Influence of pH, temperature, and buffers on the kinetics of ceftazidime degradation in aqueous solutions.

Abstract:

:First-order rate constants (k) were determined for the hydrolysis of ceftazidime in the pH range of 0.5 to 8.5 at 45, 55, and 65 degrees C by a stability-indicating HPLC assay. In the absence of buffer effects, the pH-rate expression was k = kH1f1(aH+) + kH2f2(aH+) + kH3f3(aH+) + kSf3 + kOHf3(aOH-), where KH and KOH are the catalytic rate constants for the activity of hydrogen (aH+) and hydroxyl (aOH-) ions, respectively, and kS is the rate constant for spontaneous hydrolysis. The fractions of ceftazidime in various stages of dissociation (f1, f2, and f3) were calculated from kinetically determined apparent Ka values of 2.03 x 10(-2) and 4.85 x 10(-5). Catalytic constants (kcat) were calculated for formate, acetate, phosphate, and borate buffers, which accelerated hydrolysis. Each of the rate constants (kH1, kH2, kH3, kS, kOH, and kcat) were described as a function of temperature with calculated A and E values in the Arrhenius equation, kT = Ae-E/RT. Ceftazidime hydrolysis rate constants (k) were calculated as a function of pH, temperature, and buffer by combining the pH-rate expression with the buffer contributions calculated from kcat values and the temperature dependencies. These equations and their parameter values successfully calculated 95 of 104 experimentally determined rate constants with errors of < 10%. Maximum stability was observed in the relatively pH-independent region from 4.5 to 6.5. Hydrolysis rate constants at 30 degrees C were predicted and experimentally verified for four ceftazidime solutions, three of which (pH 4.4 acetate buffer and pH 5.5 and 6.5 phosphate buffers) maintained 90% of their initial concentration for approximately 1.5 days.

journal_name

J Pharm Sci

authors

Zhou M,Notari RE

doi

10.1002/jps.2600840504

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1995-05-01 00:00:00

pages

534-8

issue

5

eissn

0022-3549

issn

1520-6017

pii

S0022-3549(15)49805-3

journal_volume

84

pub_type

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