Cardiovascular risk assessment in low-resource settings: a consensus document of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk in Low Resource Settings.


:The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 confirms ischemic heart disease and stroke as the leading cause of death and that hypertension is the main associated risk factor worldwide. How best to respond to the rising prevalence of hypertension in resource-deprived settings is a topic of ongoing public-health debate and discussion. In low-income and middle-income countries, socioeconomic inequality and cultural factors play a role both in the development of risk factors and in the access to care. In Europe, cultural barriers and poor communication between health systems and migrants may limit migrants from receiving appropriate prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To use more efficiently resources available and to make treatment cost-effective at the patient level, cardiovascular risk approach is now recommended. In 2011, The European Society of Hypertension established a Working Group on 'Hypertension and Cardiovascular risk in low resource settings', which brought together cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical trialists, epidemiologists, economists, and other stakeholders to review current strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment in population studies in low-income and middle-income countries, their limitations, possible improvements, and future interests in screening programs. This report summarizes current evidence and presents highlights of unmet needs.


J Hypertens


Journal of hypertension


Modesti PA,Agostoni P,Agyemang C,Basu S,Benetos A,Cappuccio FP,Ceriello A,Del Prato S,Kalyesubula R,O'Brien E,Kilama MO,Perlini S,Picano E,Reboldi G,Remuzzi G,Stuckler D,Twagirumukiza M,Van Bortel LM,Watfa G,Zhao D




Has Abstract


2014-05-01 00:00:00












  • Central arterial stiffness and retinal vessel calibers: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study-Neurocognitive Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The retinal microvasculature provides a window to the cerebral vasculature and enables examination of changes in retinal caliber that may mimic those occurring in cerebrovascular disease. The association of central arterial stiffness and retinal vessel caliber in a population sample is not fully understood. ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meyer ML,Klein BE,Klein R,Palta P,Sharrett AR,Heiss G,Nambi V,Wong TY,Tanaka H

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Arterial pressure: agreement between a brachial cuff-based device and radial tonometry.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Aortic (central) blood pressure (BP) differs from brachial BP and may be a superior predictor of cardiovascular events. However, its measurement is currently restricted to research settings, owing to a moderate level of operator dependency. We tested a new noninvasive device in a large UK cohort. The device ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park CM,Korolkova O,Davies JE,Parker KH,Siggers JH,March K,Tillin T,Chaturvedi N,Hughes AD

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Role of nitric oxide pathway in hypotensive and renal effects of furosemide during extracellular volume expansion.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:In previous studies we demonstrated that the administration of furosemide associated with L-arginine contributes to enhanced hypotension and induces greater water than electrolyte excretion, in both normal and expansion conditions. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the interaction between furosemi...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Costa MA,Loria A,Elesgaray R,Balaszczuk AM,Arranz C

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the effects of cilnidipine and amlodipine on cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The L/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) cilnidipine suppresses sympathetic nerve activity and has a superior renoprotective effect compared with L-type CCBs such as amlodipine. The cardioprotective action of cilnidipine has remained largely uncharacterized, however. We have now investigated the effects of ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takatsu M,Hattori T,Murase T,Ohtake M,Kato M,Nashima K,Nakashima C,Takahashi K,Ito H,Niinuma K,Aritomi S,Murohara T,Nagata K

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Renin-angiotensin system component expression in the HL-1 atrial cell line and in a pig model of atrial fibrillation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Local atrial tissue angiotensin II (AngII) level is elevated in atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that atrial myocytes express all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and investigated whether rapid depolarization alone is sufficient to increase paracrine Ang...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsai CT,Lai LP,Hwang JJ,Chen WP,Chiang FT,Hsu KL,Tseng CD,Tseng YZ,Lin JL

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Renal angioplasty: better for treating hypertension or for rescuing renal function?

    abstract::Angioplasty of renal artery stenosis has been used extensively in the last two decades for treating renovascular hypertension, and, more recently, for preserving the jeopardized renal function. A large body of evidence has accumulated indicating that this approach is by far the most convenient for patients with fibrom...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Morganti A

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • An age-related decline in endothelial function is not associated with alterations in L-arginine transport in humans.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Endothelial dysfunction is established in aged individuals; however, the mechanism(s) are not fully elucidated. We have previously identified l-arginine transport as a potential rate-limiting factor in nitric oxide (NO) production in heart-failure patients, characterized with endothelial dysfunction. We ther...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Ahlers BA,Parnell MM,Chin-Dusting JP,Kaye DM

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • The accuracy of automated blood pressure measuring devices in patients with controlled atrial fibrillation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether automated blood pressure measuring devices can measure blood pressure accurately in patients with atrial fibrillation. DESIGN:Comparison of the accuracy of two electronic sphygmomanometers [Takeda UA-751 (Takeda) and Copal UA-251 (Copal)] and two ambulatory blood pressure monitors [Accut...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Stewart MJ,Gough K,Padfield PL

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Haptoglobin polymorphism and complications in established essential arterial hypertension.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Salt sensitivity and the magnitude of systolic blood pressure have been linked to haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism in normotensives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the indices of hypertension, the severity of complications and the occurrence of coronary and peripheral artery disease for the vari...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Delanghe JR,Duprez DA,De Buyzere ML,Bergez BM,Callens BY,Leroux-Roels GG,Clement DL

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Salt intake in children 10-12 years old and its modification by active working practices in a school garden.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to evaluate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion in children of 10-12 years at a school in the north of Portugal and to examine the influence on salt intake and blood pressure of three different educational interventions for 6 months. METHODS:Blood pressure (BP) and sodium excretion in ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cotter J,Cotter MJ,Oliveira P,Cunha P,Polónia J

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Does home blood pressure allow for a better assessment of the white-coat effect than ambulatory blood pressure?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The difference between clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is a poor estimate of the true white-coat effect (WCE) measured with beat-to-beat recording. METHOD:We investigated whether the difference between clinic and home BP (home WCE) was a better estimate of true WCE than ambulatory WCE. In 73 young...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saladini F,Benetti E,Malipiero G,Casiglia E,Palatini P

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of angiotensin peptides in plasma of anephric man.

    abstract::Recent evidence suggests that a considerable proportion of plasma angiotensin is generated not in blood but in peripheral tissues. Through the measurement of angiotensin peptides and renin in the plasma of 11 anephric subjects, we have investigated whether kidney-derived renin, or some other tissue mechanism for angio...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campbell DJ,Kladis A,Skinner SL,Whitworth JA

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Spironolactone improves endothelial and cardiac autonomic function in non heart failure hemodialysis patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Hemodialysis patients have a cardiovascular mortality rate of 20-40 times that of the general population. Aldosterone inhibition by spironolactone has exerted beneficial, prognostically significant cardiovascular effects in patients with heart failure maintained on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Our ai...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Flevari P,Kalogeropoulou S,Drakou A,Leftheriotis D,Panou F,Lekakis J,Kremastinos D,Vlahakos DV

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Early sexual experience and hypertension in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2016.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We examined whether the early initiation of sexual activity is associated with hypertension in US adults, and whether the timing of first menstruation is meaningful in regard of this association. We also assessed the effect modification by ethnicity. METHODS:Using data from 2001 to 2016 National Health and ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ngueta G,Ndjaboue R

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of antihypertensive therapy on development of incident conduction system disease in hypertensive patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous work has demonstrated that treatment of hypertensive patients with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril was associated with a reduced incidence of a composite conduction system disease endpoint and also left bundle branch block (LBBB) compared with chlorthalidone therapy. The relat...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okin PM,Kjeldsen SE,Devereux RB

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex function in panic disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent reports have demonstrated increased cardiac risk, and an association with essential hypertension in patients with panic disorder. The cause is not known, but possibly involves sympathetic nervous activation. In this study, we evaluated the arterial baroreflex control of vascular sympathetic nervous ou...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lambert EA,Thompson J,Schlaich M,Laude D,Elghozi JL,Esler MD,Lambert GW

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and its relation to ambulatory arterial stiffness index in hypertensive patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Increased arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among hypertensive patients. OBJECTIVES:To assess the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction assessed by 2-D speckle-tracking echocardiog...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahmed TAN,Shams-Eddin H,Fathy MA,El-Naggar HM,Kishk YT

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Haplotypes of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor associate with high diastolic blood pressure in the Caerphilly prospective study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Current evidence demonstrates that both genetic and environmental factors influence blood pressure. The sympathetic nervous system is a key player in blood pressure control and functional genetic variants of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR) have been identified and implicated in the pathogenesis of hype...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Binder A,Garcia E,Wallace C,Gbenga K,Ben-Shlomo Y,Yarnell J,Brown P,Caulfield M,Skrabal F,Kotanko P,Munroe P

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • A method of quantifying retinal microvascular alterations associated with blood pressure and age.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To find an objective, sensitive method for quantifying microvascular alterations associated with level of blood pressure and age. DESIGN:A prospective cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Seventy-four previously untreated hypertensive patients, referred to a hospital outpatients department, and 26 no...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stanton AV,Mullaney P,Mee F,O'Brien ET,O'Malley K

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Patterns of treatment modifications among newly treated hypertensive patients: does choice of modification strategy affect likelihood of treatment discontinuation?

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Treatment modifications--addition, uptitration, switching, and downtitration--are necessary to address issues such as unattained blood pressure goals, adverse drug events, drug cost, or patient dissatisfaction which lead to treatment discontinuation. This study assessed the patterns of treatment modification...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sonawane KB,Qian J,Garza KB,Wright BM,Zeng P,Ganduglia-Cazaban CM,Hansen RA

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy in beta1-adrenergic and beta2-adrenergic receptor double knockout mice.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Cardiac hypertrophy arises as an adaptive response to increased afterload. Studies in knockout mice have shown that catecholamines, but not alpha1-adrenergic receptors, are necessary for such an adaptation to occur. However, whether beta-adrenergic receptors are critical for the development of cardiac hypertr...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Palazzesi S,Musumeci M,Catalano L,Patrizio M,Stati T,Michienzi S,Di Certo MG,Mattei E,Vitelli L,Marano G

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • The prognostic value of blood pressure control delay in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Various studies have suggested that a delay in the time between diagnosing hypertension and its correct control (D-C, diagnostic-control time) is linked to a worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between D-C time and all-cause mortality, or the incidence of cardiovascular even...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martín-Fernández M,Vinyoles E,Real J,Soldevila N,Muñoz MÁ,Del-Val JL,Verdú JM,Domingo M,Mundet X

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Very low frequency blood pressure variability is modulated by myogenic vascular function and is reduced in stroke-prone rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cerebrovascular myogenic function, which protects the brain from hemorrhagic stroke, is impaired in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Furthermore, myogenic function contributes to very low frequency blood pressure variability and dynamic autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is most effective at ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stauss HM,Petitto CE,Rotella DL,Wong BJ,Sheriff DD

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • The kidney and essential hypertension: a link to osteoporosis?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Abnormalities of calcium metabolism independent of changes in intracellular calcium have been described in patients with essential hypertension. These include increased urinary calcium excretion for a given salt intake, a raised parathyroid hormone level, an increase in urinary cyclic AMP, a tendency for a...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacGregor GA,Cappuccio FP

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pressor and sympathoexcitatory effects of nitric oxide in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:It has been shown that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the central control of arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether NO can regulate sympathetic nerve activity by an action on pressor neurons within the rostral part of the ventrolateral me...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirooka Y,Polson JW,Dampney RA

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Morphology and function of mesenteric resistance arteries in transgenic rats with low-renin hypertension.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in blood pressure control. Recently the mouse Ren-2 renin gene was introduced into the genome of rats, producing low-renin hypertensive animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacological and morphological properties of mesenteric ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thybo NK,Korsgaard N,Mulvany MJ

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Predictive power of home blood pressure and clinic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We evaluated the predictive power of home blood pressure and clinic blood pressure based on the long-term cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with and without impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). METHOD:The multicentre Hypertension Objective Treatment Based on Measurement by Electrical Devices Blo...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Noguchi Y,Asayama K,Staessen JA,Inaba M,Ohkubo T,Hosaka M,Satoh M,Kamide K,Awata T,Katayama S,Imai Y,HOMED-BP study group.

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in noninvasive vascular function in the community.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The relation of noninvasive vascular function to sex, sex hormones, and reproductive history in the general population is little understood. METHODS:We simultaneously assessed flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peripheral arterial tonometry in 454 women (mean age 40.4±16.1 years, age range 19-78 years) and 100...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schnabel RB,Biener MP,Wilde S,Sinning CR,Ojeda FM,Zeller T,Lubos E,Lackner KJ,Warnholtz A,Gori T,Espinola-Klein C,Blankenberg S,Munzel T,Wild PS

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic linkage analysis in hypertension: principles and practice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Primary hypertension is a hereditary disorder characterized by a complex etiological interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors, until now defying attempts at identifying pathogenetically important genes. The marriage of classical genetics and molecular techniques is now offering a powerful set ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lindpaintner K

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hypertension and overweight/obesity in Ghanaians and Nigerians living in West Africa and industrialized countries: a systematic review.

    abstract:CONTEXT:There is a growing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in West Africa and among its migrants to industrialized countries. Despite this, no study has reviewed CVD risk factor prevalence among West Africans in Africa and industrialized countries. OBJECTIVE:To appraise studies on the prevalenc...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Commodore-Mensah Y,Samuel LJ,Dennison-Himmelfarb CR,Agyemang C

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00