Clinical efficacy of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in neurosurgery--a prospective randomized study involving 159 patients.


:In a randomized study 87 patients received perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis with 2 x 2 g ceftriaxone (Rocephin) at the beginning of the operation and in the following morning. Seventy-two patients received no antibiotic prophylaxis. In patients receiving the prophylaxis, a lower incidence of infections was observed postoperatively in addition to a reduction in wound-healing disorders. Respiratory tract infections were more successfully prevented than urinary tract infections. The number of pathogenic bacteria detected in the group on receiving prophylaxis decreased. The positive effect of the perioperative administration of antibiotics was more evident in protracted operations, such as brain surgery, than in operations involving the spinal cord.






Winkler D,Rehn H,Freckmann N,Nowak G,Herrmann HD




Has Abstract


1989-01-01 00:00:00












  • Comparative antibacterial activity of the penem ALP 201.

    abstract::The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the new penem ALP 201 was tested against 243 recent clinical isolates of which 95 were from the family Enterobacteriaceae, 50 were from the genus Streptococcus, 50 were Staphylococcus aureus and 48 were Staphylococcus epidermidis. An agar dilution technique was used to det...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bergan T,da Fonseca J

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of erythromycin on the growth of Rickettsia prowazekii in the body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis L) and the tick (Ornithodoros moubata Murray).

    abstract::Body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis L) and ticks (Ornithodoros moubata) that had been infected with Rickettsia prowazekii received varying doses of erythromycin. The anti-rickettsial activity of this drug was evaluated with regard to the determination of the numbers of surviving microorganism (LID100) and the in viv...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Becla E

    更新日期:1976-01-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro and in vivo microbiological evaluation of Cephapirin, a new antibiotic.

    abstract::The microbiological properties of cephapirin, a new semisynthetis cephalosporin, have been studied. This antibiotic, if compared with ampicillin, shows a greater activity against gram positive bacteria, a lack of sensitivity to staphlococcal beta-lactamase, and a lower sensitivity to those produced by gram-negative ba...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Renzini G,Ravagnan G,Oliva B

    更新日期:1975-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antibiotic susceptibility of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    abstract::Ninety-three representative, recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined for susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial drugs utilizing Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) enriched with sheep blood and a hypercapnic atmosphere of incubation. One isolate was resistant to penicillin G (minimum inhibitory concentrati...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Traub WH,Leonhard B

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Activity assays of thiadiazine derivatives on Trichomonas vaginalis and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    abstract::Eight thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide derivatives were evaluated for antitrichomonal and antitrypanosomal activities. In vivo tests were performed on a murine model for trichomoniasis standardized in our laboratory. The capacity of compounds to clear visceral lesions in experimentally infected animals as well as their effects...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Atienza J,Martínez Díaz RA,Gómez Barrio A,Escario JA,Herrero A,Ochoa C,Rodríguez J

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Discrepancy between the antibacterial activities and the inhibitory effects on Micrococcus luteus DNA gyrase of 13 quinolones.

    abstract::Thirteen quinolone antibacterial agents were investigated as to their ability to inhibit Micrococcus luteus DNA gyrase and cell growth, and compared to those of novobiocin and coumermycin. Among the quinolones tested, the most active were found to be CI-934 and ciprofloxacin, which inhibited gyrase full supercoiling a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fu KP,Grace ME,McCloud SJ,Gregory FJ,Hung PP

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ofloxacin, a bactericidal antibacterial.

    abstract::Ofloxacin, like other 4-quinolones, is unusual among front line drugs available to treat bacterial infections since it affects bacterial DNA synthesis, rather than cell wall or protein synthesis. The 4-quinolones are also unusual because even for serious infections they can be given orally. Most unusually transferable...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Smith JT

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • A multicenter comparative study of the in vitro activity of fleroxacin and other antimicrobial agents.

    abstract::The in vitro activity of fleroxacin was determined by broth microdilution against 2,079 recent bacterial isolates and compared to the activities of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanate, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), and, as appropriate,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Markowitz SM,Williams DS,Hanna CB,Parker JL,Pierce MA,Steele JC Jr

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • Serum concentrations and adverse effects of chloramphenicol in pediatric patients.

    abstract::Chloramphenicol serum concentration is often monitored to assure efficacy and prevent toxicity. We studied the relationship between steady-state chloramphenicol serum concentration and hematologic adverse effects in 45 pediatric patients. The mean peak serum concentration of chloramphenicol in patients with and withou...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nahata MC

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pneumococcal meningitis-therapeutic studies in mice.

    abstract::A technique for inducing pneumococcal meningitis in mice and a description of the histopathologic changes that accompany this experimentally produced disease are provided in the present report. This infection of mice was investigated to determine whether it could serve as a suitable model for detecting agents that hav...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsai YH,Williams EB,Hirth RS,Price KE

    更新日期:1975-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    abstract::The binding of five structurally diverse beta-lactam antibiotics to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of two clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin G was compared with that of a susceptible strain. A common feature of the PBP patterns of the resistant strains was the absence of PBP 1a d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ikeda F,Yokota Y,Ikemoto A,Teratani N,Shimomura K,Kanno H

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Post-antibiotic effect of levofloxacin and tobramycin alone or in combination with cefepime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Levofloxacin and tobramycin, alone and in combination with cefepime, were investigated for their in vitro activities and post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS:The in vitro activities of tobramycin and levofloxacin in combination with cefepime were determined by microbroth chequer...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ozbek B,Otuk G

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Beta-lactamase stability and inhibitory activity of meropenem combined with a potent antibacterial activity.

    abstract::The affinity of meropenem for various known types of beta-lactamases and its stability to them were tested in comparison with other beta-lactams, including imipenem. Meropenem exhibited a marked stability to all beta-lactamases tested and was only hydrolyzed by Xanthomonas maltophilia beta-lactamase, as were other bet...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nouda H,Harabe ET,Sumita Y,Okuda T,Fukasawa M

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of fosfomycin.

    abstract::Fosfomycin, an antibiotic discovered in Spain, has a unique chemical structure and pharmacologic features that are promising for clinical therapy. It is only partially absorbed orally, with relatively low blood levels. Intramuscularly, however, absorption is complete with peak blood levels 3-5 times as high as orally,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kirby WM

    更新日期:1977-01-01 00:00:00

  • Analytical studies on beta-lactam antibiotics. II. Displacement effect of beta-lactam antibiotics on bilirubin bound to human serum albumin.

    abstract::We established a method for determining the KD value as a measure of the bilirubin-displacing effect for drugs by using bilirubin oxidase, which is produced by Myrothecium verrucaria MT-1. This method makes it possible to conduct measurements of many beta-lactam antibiotics, including those which could not be determin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsuura A,Nagayama T,Kitagawa T

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro evaluation of new penicillins and cephalosporins upon P. aeruginosa and their interaction with mecillinam.

    abstract::The in vitro activity of the new semisynthetic ureidopenicillins azlocillin (AZ) and mezlocillin (MZ), and of the new cephalosporin cefsulodin (CEF) were determined against 50 carbenicillin-sensitive (CARs) and 50 carbenicillin-resistant (CARr) P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. In the CARs group the most active antibio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perea EJ,Palomares JC,García-Iglesias MC

    更新日期:1980-01-01 00:00:00

  • High teicoplanin uptake by human neutrophils.

    abstract::The cellular/extracellular (C/E) concentration ratio of teicoplanin in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) increased rapidly with time (C/E 60 +/- 13 at 20 min). The C/E ratio was time- and concentration-dependent. At 20 min and an initial concentration of 75 +/- 16 micrograms/ml the cellular drug concentration was 4,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maderazo EG,Breaux SP,Woronick CL,Quintiliani R,Nightingale CH

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Changes of surface hydrophobicity and charge of Staphylococcus aureus treated with sub-MIC of antibiotics and their effects on the chemiluminescence response of phagocytic cells.

    abstract::The effects of the sub-MIC of antibiotics on the surface hydrophobicity and charge of Staphylococcus aureus were examined by the contact angle method and by microscopic electrophoresis, and the production of oxygen-derived radicals by mouse peritoneal macrophages was measured by a luminol-chemiluminescence assay. The ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nomura S,Kuroiwa A,Nagayama A

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Tigecycline in vitro activity against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens collected in Italy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In this study (part of the global TEST program), the in vitro activity of tigecycline, a member of a new class of antimicrobial agents, the glycylcyclines, against clinical isolates collected in Italy was evaluated. METHODS:A total of 200 clinical isolates were collected and identified in our institution du...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roveta S,Marchese A,Debbia EA

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Studies on the phagocytic activity of human and rat polymorphonuclear cells exposed to doxycycline in vivo.

    abstract::Studies are presented on the in vitro phagocytic activity of rat and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed in vivo to therapeutic concentrations of doxycycline. A 32P-labelled strain of Escherichia coli served as test microbe. No significant reduction of ingestion was observed although untreated AB leukocytes tes...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Melby K,Midtvedt T

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of L- and D-lysine on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumour.

    abstract::Contrary to L-lysine, D-lysine showed no inhibitory effect on growth of Ehrlich ascites tumour cell in in vivo studies. The in vitro studies on the growth of cultured Ehrlich ascites tumour cells showed similar results, namely, the growth of tumour cells was inhibited when cultured in 0.02 or 0.03 M L-lysine; while 0....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Choy YM,Fung KP

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Human herpesvirus 6 encephalitis simulating brain metastases in a patient with advanced small-cell lung cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The brain is a frequent site of metastases in small-cell lung cancer. Symptoms of cerebral involvement are headache, disorientation, nausea/vomiting and seizures. CASE:A man with small-cell lung cancer developed a human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) meningoencephalitis with neurological symptoms that simulated brai...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mordenti P,Zaffignani E,Immovilli P,Nobili E,Cavanna L

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G) during Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    abstract::Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is an increasingly adopted method of renal replacement in critically ill patients. Like continuous renal replacement therapy, PIRRT can alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of many drugs. In this setting, dosing data for antibiotics like benzylpenicillin are lacking....




    authors: Cheng V,Rawlins M,Chang T,Fox E,Dyer J,Allen C,Litton E,Page MM,Hoad K,Roberts JA

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interpretation criteria for sensitivity testing of ceftriaxone in agar diffusion test according to the DIN 58940 method.

    abstract::On the basis of a regression analysis of the correlation between minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibitory zone diameter, interpretative criteria are established for the agar diffusion test with ceftriaxone disks (30 micrograms) in DST agar according to the DIN method. The correlation is good (r = -0.9242)...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grimm H

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of temperature and concentration on the postantifungal effect and the effects of sub-MIC concentrations of four antifungal agents on previously treated Candida species.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of different temperatures (22, 35 and 37 degrees C) on the postantifungal effect (PAFE) and the effect of sub-MIC concentrations (1/4 x MIC) on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in PAFE stage (PAFSE). METHODS:This stage was induced by a 1.5-hour ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: García MT,Llorente MT,Mínguez F,Prieto J

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of DQ-2556, a new 3-quaternary ammonium cephalosporin antibiotic, in humans.

    abstract::A total of 5 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a crossover study on the dose dependency and the effect of probenecid on pharmacokinetics of DQ-2556. They were administered intravenously 0.5 and 1.0 g of DQ-2556, and 1.0 g of DQ-2556 with oral administration of probenecid. The linearity in pharmacokinetics of DQ-2556...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shiba K,Yoshida M,Shimada J,Saito A,Matsubayashi K,Hashimoto S,Yoshida K,Osada Y,Sakai O

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative randomized pilot study of azithromycin and doxycycline efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of prostate infection caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    abstract::A total of 1,442 patients with symptoms of chronic prostatitis were examined over a 4-year period at the Outpatient Department for Urogenital Infections, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases Dr. Fran Mihaljević, Zagreb, Croatia. The inclusion criteria for chronic prostatitis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum wer...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Skerk V,Mareković I,Markovinović L,Begovac J,Skerk V,Barsić N,Majdak-Gluhinić V

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preventive effects of trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole on experimental staphylococcic pyelonephritis in rats.

    abstract::108 white rats weighing 170-250 G were given trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole and the combination trimethoprim 1/sulphamethoxazole orally and parenterally in order to test the preventive effect of these substances on experimental hematogenous pyelonephritis due to Staphylococcus aureus. Oral applications of 48 mg/kg/24...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Obek A,Anğ O,Iplikçi A,Güvener Z,Eroğlu L,Güngör M,Yurtkuran M

    更新日期:1975-01-01 00:00:00

  • Studies with cefuroxime: a new beta-lactamase resistant cephalosporin.

    abstract::28 patients suffering from a variety of bacterial infections have been treated with cefuroxime. 18 were cured and 6 improved during treatment. Side effects were minimal and intramuscular injection was well tolerated. Serum and urine levels well in excess of the MICs of sensitive organisms were obtained using dosages o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ball AP,Brookes GR,Farrell ID,Geddes AM,Gould I

    更新日期:1979-01-01 00:00:00

  • Carboplatin Dosing Accuracy by Estimation of Glomerular Filtration versus Creatinuria in Cancer Patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for calculating the dose and the monitoring of carboplatin. Although GFR measurement (mGFR) by external markers is ideal, in most cases these are not employed; the most used method is GFR estimation (eGFR) by formulae, hence the need to identify the formula w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graciano Vera N,Pino Villarreal L,Ureña Vargas J

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00