL

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Optic nerve hypoplasia in an acute exposure model of the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    abstract::The effects of acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on the postnatal optic nerve have been examined in a C57B1/6J mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed by intraperitoneal injection to ethanol (25% ethanol, each dose at 0.015 ml/g separated by 4 h), or to saline on the 8th gestational day and the optic nerve examined a...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ashwell KW,Zhang LL

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ethanol inhibition of brain ornithine decarboxylase activity in the postnatal rat.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC; a marker for perturbed cell development), the blood alcohol level, and alcohol-induced microencephaly in the developing rat brain after binge treatment with ethanol vapour. By manipulating ethanol flow we were ab...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davidson M,Bedi K,Wilce P

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Neurotoxic effects from residential exposure to chemicals from an oil reprocessing facility and superfund site.

    abstract::Neurotoxicity has been described in workers exposed to solvents, PCBs, certain metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not often in residents near refineries or factories. We compared the neurobehavioral performance of residents near a plant that reprocessed used motor oil and chemical waste from 1966-1983 to refere...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kilburn KH,Warshaw RH

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Does chronic prenatal methadone exposure affect beta-receptor subtypes in placental, fetal and maternal brain homogenates?

    abstract::Computer competition analysis of 3H-DHA (3H-dihydroalprenolol, a nonselective beta-adrenergic radioligand) binding in the presence of unlabeled metoprolol (a beta 1-selective antagonist) indicates the existence of both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the rat placenta and confirms previous reports th...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Darmani NA,Schnoll SH,Fuchs B,Martin BR

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides.

    abstract::The study aim was to determine whether low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) causes neuropsychological or psychiatric impairment. Methodological weaknesses of earlier studies were addressed by: recruiting participants who had retired on ill health grounds; excluding participants with a history of acut...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mackenzie Ross SJ,Brewin CR,Curran HV,Furlong CE,Abraham-Smith KM,Harrison V

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Enhancement of developmental toxicity effects of chemicals by gestational stress. A review.

    abstract::Risk assessment of developmental toxicants is almost exclusively based on single chemicals studied in animals under controlled experimental conditions, as to reduce stress. Although humans may be exposed simultaneously to numerous hazards, little is known about the interaction of prenatal chemical exposures with other...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hougaard KS,Hansen AM

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00