Polychlorinated biphenyls, lead, and mercury are associated with liver disease in American adults: NHANES 2003-2004.


BACKGROUND:High-level occupational exposures to some industrial chemicals have been associated with liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the potential role of low-level environmental pollution on liver disease in the general population has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE:We determined whether environmental pollutants are associated with an elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and suspected NAFLD in U.S. adults. METHODS:This cross-sectional cohort study evaluated adult participants without viral hepatitis, hemochromatosis, or alcoholic liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2003-2004. ALT elevation was defined in men as ≥ 37 IU/L (age 18-20 years) and ≥ 48 IU/L (age ≥ 21 years) and in women as ≥ 30 IU/L (age 18-20 years) and ≥ 31 IU/L (age ≥ 21 years). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for ALT elevation were determined across exposure quartiles for 17 pollutant subclasses comprising 111 individual pollutants present with at least a 60% detection rate. Adjustments were made for age, race/ethnicity, sex, body mass index, poverty income ratio, and insulin resistance. Individual pollutants from subclasses associated with ALT elevation were subsequently analyzed. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of ALT elevation was 10.6%. Heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were associated with dose-dependent increased adjusted ORs for ALT elevation. Within these subclasses, increasing whole-blood levels of lead and mercury and increasing lipid-adjusted serum levels of 20 PCBs were individually associated with ALT elevation. CONCLUSIONS:PCB, lead, and mercury exposures were associated with unexplained ALT elevation, a proxy marker of NAFLD, in NHANES 2003-2004 adult participants.


Cave M,Appana S,Patel M,Falkner KC,McClain CJ,Brock G




Has Abstract


2010-12-01 00:00:00












  • Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    abstract::Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated wi...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Delfino RJ

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for particles.

    abstract::To set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for aerosol particles, dusts, or chemicals, one has to evaluate whether mechanistic considerations permit identification of a no observed effect level (NOEL). In the case of carcinogenic effects, this can be assumed if no genotoxicity is involved, and exposure is considered s...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Greim HA,Ziegler-Skylakakis K

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Some reactions and properties of nitro radical-anions important in biology and medicine.

    abstract::Nitroaromatic compounds, ArNO2 have widespread actual or potential use in medicine and cancer therapy. There is direct proof that free-radical metabolites are involved in many applications, and an appreciation of the conceptual basis for their therapeutic differential; however, an understanding of the detailed mechani...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wardman P

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • Recommendations for medical management of adult lead exposure.

    abstract::Research conducted in recent years has increased public health concern about the toxicity of lead at low dose and has supported a reappraisal of the levels of lead exposure that may be safely tolerated in the workplace. In this article, which appears as part of a mini-monograph on adult lead exposure, we summarize a b...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kosnett MJ,Wedeen RP,Rothenberg SJ,Hipkins KL,Materna BL,Schwartz BS,Hu H,Woolf A

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • The Prevalence and Use of Walking Loops in Neighborhood Parks: A National Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies indicate that the design of streets and sidewalks can influence physical activity among residents. Park features also influence park use and park-based physical activity. Although individuals can walk on streets and sidewalks, walking loops in parks offer a setting to walk in nature and to a...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohen DA,Han B,Evenson KR,Nagel C,McKenzie TL,Marsh T,Williamson S,Harnik P

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Diseases associated with immunosuppression.

    abstract::Impairment of any of the major components of the immune system (T-cells, B-cells phagocytes, complement) may result in clinical immunodeficiency. Immune defects can arise from intrinsic or heritable defects of lymphoid elements, failure of normal cellular differentiation, viral infection or other acquired causes. Clin...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Heise ER

    更新日期:1982-02-01 00:00:00

  • The challenge of preventing environmentally related disease in young children: community-based research in New York City.

    abstract::Rates of developmental and respiratory diseases are disproportionately high in underserved, minority populations such as those in New York City's Washington Heights, Harlem, and the South Bronx. Blacks and Latinos in these neighborhoods represent high risk groups for asthma, adverse birth outcomes, impaired developmen...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perera FP,Illman SM,Kinney PL,Whyatt RM,Kelvin EA,Shepard P,Evans D,Fullilove M,Ford J,Miller RL,Meyer IH,Rauh VA

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901-2009.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The mortality impacts of hot and cold temperatures have been thoroughly documented, with most locations reporting a U-shaped relationship with a minimum mortality temperature (MMT) at which mortality is lowest. How MMT may have evolved over previous decades as the global mean surface temperature has increase...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Åström DO,Tornevi A,Ebi KL,Rocklöv J,Forsberg B

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Climate factors influencing coccidioidomycosis seasonality and outbreaks.

    abstract::Although broad links between climatic factors and coccidioidomycosis have been established, the identification of simple and robust relationships linking climatic controls to seasonal timing and outbreaks of the disease has remained elusive. Using an adaptive data-oriented method for estimating date of exposure, in th...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Comrie AC

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular and systemic responses to inhaled pollutants in rodents: effects of ozone and particulate matter.

    abstract::Striking similarities have been observed in a number of extrapulmonary responses of rodents to seemingly disparate ambient pollutants. These responses are often characterized by primary decreases in important indices of cardiac and thermoregulatory function, along with secondary decreases in associated parameters. For...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Watkinson WP,Campen MJ,Nolan JP,Costa DL

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of action of okadaic acid class tumor promoters on mouse skin.

    abstract::Okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (35-methylokadaic acid), and calyculin A are the okadaic acid class of non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type tumor promoters, which do not bind to the phorbol ester receptors in cell membranes or activate protein kinase C in vitro. They have potent tumor-promoting activiti...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fujiki H,Suganuma M,Yoshizawa S,Nishiwaki S,Winyar B,Sugimura T

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Distribution of metallothionein-bound cadmium and cadmium chloride in mice: preliminary studies.

    abstract::Metallothionein from livers of mice was isolated by gel chromatography and isoelectric focusing. One of two forms thus obtained contained 32 percent cysteine. This form, labeled in vitro with 109Cd, was injected intravenously in mice, and the distribution of 109Cd was studied. Animals killed after 4 hrs had over 80 pe...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nordberg M,Nordberg GF

    更新日期:1975-12-01 00:00:00

  • Fetal lead exposure at each stage of pregnancy as a predictor of infant mental development.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The impact of prenatal lead exposure on neurodevelopment remains unclear in terms of consistency, the trimester of greatest vulnerability, and the best method for estimating fetal lead exposure. OBJECTIVE:We studied prenatal lead exposure's impact on neurodevelopment using repeated measures of fetal dose as...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu H,Téllez-Rojo MM,Bellinger D,Smith D,Ettinger AS,Lamadrid-Figueroa H,Schwartz J,Schnaas L,Mercado-García A,Hernández-Avila M

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Arsenic exposure and cognitive performance in Mexican schoolchildren.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have suggested an effect of high arsenic concentration on cognitive and neurobehavioral function in humans. OBJECTIVE:Our goal was to identify demographic and nutritional factors that are associated with As exposure and the influence of this exposure on cognitive function in school-age chil...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosado JL,Ronquillo D,Kordas K,Rojas O,Alatorre J,Lopez P,Garcia-Vargas G,Del Carmen Caamaño M,Cebrián ME,Stoltzfus RJ

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Integrated assessment of environment and health: America's children and the environment.

    abstract::The significance of the environment for health is increasingly being recognized. There is a need for systematic approaches to assessment of environmental factors most relevant to health, health outcomes most influenced by the environment, and the relationships between them, as well as for approaches to representing th...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kyle AD,Woodruff TJ,Axelrad DA

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Benzophenone-3 and Propylparaben on Estrogen Receptor-Dependent R-Loops and DNA Damage in Breast Epithelial Cells and Mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been shown to have broad effects on development, but their mutagenic actions that can lead to cancer have been less clearly demonstrated. Physiological levels of estrogen have been shown to stimulate DNA damage in breast epithelial cells through mechanisms mediated by estr...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Majhi PD,Sharma A,Roberts AL,Daniele E,Majewski AR,Chuong LM,Black AL,Vandenberg LN,Schneider SS,Dunphy KA,Jerry DJ

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution and survival after heart failure.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although patients with heart failure (HF) have been identified as particularly susceptible to the acute effects of air pollution, the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on patients with this increasingly prevalent disease are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to examine the mort...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Medina-Ramón M,Goldberg R,Melly S,Mittleman MA,Schwartz J

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Green turtle fibropapillomatosis: challenges to assessing the role of environmental cofactors.

    abstract::Green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP) is a growing threat to the survival of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations worldwide. Recent transmission studies point to an infectious etiology. Several field studies suggest that high GTFP prevalence is associated with marine habitats that have been impacted by agricult...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Herbst LH,Klein PA

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl levels across studies of human neurodevelopment.

    abstract::Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are ubiquitous in the food chain, and detectable amounts are in the blood of almost every person in most populations that have been examined. Extensive evidence from animal studies shows that PCBs are neurotoxins, even at low doses. Interpretation of huma...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Longnecker MP,Wolff MS,Gladen BC,Brock JW,Grandjean P,Jacobson JL,Korrick SA,Rogan WJ,Weisglas-Kuperus N,Hertz-Picciotto I,Ayotte P,Stewart P,Winneke G,Charles MJ,Jacobson SW,Dewailly E,Boersma ER,Altshul LM,Heinzow B

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • The next target of bioterrorism: your food.

    abstract::One of the many forms that biological warfare may take is the targeting of major food crops. In a poor country where millions of citizens depend on staple crops such as rice, an act of bioterrorism that destroys the crop would create a famine, resulting not only in malnutrition and starvation but also in reduced immun...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pellerin C

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary exposure to PCBs and dioxins.

    abstract::comments on S. Patandin et al. : Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood: a comparison between breast-feeding, toddler, and long-term exposure. Environ Health Perspect 107:45-51 (1999). ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 评论,信件


    authors: LaKind JS,Filser JG

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Association between Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution and Working Memory and Attention.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although previous studies have reported negative associations between exposure to air pollution and cognition, studies of the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposures in early childhood have been limited. OBJECTIVES:We sought to assess the role exposure to fine particulate matter ([Formula: see text]) du...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rivas I,Basagaña X,Cirach M,López-Vicente M,Suades-González E,Garcia-Esteban R,Álvarez-Pedrerol M,Dadvand P,Sunyer J

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • The World Trade Center residents' respiratory health study: new-onset respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

    abstract::The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 in New York City resulted in the massive release of pulverized dust and combustion products. The dust and smoke settled in the surrounding area, which encompassed a large residential community. We hypothesized that previously normal residents in the ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reibman J,Lin S,Hwang SA,Gulati M,Bowers JA,Rogers L,Berger KI,Hoerning A,Gomez M,Fitzgerald EF

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical plants remain vulnerable to terrorists: a call to action.

    abstract::U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 200...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lippin TM,McQuiston TH,Bradley-Bull K,Burns-Johnson T,Cook L,Gill ML,Howard D,Seymour TA,Stephens D,Williams BK

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances at Baseline and Associations with Glycemic Indicators and Diabetes Incidence among High-Risk Adults in the Diabetes Prevention Program Trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutants almost universally detected in humans. Experimental evidence indicates that PFAS alter glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. However, epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE:We sought ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Cardenas A,Gold DR,Hauser R,Kleinman KP,Hivert MF,Calafat AM,Ye X,Webster TF,Horton ES,Oken E

    更新日期:2017-10-02 00:00:00

  • Alveolar macrophage kinetics after inhalation of 239PuO2 by CBA/Ca mice: changes in synthesis of DNA.

    abstract::For workers in the nuclear industry, the primary route for the entry of radioactive materials into the body is by inhalation, and the rate of clearance of particles from the pulmonary region of the lung is an important factor in determining radiation dose. It is the function of alveolar macrophages (AM) to maintain th...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kellington JP,Gibson K,Buckle TM,Talbot RJ,Hornby SB

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis.

    abstract::Dietary components express a wide range of activities that can affect carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring substances in foods have been shown in laboratory experiments to serve as dietary antimutagens, either as bioantimutagens or as desmutagens. Dietary desmutagens may function as chemical inactivaters, enzymatic ind...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kohlmeier L,Simonsen N,Mottus K

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • Poultry Consumption and Arsenic Exposure in the U.S. Population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Arsenicals (roxarsone and nitarsone) used in poultry production likely increase inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and roxarsone or nitarsone concentrations in poultry meat. However, the association between poultry intake and exposure to these arsenic species, ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nigra AE,Nachman KE,Love DC,Grau-Perez M,Navas-Acien A

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cord Blood Methylmercury and Fetal Growth Outcomes in Baltimore Newborns: Potential Confounding and Effect Modification by Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Selenium, and Sex.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Methylmercury (MeHg) may affect fetal growth; however, prior research often lacked assessment of mercury speciation, confounders, and interactions. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to assess the relationship between MeHg and fetal growth as well as the potential for confounding or interaction of this relationshi...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wells EM,Herbstman JB,Lin YH,Jarrett J,Verdon CP,Ward C,Caldwell KL,Hibbeln JR,Witter FR,Halden RU,Goldman LR

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Formation and persistence of 8-oxoguanine in rat lung cells as an important determinant for tumor formation following particle exposure.

    abstract::Exposure of rats to quartz (or various other particles) can lead to the development of lung tumors. At the moment, the mechanisms involved in particle-induced tumor formation are not clarified. However, it is suggested that inflammation, in conjunction with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an enhanc...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nehls P,Seiler F,Rehn B,Greferath R,Bruch J

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00