Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutation patterns in 4,183 persons undergoing genotypic resistance testing.


:In a sample of 6,156 sequences from 4,183 persons, the top 30 patterns of protease inhibitor, nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, and nonnucleoside RT inhibitor mutations accounted for 55, 46, and 66%, respectively, of sequences with drug resistance mutations. Characterization of the phenotypic and clinical significance of these common patterns may lead to improved treatment recommendations for a large proportion of patients for whom antiretroviral therapy is failing.


Rhee SY,Liu T,Ravela J,Gonzales MJ,Shafer RW




Has Abstract


2004-08-01 00:00:00














  • Pentostam induces resistance to antimony and the preservative chlorocresol in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and axenically grown amastigotes.

    abstract::An axenic amastigote culture system was utilized to directly assess the stage-specific antileishmanial effects of antimony on amastigotes of Leishmania donovani devoid of the macrophage host cell. Pentostam, which contains antimony in the form of sodium stibogluconate and the preservative chlorocresol, was used. Cell ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ephros M,Waldman E,Zilberstein D

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid and pH on bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin.

    abstract::Ciprofloxacin is active in vitro against most bacteria that cause peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. We compared the effects of pH (5.5 and 7.4) and medium (dialysis fluid) on the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, vancomycin plus rifampin, and rifampin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Es...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McCormick EM,Echols RM

    更新日期:1987-04-01 00:00:00

  • Inhaled nitric oxide treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis evidenced by positive sputum smears.

    abstract::Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has antimycobacterial properties. We tested the hypothesis that exogenous (inhaled) NO can be safely delivered and can accelerate airway disinfection for pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated with standard therapy. Exogenous NO administered at 80 ppm for 72 h can be safely delivered but ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Long R,Jones R,Talbot J,Mayers I,Barrie J,Hoskinson M,Light B

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Antiviral Drugs on Organic Anion Transport in Human Placental BeWo Cells.

    abstract::Placental drug transfer is important for achieving better pharmacotherapy in pregnant women and in fetuses. In the present study, we examined the effects of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) and anti-HIV drugs on organic anion transport in human placental BeWo cells. The cellular uptake of two fluorescence organic anions, ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nabekura T,Kawasaki T,Kamiya Y,Uwai Y

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Purine nucleobase transport in amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana: involvement in allopurinol uptake.

    abstract::Nucleobase and nucleoside transporters play central roles in the biochemistry of parasitic protozoa, as they lack the ability to synthesize purines de novo and are absolutely reliant upon purine salvage from their hosts. Furthermore, such transporters are potentially critical to the pharmacology of these important hum...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al-Salabi MI,de Koning HP

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Dissemination of the fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3 with CTX-M β-lactamase genes and rmtB carried on IncFII plasmids among Escherichia coli isolates from pets in China.

    abstract::The presence and characterization of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants among Escherichia coli isolates collected from pets in China between 2006 and 2010 were investigated. Twenty-nine isolates (9.0%) were positive for fosA3, and all of them were CTX-M producers. The fosA3 genes were flanked by IS26 ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hou J,Huang X,Deng Y,He L,Yang T,Zeng Z,Chen Z,Liu JH

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of orally administered oseltamivir in healthy obese and nonobese Thai subjects.

    abstract::Oseltamivir is the most widely used anti-influenza drug. In the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, in which the influenza viruses were oseltamivir sensitive, obesity was identified as a risk factor for severe disease and unfavorable outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of oseltamivir and ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Jittamala P,Pukrittayakamee S,Tarning J,Lindegardh N,Hanpithakpong W,Taylor WR,Lawpoolsri S,Charunwattana P,Panapipat S,White NJ,Day NP

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro susceptibility testing methods for caspofungin against Aspergillus and Fusarium isolates.

    abstract::We investigated the relevance of prominent reduction in turbidity macroscopically (MIC) and formation of aberrant hyphal tips microscopically (minimum effective concentration; MEC) in measuring the in vitro activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus and Fusarium. Caspofungin generated low MICs and MECs against Asperg...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arikan S,Lozano-Chiu M,Paetznick V,Rex JH

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Absorption, distribution, metabolic fate, and elimination of pefloxacin mesylate in mice, rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans.

    abstract::Pefloxacin mesylate is well absorbed by the oral route. The antimicrobial activity in dog, cynomolgus monkey, and human plasma was essentially due to unchanged drug which respectively accounted for 64, 94, and 84% of the total activity (ratios derived from relative area under the curve [AUC] values). Half-lives ranged...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montay G,Goueffon Y,Roquet F

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Novel type of plasmid-borne resistance to trimethoprim.

    abstract::A novel trait for transferable resistance to high concentrations of trimethoprim was found to dominate among enterobacteria collected from different parts of Sri Lanka. Drug resistance was a result of the production of dihydrofolate reductase with a decreased sensitivity to antifolates. By characterization of the part...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sundström L,Vinayagamoorthy T,Sköld O

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Functional similarities and differences between Candida albicans Cdr1p and Cdr2p transporters.

    abstract::The Candida albicans CDR1 and CDR2 genes code for highly homologous ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which are overexpressed in azole-resistant clinical isolates and which confer resistance to multiple drugs by actively transporting their substrates out of the cells. These transporters are formed by two homolog...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gauthier C,Weber S,Alarco AM,Alqawi O,Daoud R,Georges E,Raymond M

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Therapy of experimental pseudomonas infections with a nonreplicating genetically modified phage.

    abstract::Bacteriophage therapy of bacterial infections has received renewed attention owing to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. A side effect of many antibiotics as well as of phage therapy with lytic phage is the release of cell wall components, e.g., endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria, which med...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hagens S,Habel A,von Ahsen U,von Gabain A,Bläsi U

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • First identification of a chromosomally located penicillinase gene in Kingella kingae species isolated in continental Europe.

    abstract::Kingella kingae is the major pathogen causing osteoarticular infections (OAI) in young children in numerous countries. Plasmid-borne TEM-1 penicillinase production has been sporadically detected in a few countries but not in continental Europe, despite a high prevalence of K. kingae infections. We describe here for th...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Basmaci R,Bidet P,Berçot B,Jost C,Kwon T,Gaumetou E,Bonacorsi S

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and zidovudine in patients with AIDS and severe AIDS-related complex.

    abstract::Granulocytopenia is a complication of human immunodeficiency virus disease, as well as a toxic manifestation of zidovudine therapy. To evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships, 11 AIDS-AIDS-related complex patients who had developed zidovudine-associated granulocytopenia (mean absolute neutrophil cou...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hewitt RG,Morse GD,Lawrence WD,Maliszewski ML,Santora J,Bartos L,Bonnem E,Poiesz B

    更新日期:1993-03-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring the inhibition of CTX-M-9 by beta-lactamase inhibitors and carbapenems.

    abstract::Currently, CTX-M β-lactamases are among the most prevalent and most heterogeneous extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). In general, CTX-M enzymes are susceptible to inhibition by β-lactamase inhibitors. However, it is unknown if the pathway to inhibition by β-lactamase inhibitors for CTX-M ESBLs is similar to TEM an...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bethel CR,Taracila M,Shyr T,Thomson JM,Distler AM,Hujer KM,Hujer AM,Endimiani A,Papp-Wallace K,Bonnet R,Bonomo RA

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of fortimicins with other aminoglycosides and effects on bacterial ribosome and protein synthesis.

    abstract::Fortimicins are bicyclic aminoglycoside antibiotics that contain a fortamine moiety instead of the deoxystreptamine found in other aminoglysides. Fortimicin A had a bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis and was found to inhibit protein synthesis in vivo. In vitro, fortimicin A inhibite...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moreau N,Jaxel C,Le Goffic F

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Thermoreversible gel formulations containing sodium lauryl sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as potential topical microbicides against sexually transmitted diseases.

    abstract::The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 str...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roy S,Gourde P,Piret J,Désormeaux A,Lamontagne J,Haineault C,Omar RF,Bergeron MG

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • First Report of the Globally Disseminated IncX4 Plasmid Carrying the mcr-1 Gene in a Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli Sequence Type 101 Isolate from a Human Infection in Brazil.

    abstract::A colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strain was recovered from a patient with a diabetic foot infection in Brazil. Whole-genome analysis revealed that the E. coli isolate belonged to the widespread sequence type (ST) 101 and harbored the mcr-1 gene on an IncX4 plasmid that was highly similar to mcr-1-bearing IncX4 pl...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernandes MR,McCulloch JA,Vianello MA,Moura Q,Pérez-Chaparro PJ,Esposito F,Sartori L,Dropa M,Matté MH,Lira DP,Mamizuka EM,Lincopan N

    更新日期:2016-09-23 00:00:00

  • Successful Treatment of Saksenaea sp. Osteomyelitis by Conservative Surgery and Intradiaphyseal Incorporation of Amphotericin B Cement Beads.

    abstract::Osteoarticular mucormycosis cases are quite rare and challenging infections that are mostly due to direct inoculation during traumatic injury among immunocompetent patients. Classic management includes a combination of aggressive surgical debridement, which may lead to amputation, and long-term systemic liposomal amph...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parize P,Mamez AC,Garcia-Hermoso D,Dumaine V,Poirée S,Kauffmann-Lacroix C,Jullien V,Lortholary O,Lanternier F

    更新日期:2018-12-21 00:00:00

  • Excretion of ciprofloxacin into the large bowel of the rabbit.

    abstract::The intestinal elimination of ciprofloxacin in the large bowel was studied in a rabbit model. Segments from the cecum, colon, and sigmoid colon along with their intact blood vessels were isolated and perfused, and their contents were collected over a 90-min period following the administration of a single parenteral do...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ramon J,Dautrey S,Farinoti R,Carbon C,Rubinstein E

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pyrazinamide may improve fluoroquinolone-based treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    abstract::The role of pyrazinamide in the current treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is uncertain. From a territory-wide registry of MDR-TB cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2009, we assembled a cohort of 194 patients with MDR pulmonary TB given fluoroquinolone-containing regimens. Stratified by pyrazinamid...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang KC,Leung CC,Yew WW,Leung EC,Leung WM,Tam CM,Zhang Y

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Loss of mcr Genes Mediated by Plasmid Elimination and ISApl1.

    abstract::We characterized the stability of a plasmid pCP53-mcr1_3 encoding mcr-1 and mcr-3.19 with and without colistin exposure during cultural passages via S1-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and nanopore MinION sequencing. Both mcr-1 and mcr-3.19 were missing in certain subclones, mediated by genetic excision (ISApl1...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang P,Bai L,Li Y,Wang Z,Li R

    更新日期:2019-08-23 00:00:00

  • In vitro activity of fluorescent dyes against asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    abstract::Many successful antimicrobial drugs originate from synthetic dyes. This paper reports the in vitro activity of 14 fluorescent dyes against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these dyes (Hoechst 33342, MitoRed, DiOC(6), SYTO 9, and rhodamine B) show activity at a low nanomolar concentration against two P. falciparum strain...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joanny F,Held J,Mordmüller B

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative in vitro exoenzyme-suppressing activities of azithromycin and other macrolide antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    abstract::The inhibitory effects of azithromycin (AZM), a new 15-membered macrolide antibiotic, on the production of exotoxin A, total protease, elastase, and phospholipase C by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined, and the virulence-suppressing effects of AZM were compared with those of erythromycin (EM), roxithromycin (RXM)...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mizukane R,Hirakata Y,Kaku M,Ishii Y,Furuya N,Ishida K,Koga H,Kohno S,Yamaguchi K

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical and bacteriological evaluation of netilmicin in gram-negative infections.

    abstract::A preliminary study was conducted with netilmicin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic. Its effectiveness was evaluated in vitro against 546 strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical material. Its effectiveness against gentamicin-susceptible strains was roughly similar to that of gent...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Klastersky J,Meunier-Carpentier F,Coppens-Kahan L,Daneau D,Prevost JM

    更新日期:1977-10-01 00:00:00

  • Penetration of ciprofloxacin into heart valves, myocardium, mediastinal fat, and sternal bone marrow in humans.

    abstract::The penetration of ciprofloxacin into heart tissue (valve and myocardium), mediastinal fat, and sternal bone marrow was the object of a prospective nonrandomized study involving 36 patients undergoing mitral and/or aortic valve replacement. Patients were divided into two groups of 18. Group 1 patients were administere...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Mertes PM,Voiriot P,Dopff C,Scholl H,Clavey M,Villemot JP,Canton P,Dureux JB

    更新日期:1990-03-01 00:00:00

  • No Dose Adjustment for Isavuconazole Based on Age or Sex.

    abstract::This phase 1, open-label, single-dose, parallel-group study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isavuconazole after a single oral dose of the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate in healthy nonelderly (age, 18 to 45 years) and elderly (age, ≥65 years) males and females. Overall, 48 subjects were enrolled in the study (n...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Desai AV,Han D,Kowalski DL,Lademacher C,Pearlman H,Yamazaki T

    更新日期:2019-05-24 00:00:00

  • Diffusion of meropenem and imipenem through the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12 and correlation with their antibacterial activities.

    abstract::The outer membrane permeability to meropenem and imipenem in Escherichia coli K-12 was investigated, and its porin-deficient mutants were transformed with a constructed vector carrying the carbapenem-hydrolyzing CphA metallo-beta-lactamase gene. By using the method of Zimmermann and Rosselet, meropenem was shown to pe...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cornaglia G,Guan L,Fontana R,Satta G

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nucleotide sequence of the gyrA gene and characterization of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of Helicobacter pylori.

    abstract::PCR was used to amplify a 238-bp region from Helicobacter pylori which corresponded to the quinolone resistance-determining region in Escherichia coli. The gyrA gene of H. pylori was cloned and sequenced. An open reading frame of 2,478 nucleotides coded for a polypeptide of 826 amino acids with a calculated molecular ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moore RA,Beckthold B,Wong S,Kureishi A,Bryan LE

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Importance of penicillinase production for activity of penicillin alone or in combination with sulbactam in experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    abstract::The activity of penicillin, alone and in combination with sulbactam, against a heterogeneously methicillin-resistant, penicillinase-producing clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus and its penicillinase-negative derivative was investigated in vitro and in a rabbit experimental endocarditis model. Penicillin was sig...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fantin B,Pierre J,Castéla-Papin N,Saint-Julien L,Drugeon H,Farinotti R,Carbon C

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00