Perspectives on the past and future of psychiatric epidemiology. The 1981 Rema Lapouse Lecture.


:Two generations of epidemiological studies of the true prevalence of mental disorders have been conducted since the turn of the century. The first and smaller in number took place prior to World War II and was characterized by the use of records and key informants to define "cases." The second, utilizing the greatly expanded nomenclatures that followed World War II, were based for the most part on personal interviews with all subjects or samples there of in communities all over the world. In total, more than 80 different communities were studied by more than 60 different investigators or teams of investigators in these first and second generation studies. The legacy from these studies comes in two main parts: the first consists of methodological problems centering on the question of how to conceptualize and measure mental disorders independently of treatment status; the second is a set of consistent substantive findings about the amounts of various types of mental disorder, the proportions treated and untreated by members of the mental health professions, and the distribution of the disorders according to gender, rural vs urban location, and social class. Analyses of this legacy from first and second generation studies are presented with a view to developing informed speculations about what might be hoped for in the future, vastly different, third generation of studies in this field.


Am J Public Health


Dohrenwend BP,Dohrenwend BS




Has Abstract


1982-11-01 00:00:00












  • Deaths in New York City jails, 2001-2009.

    abstract::Approximately 90,000 inmates are admitted annually to the New York City jail system, many of whom require a high level of medical or mental health services. According to our analysis of deaths in custody from 2001 to 2009, crude death rates have dropped significantly despite the increasing age of the population. Falli...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brittain J,Axelrod G,Venters H

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Women's Awareness of Their Contraceptive Benefits Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    abstract::The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act mandates that there be no out-of-pocket cost for Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods. Among 987 privately insured reproductive aged Pennsylvania women, fewer than 5% were aware that their insurance covered tubal sterilization, and only 11% were awa...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chuang CH,Mitchell JL,Velott DL,Legro RS,Lehman EB,Confer L,Weisman CS

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Consistent Estimates of Very Low HIV Incidence Among People Who Inject Drugs: New York City, 2005-2014.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To compare methods for estimating low HIV incidence among persons who inject drugs. METHODS:We examined 4 methods in New York City, 2005 to 2014: (1) HIV seroconversions among repeat participants, (2) increase of HIV prevalence by additional years of injection among new injectors, (3) the New York State and...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Des Jarlais DC,Arasteh K,McKnight C,Feelemyer J,Campbell AN,Tross S,Smith L,Cooper HL,Hagan H,Perlman D

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Breast-feeding and infant illness: a dose-response relationship?

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast-feeding has a dose-related protective effect against illness and whether it confers special health benefits to poor infants. METHODS:The association between breast-feeding dose and illnesses in the first 6 months of life was analyzed with generalized...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raisler J,Alexander C,O'Campo P

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Lower respiratory tract infections among Norwegian infants with siblings in day care.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to assess the role of siblings in day care as a determinant of infants' risk of lower respiratory tract infections. METHODS:A total of 3238 children (86%) out of 3754 Oslo, Norway, newborns recruited in 1992/93 were followed for 1 year. RESULTS:In logistic regression analysis,...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nafstad P,Hagen JA,Botten G,Jaakkola JJ

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • The fluoridation of drinking water and hip fracture hospitalization rates in two Canadian communities.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to compare hip fracture hospitalization rates between a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated community in Alberta, Canada: Edmonton, which has had fluoridated drinking water since 1967, and Calgary, which considered fluoridation in 1991 but is currently revising this decision. MET...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suarez-Almazor ME,Flowerdew G,Saunders LD,Soskolne CL,Russell AS

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    abstract::In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pridemore WA

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Pneumonia and influenza mortality among American Indian and Alaska Native people, 1990-2009.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We compared pneumonia and influenza death rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people with rates among Whites and examined geographic differences in pneumonia and influenza death rates for AI/AN persons. METHODS:We adjusted National Vital Statistics Surveillance mortality data for racial miscla...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Groom AV,Hennessy TW,Singleton RJ,Butler JC,Holve S,Cheek JE

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • "Speaking the dialect": understanding public discourse in the aftermath of an HIV vaccine trial shutdown.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We investigated how persons from key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure interpreted the process and outcomes of the Step Study HIV-1 vaccine trial, which was terminated early, and implications for willingness to participate in and community support for HIV vaccine research. METHODS:We used qualitati...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newman PA,Logie C,James L,Charles T,Maxwell J,Salam K,Woodford M

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Toward a strategic approach for reducing disparities in infant mortality.

    abstract::The United States' international ranking for infant mortality slipped from 19th in the 1980s to 27th in 1997. This slippage may be related to the segregation of priorities that occurred early in the 1990s, when national concern was diverted from infant mortality to minority health. To rekindle concern about infant mor...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hogue CJ,Vasquez C

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Grassroots participation, peer education, and HIV prevention by sex workers in South Africa.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This microqualitative case study of a community-based peer education program led by sex workers at a South African mine examined the role of grassroots participation in sexual health promotion. METHODS:The study involved in-depth interviews with 30 members of the target community. The interviews were analyz...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campbell C,Mzaidume Z

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Seroconversion to human immunodeficiency virus in prison inmates.

    abstract::We evaluated the prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in 3,837 inmates of a state prison system. Ninety-two (2.4 percent) were HIV-seropositive. The highest proportion of HIV-seropositive inmates was found among Blacks (5.4 percent), females, and those 30 years of age or older. HIV-...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Horsburgh CR Jr,Jarvis JQ,McArther T,Ignacio T,Stock P

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Sociodemographic factors and the variation in syphilis rates among US counties, 1984 through 1993: an ecological analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Syphilis in the United States is focally distributed, with high incidence rates in the South and in metropolitan areas nationwide. In this study an ecological analysis, using the county as the unit of analysis, was performed to generate hypotheses about community-level determinants of syphilis rates. METHOD...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kilmarx PH,Zaidi AA,Thomas JC,Nakashima AK,St Louis ME,Flock ML,Peterman TA

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study assessed seroprevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among individuals with severe mental illness. METHODS:Participants (n = 931) were patients undergoing inpatient or outpatient treatment in Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, or North Carolina. RESULTS:T...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Rosenberg SD,Goodman LA,Osher FC,Swartz MS,Essock SM,Butterfield MI,Constantine NT,Wolford GL,Salyers MP

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Predictors of medical or surgical and psychiatric hospitalizations among a population-based cohort of homeless adults.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We identified factors associated with inpatient hospitalizations among a population-based cohort of homeless adults in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS:We recruited participants from shelters and meal programs. We then linked them to administrative databases to capture hospital admissions during the study (2005-20...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chambers C,Katic M,Chiu S,Redelmeier DA,Levinson W,Kiss A,Hwang SW

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and Causes of Paralysis-United States, 2013.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the prevalence and causes of functional paralysis in the United States. METHODS:We used the 2013 US Paralysis Prevalence & Health Disparities Survey to estimate the prevalence of paralysis, its causes, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and health effects among this population. RESULT...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Armour BS,Courtney-Long EA,Fox MH,Fredine H,Cahill A

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Public Program Enrollment Following US State Medicaid Expansion and Outreach.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine the joint impact of states' Medicaid expansion and participation in Medicaid enrollment outreach at the take-up of other means-tested public programs (Women, Infants, and Children [WIC], Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]). METHODS:Data were used from the American Community Survey, ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lanese BG,Fischbein R,Furda C

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Predictors of smoking cessation and relapse in older adults.

    abstract::We examined longitudinal changes in smoking behavior among older adults in three community cohorts of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Smoking prevalence declined from 15% at baseline to 9% during 6 years of follow-up. Annual smoking cessation and relapse rates were 10% and less th...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salive ME,Cornoni-Huntley J,LaCroix AZ,Ostfeld AM,Wallace RB,Hennekens CH

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Operationalization of community-based participatory research principles: assessment of the national cancer institute's community network programs.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We examined how National Cancer Institute-funded Community Network Programs (CNPs) operationalized principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). METHODS:We reviewed the literature and extant CBPR measurement tools. On the basis of that review, we developed a 27-item questionnaire for CNPs to ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Braun KL,Nguyen TT,Tanjasiri SP,Campbell J,Heiney SP,Brandt HM,Smith SA,Blumenthal DS,Hargreaves M,Coe K,Ma GX,Kenerson D,Patel K,Tsark J,Hébert JR

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in the social networks of African American men who have sex with men only and those who have sex with men and women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We compared social network characteristics of African American men who have sex with men only (MSMO) with social network characteristics of African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). METHODS:Study participants were 234 African American men who have sex with men who completed a baseline soc...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Latkin C,Yang C,Tobin K,Penniman T,Patterson J,Spikes P

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cost-related medication underuse among chronically ill adults: the treatments people forgo, how often, and who is at risk.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We sought information about the cost-related underuse of medications-which medications are underused, by whom, and how often. METHODS:Chronically ill adults were asked to identify how often they underused prescription medication for 16 health conditions because of the cost. RESULTS:Eighteen percent of resp...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Piette JD,Heisler M,Wagner TH

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Vietnam era and Vietnam combat veterans among the homeless.

    abstract::Of 10,524 homeless veterans assessed in a 43-site VA program, 50 percent served during the Vietnam War era, compared to only 29 percent of all veterans in the general population. This reflects the greater risk of homelessness among men aged 30-44 rather than the impact of Vietnam Era service. The proportion of homeles...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosenheck R,Gallup P,Leda CA

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Medicaid status and stage at diagnosis of cervical cancer.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We examined whether Medicaid beneficiaries are more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage cervical cancer than women not enrolled in Medicaid. METHODS:Using the California Cancer Registry-Medicaid linked file, we identified 4682 women diagnosed during 1996-1999 with invasive cervical cancer. Multivariate l...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Malley CD,Shema SJ,Clarke LS,Clarke CA,Perkins CI

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Intradermal immunization with human diploid cell rabies vaccine: serological and clinical responses of immunized persons to intradermal booster vaccination.

    abstract::Rabies antibody titers ranged from 0-9.3 IU/mL in 117 human volunteers one year after intradermal vaccination with one or two doses of human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV). At that time, each volunteer received one 0.1-mL booster dose of HDCV intradermally. All 117 volunteers showed good anamnestic responses, with...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burridge MJ,Sumner JW,Baer GM

    更新日期:1984-05-01 00:00:00

  • Best-evidence interventions: findings from a systematic review of HIV behavioral interventions for US populations at high risk, 2000-2004.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Team conducted a systematic review of US-based HIV behavioral intervention research literature from 2000 through 2004 to identify interventions demonstrating best evidence of efficacy for reducing HIV risk. METHODS:Stand...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lyles CM,Kay LS,Crepaz N,Herbst JH,Passin WF,Kim AS,Rama SM,Thadiparthi S,DeLuca JB,Mullins MM,HIV\/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Team.

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of border screening for detecting influenza in arriving airline travelers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We measured symptom and influenza prevalence, and the effectiveness of symptom and temperature screening for identifying influenza, in arriving international airline travelers. METHODS:This cross-sectional study collected data from travelers to Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, in winter 2008...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Priest PC,Jennings LC,Duncan AR,Brunton CR,Baker MG

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Role of local health departments in the delivery of ambulatory care.

    abstract::Many people (40 per cent) receive each year some personal health service provided by local health departments. A substantial number of poor children (50 per cent) look to public agencies including health departments for all or part of their medical care. A number of departments including those represented in this stud...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller CA,Moos MK,Kotch JB,Brown ML,Brainard MP

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Obstetrical judgments of viability and perinatal survival of extremely low birthweight infants.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of the study was to determine whether the obstetrical judgment of viability makes a difference to fetal and neonatal survival of extremely low birthweight infants (500-749 g). METHODS:We assessed the effect of the antenatal judgment of viability in a group of 66 infants born weighing from 500 to...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reuss ML,Gordon HR

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Determinants of community-based coverage: periodic vitamin A supplementation. Aceh Study Group.

    abstract::Factors related to preschool child receipt of vitamin A during the first year of a semi-annual vitamin A capsule delivery program were investigated in 229 villages in Aceh, Indonesia. Coverage was higher in villages which were more rural and less economically developed. Highest performance was achieved by village dist...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tarwotjo I,West KP Jr,Mele L,Nur S,Nendrawati H,Kraushaar D,Tilden RL

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of targeted programs on health systems: a case study of the polio eradication initiative.

    abstract::The results of 2 large field studies on the impact of the polio eradication initiative on health systems and 3 supplementary reports were presented at a December 1999 meeting convened by the World Health Organization. All of these studies concluded that positive synergies exist between polio eradication and health sys...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loevinsohn B,Aylward B,Steinglass R,Ogden E,Goodman T,Melgaard B

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00