Contamination of hands and work surfaces with Salmonella enteritidis PT4 during the preparation of egg dishes.


:Salmonella enteritidis PT4 was recovered from fingers following the breaking of intact shell eggs artificially contaminated in the contents with the bacterium. Kitchen utensils used to mix egg dishes were salmonella-positive, sometimes after washing. Following the preparation of batter or the mixing of eggs, S. enteritidis was recovered from work surfaces over 40 cm from the mixing bowl. The bacterium survived well in thin, dry films of either batter or egg and, from an initial level of one cell per cm2, could be recovered from formica work surfaces 24 h after contamination.


Epidemiol Infect


Humphrey TJ,Martin KW,Whitehead A




Has Abstract


1994-12-01 00:00:00












  • New therapeutic patents used for the treatment of leprosy: a review.

    abstract::Leprosy is a granulomatous disease, infectious and transmissible, which affects the skin and peripheral nerves, having Mycobacterium leprae as causative agent. The manifestation of this disease causes cutaneous lesions, peripheral neuropathies and, in more extreme cases, may generate deformities and disabilities in af...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gomes Lima Santos N,Perez Pereira Ramos K,Shanmugam S,Oliveira de Carvalho F,Garcez Barreto Teixeira L,Ramos Silva É,de Vasconcelos Cerqueira-Braz J,Santos Nunes P,Antunes de Souza Araújo A

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of environmental and behavioural cofactors on the development of cervical disorders in HR-HPV-infected women in Serbia.

    abstract::Persistent infection with one or more highly oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or high-risk-HPV (HR-HPV) is necessary but not a sufficient aetiological agent for the development of cervical neoplasia. A number of viral, host, environmental and behavioural factors are suggested to be associated with the progressi...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tasic D,Lazarevic I,Knezevic A,Tasic L,Pikula A,Perisic Z,Jovanovic T,Cupic M

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose human leptospirosis: a meta-analysis of the published literature.

    abstract::We report an evaluation of the accuracy of ELISA for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in humans. Eighty-eight studies published in 35 articles met all inclusion criteria and were submitted to meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0·779 (95% CI 0·770-0·789) and 0·913 (95% CI 0·908-0·917)...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Signorini ML,Lottersberger J,Tarabla HD,Vanasco NB

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Host-microflora interaction in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): colonization resistance of the indigenous bacteria of the intestinal tract.

    abstract::Experimental data suggest a role for the microflora in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Anti-ds-DNA antibodies may be pathogenic in SLE by forming immune complexes with DNA. Foreign bacteria in the intestines could constitute the stimulus for anti-ds-DNA antibody production in SLE. Colonization Resistance (CR) is t...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Apperloo-Renkema HZ,Bootsma H,Mulder BI,Kallenberg CG,van der Waaij D

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Reconstruction and prediction of viral disease epidemics.

    abstract::A growing number of infectious pathogens are spreading among geographic regions. Some pathogens that were previously not considered to pose a general threat to human health have emerged at regional and global scales, such as Zika and Ebola Virus Disease. Other pathogens, such as yellow fever virus, were previously tho...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kraemer MUG,Cummings DAT,Funk S,Reiner RC,Faria NR,Pybus OG,Cauchemez S

    更新日期:2018-11-05 00:00:00

  • Association between indicators of livestock farming intensity and hospitalization rate for acute gastroenteritis.

    abstract::To evaluate associations between indicators of livestock farming intensity (manure surplus and livestock density) and acute gastroenteritis hospitalization (AGH) rate, we conducted an ecological study on 306 selected agricultural municipalities of Quebec. We estimated the AGH rate for the period 2000-2004 from the Que...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Febriani Y,Levallois P,Lebel G,Gingras S

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • An outbreak of hepatitis A amongst injecting drug users.

    abstract::This descriptive study investigated an outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) and their contacts. Twenty-seven cases of acute HAV infection were identified in a 5-month period. Connections with the local injecting drug using (IDU) population were established for 25 of the cases...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Donovan D,Cooke RP,Joce R,Eastbury A,Waite J,Stene-Johansen K

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • The occurrence of hepatitis B and C viruses in Pakistani patients with chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    abstract::To study the occurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Pakistan, blood samples from 105 sequential patients with biopsy-proven CLD (n = 82) and HCC (n = 23) were tested for HBV and HCV markers. Of the 105, 87 (83...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tong CY,Khan R,Beeching NJ,Tariq WU,Hart CA,Ahmad N,Malik IA

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence of exposure of laughing doves (Spilopelia senegalensis) to West Nile and Usutu viruses in southern Tunisian oases.

    abstract::It has previously been suggested that southern Tunisian oases may be suitable areas for the circulation of flaviviruses. In order to anticipate and prevent possible epidemiological spread of flaviviruses in humans and domestic animals, the ecology of their transmission in the oasis system needs to be better understood...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ayadi T,Hammouda A,Poux A,Boulinier T,Lecollinet S,Selmi S

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Is hand, foot and mouth disease associated with meteorological parameters?

    abstract::We examined the relationship between meteorological parameters and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) activity. Meteorological data collected from 2000 to 2004 were tested for correlation with HFMD consultation rates calculated through the sentinel surveillance system in Hong Kong. The regression model constructed wa...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma E,Lam T,Wong C,Chuang SK

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Group L beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection in meat handlers: another streptococcal zoonosis?

    abstract::Group L, beta-haemolytic streptococci can cause infection in dogs, pigs, cattle and sheep but there have been very few reports in man. In studies of skin infection in meat handlers we cultured group L streptococci from clinically infected wounds, impetigo and paronychia of 15 patients involved in the slaughter and pro...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnham M,Neilson DJ

    更新日期:1987-10-01 00:00:00

  • Salmonella in Black-headed gulls ( Larus ridibundus); prevalence, genotypes and influence on Salmonella epidemiology.

    abstract::During a period of 3 years, 1998-2000, 1047 faecal swabs from Black-headed gulls were sampled at one location in Southern Sweden. Salmonella spp. was found in 28 individuals (2.7%) and the dominating serotype found was S. Typhimurium (83%). Twenty-five per cent of the Salmonella-infected gulls were later recaptured an...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Palmgren H,Aspán A,Broman T,Bengtsson K,Blomquist L,Bergström S,Sellin M,Wollin R,Olsen B

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic relationships between foot-and-mouth disease type Asia 1 viruses.

    abstract::The sequence of 165 nucleotides at the 3' end of the 1D (VP1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was determined for 44 type Asia 1 strains isolated from throughout Asia between 1954-92. Analysis of the relationships between the virus genomes showed epidemiological links not previously evident. The possible ori...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ansell DM,Samuel AR,Carpenter WC,Knowles NJ

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of humoral and cell-mediated immunity against Bordetella pertussis in adolescent, adult, and senior subjects in Italy.

    abstract::Humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against B. pertussis was assessed in a sample of adolescent, adult and senior subjects distributed in five different geographical areas in Italy. Most (99.1%) subjects had IgG anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies exceeding the minimum detection level [> or = 2 ELISA units (EU)/...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gabutti G,Bergamini M,Bonanni P,Guido M,Fenoglio D,Giammanco A,Sindoni L,Zotti C,Boddi V,Bamfi F,Severini R,Bechini A,Boccalini S,Crovari P,Collaborative Group for the Study of Pertussis.

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term impact of vaccination on Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) carriage in the United Kingdom.

    abstract::A recent resurgence in serious infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has been observed in the United Kingdom. More information on Hib transmission in the population is required in order to better understand the mechanism of this increase. The Public Health Laboratory Service (subsumed into the Health P...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McVernon J,Howard AJ,Slack MP,Ramsay ME

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus co-infection in acute patients hospitalized in Sri Lanka: implications for a potentially worldwide underestimated problem.

    abstract::Two global (re-)emerging zoonoses, leptospirosis and hantavirus infections, are clinically indistinguishable. Thirty-one patients, hospitalized in Sri Lanka for acute severe leptospirosis, were after exclusion of other potentially involved pathogens, prospectively screened with IgM ELISA for both pathogens. Of these, ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sunil-Chandra NP,Clement J,Maes P,DE Silva HJ,VAN Esbroeck M,VAN Ranst M

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of neonatal tetanus elimination in an African setting by lot quality assurance cluster sampling (LQA-CS).

    abstract::Neonatal tetanus (NT) elimination, < 1 case per 1,000 live births (LB), was assessed at district level in Zimbabwe using a combined lot quality assurance-cluster sampling survey (LQA-CS). Three of the highest risk districts were selected. NT was considered eliminated if fewer than a specified number of NT deaths (prox...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cotter B,Bremer V,Stroh G,Msambichaka K,Mabuzane E,Munyoro M,Shirehwa F,Biellik R,Birmingham M

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • The multifaceted role of mobile technologies as a strategy to combat COVID-19 pandemic.

    abstract::The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China rapidly spread throughout the world, becoming a threatening pandemic with unprecedented consequences. Mobile technologies have led to a revolution in health and their applicability in the context of COVID-19 is promising. In this commentary, we provide an overview of t...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teixeira R,Doetsch J

    更新日期:2020-10-13 00:00:00

  • Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei-like strains.

    abstract::Previous reports in the literature suggest that Burkholderia pseudomallei strains can be differentiated on the basis of animal virulence. Twenty environmentally and clinically derived isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei were examined for the production of exoenzymes, morphological and biochemical phenotypes and viru...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brett PJ,Deshazer D,Woods DE

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Bancroftian filariasis in Pondicherry, south India: 2. Epidemiological evaluation of the effect of vector control.

    abstract::This article examines the evaluation of a bancroftian filariasis control programme undertaken in Pondicherry from 1981-5. Integrated vector management was applied in one half of the town, and routine operations under the national programme (larviciding and chemotherapy) continued in the comparison area. The programme ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Subramanian S,Pani SP,Das PK,Rajagopalan PK

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of symptomatic presentation in influenza A transmission risk.

    abstract::Computer models can be useful in planning interventions against novel strains of influenza. However such models sometimes make unsubstantiated assumptions about the relative infectivity of asymptomatic and symptomatic cases, or conversely assume there is no impact at all. Using household-level data from known-index st...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wardell R,Prem K,Cowling BJ,Cook AR

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Design and analysis of small-scale transmission experiments with animals.

    abstract::Interactions between pathogens and hosts at the population level should be considered when studying the effectiveness of control measures for infectious diseases. The advantage of doing transmission experiments compared to field studies is that they offer a controlled environment in which the effect of a single factor...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Velthuis AG,Bouma A,Katsma WE,Nodelijk G,De Jong MC

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Interpretation of band differences to distinguish strains of Serratia marcescens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI DNA digests.

    abstract::The number of band differences in DNA macrorestriction profiles required to distinguish unrelated strains from an index strain varies in an outbreak with the species and restriction enzyme used. In order to define this difference for epidemiological studies of Serratia marcescens, we produced DNA fingerprints from 57 ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aucken HM,Boquete T,Kaufmann ME,Pitt TL

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • The seasonality of canine births and human campylobacteriosis: a hypothesis.

    abstract::The seasonality of canine births was investigated using records from the Kennel Club and the breeding centre for the Guide Dogs for the Blind Association. In these populations a distinct seasonal pattern was found with a greater number of puppies being born in the summer months than the winter. The hypothesis that the...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Evans SJ

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of the genes for shigella enterotoxins 1 and 2 among clinical isolates of shigella in Israel.

    abstract::Two enterotoxins, shigella enterotoxin 1 (SHET1) and shigella enterotoxin 2 (SHET2) have been recently characterized and are believed to play a role in the clinical manifestation of shigellosis. One hundred and twenty-one isolates of Shigella spp. of 13 different serotypes and variants and 10 isolates of enteroinvasiv...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yavzori M,Cohen D,Orr N

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Species identification, antibiotic sensitivity and slime production of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens.

    abstract::Two hundred and seventy-five consecutive clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, including strains associated with disease, contaminants and skin colonizers, were speciated, tested for slime production and for their sensitivity to a range of antibiotics. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most commonly ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deighton MA,Franklin JC,Spicer WJ,Balkau B

    更新日期:1988-08-01 00:00:00

  • Multi-country outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection linked to the international ice hockey tournament.

    abstract::In April 2015, Finnish public health authorities alerted European Union member states of a possible multi-country Salmonella enteritidis outbreak linked to an international youth ice-hockey tournament in Latvia. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Finnish and Latvian authorities initiated an...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pärn T,Dahl V,Lienemann T,Perevosčikovs J,De Jong B

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • A history of bovine tuberculosis eradication policy in Northern Ireland.

    abstract::Despite many years of state-sponsored efforts to eradicate the disease from cattle through testing and slaughter, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still regarded as the most important and complex of animal health challenges facing the British livestock agricultural industry. This paper provides a historical analysis of th...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Robinson PA

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a familial cluster of COVID-19.

    abstract::We report a family cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection involving five patients in a family cluster in Dazhou, China, including the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Three-generation transmission was observed. Through epidemiological investiga...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun Y,Tian L,Du X,Wang H,Li Y,Wu R

    更新日期:2020-07-07 00:00:00

  • First detection and molecular characterization of Nebovirus in Brazil.

    abstract::Nebovirus is a new genus of viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family recently characterized in cattle, and is associated with gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhoea, anorexia and intestinal lesions particularly in calves. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of neboviruses in Brazilian c...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Candido M,Alencar AL,Almeida-Queiroz SR,Buzinaro MG,Munin FS,Godoy SH,Livonesi MC,Fernandes AM,Sousa RL

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00