Apelin protects against angiotensin II-induced cardiovascular fibrosis and decreases plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 production.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that apelin protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiovascular fibrosis and vascular remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS:Wild-type mice administered apelin or apelin along with Ang II exhibited less cardiovascular fibrosis and decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene expression than mice receiving Ang II, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), apelin plus L-NAME or apelin plus Ang II plus L-NAME. In-vitro analysis using a luciferase construct driven by 3.1 kb of the human PAI-1 promoter revealed that apelin blocked Ang II-mediated PAI-1 gene expression. Immunoblotting for phosphorylated myosin phosphatase subunit and myosin light chain revealed that apelin blocked Ang II activation of the Rho kinase pathway, which is associated with induction of PAI-1 gene expression by Ang II. In addition, treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells with apelin reduced PAI-1 mRNA and protein production in the presence and absence of Ang II. Conversely, L-NAME treatment attenuated the downregulation of PAI-1 by apelin in cells. CONCLUSION:Apelin protects against cardiac fibrosis and vascular remodeling through direct regulation of PAI-1 gene expression. This protective effect is mediated through the synergistic inhibition of Ang II signaling and increased production of nitric oxide by apelin. Our data extend previous findings and provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms by which apelin elicits a cardioprotective effect.

journal_name

J Hypertens

journal_title

Journal of hypertension

authors

Siddiquee K,Hampton J,Khan S,Zadory D,Gleaves L,Vaughan DE,Smith LH

doi

10.1097/HJH.0b013e32834347de

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2011-04-01 00:00:00

pages

724-31

issue

4

eissn

0263-6352

issn

1473-5598

journal_volume

29

pub_type

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