The history of the concept of epileptic encephalopathy.


:The first description of epileptic encephalopathies dates back to Dr. West who, in 1857, described the syndrome that took his name. In addition to West syndrome, in the last century other epileptic syndromes entered into the chapter of epileptic encephalopathies. Henry Gastaut has the virtue of having created the modern concept of epileptic encephalopathy and entering it into the official terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). After the first proposal, it was further defined and refined over time.






Capovilla G,Wolf P,Beccaria F,Avanzini G




Has Abstract


2013-11-01 00:00:00








54 Suppl 8


  • The effects of epilepsy and its treatment on sexual and reproductive function.

    abstract::Male and female sexuality and reproductive functions are complex systems with cortical, limbic system, hypothalamic, pituitary, and end organ interactions. Sexual steroids are produced in the sexual glands, the adrenals, and the brain. They undergo interconversion in the brain, bind to different brain areas, and have ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Penovich PE

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Overview of the safety of newer antiepileptic drugs.

    abstract::Standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are associated with a wide variety of acute and chronic adverse events and with many interactions with each other and with non-AEDs that complicate patient management. The safety and interaction profiles of the newer AEDs have also been intensively studied. Safety data are available...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shorvon S,Stefan H

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prospective validation study of an epilepsy seizure risk system for outpatient evaluation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We conducted clinical testing of an automated Bayesian machine learning algorithm (Epilepsy Seizure Assessment Tool [EpiSAT]) for outpatient seizure risk assessment using seizure counting data, and validated performance against specialized epilepsy clinician experts. METHODS:We conducted a prospective longit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chiang S,Goldenholz DM,Moss R,Rao VR,Haneef Z,Theodore WH,Kleen JK,Gavvala J,Vannucci M,Stern JM

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antiepileptic drug use in seven electronic health record databases in Europe: a methodologic comparison.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The annual prevalence of antiepileptic drug (AED) prescribing reported in the literature differs considerably among European countries due to use of different type of data sources, time periods, population distribution, and methodologic differences. This study aimed to measure prevalence of AED prescribing ac...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Groot MC,Schuerch M,de Vries F,Hesse U,Oliva B,Gil M,Huerta C,Requena G,de Abajo F,Afonso AS,Souverein PC,Alvarez Y,Slattery J,Rottenkolber M,Schmiedl S,Van Dijk L,Schlienger RG,Reynolds R,Klungel OH

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Subtle microscopic abnormalities in hippocampal sclerosis do not predict clinical features of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Subtle microdysplastic features are found in some patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The significance of these findings is unknown. We investigated their frequency, relation to the pattern of HS, and clinical associations. METHODS:One-hundred forty patients with his...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kalnins RM,McIntosh A,Saling MM,Berkovic SF,Jackson GD,Briellmann RS

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropsychological and emotional correlates of marital status and ability to live independently in individuals with epilepsy.

    abstract::Studies from several countries have reported that fewer people with epilepsy marry, but the reasons for this are not clear. In the present investigation, 178 adults with epilepsy were divided into married, separated/divorced, and never married groups. The never married group was subdivided into persons living in depen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Batzel LW,Dodrill CB

    更新日期:1984-10-01 00:00:00

  • Extracellular (36Cl) space, electrolyte, protein, and DNA content in brain of DBA and C57 mice: effects of age.

    abstract::DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AGSs) in an age-dependent manner, susceptibility being maximal at 21 days and absent at 110 days of age. Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a decrease in anion transport and an increase in carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in brain from DBA mice as...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Engstrom FL,Kemp JW,Chow SY,Woodbury DM

    更新日期:1986-03-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical trials of antiepileptic drugs performed in the private practice setting.

    abstract::Clinical trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are usually performed only in major teaching centers, thus ignoring the very real contribution available from private practice. The relation between the consultant and the referring family physician is often much closer in private practice, allowing much earlier recruitmen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beran RG,Tilley M

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of hippocampal afterdischarges on Purkinje cell activity.

    abstract::Hippocampal afterdischarges can induce increased Purkinje cell activity that characteristically shows a pronounced acceleration during the period of the afterdischarges. Increased Purkinje cell activity may continue for many seconds after termination of the hippocampal activity. Typical frequency histograms are presen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mitra J,Snider RS

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • Exacerbation of partial seizures and onset of nonepileptic myoclonus with carbamazepine.

    abstract::A child had two to three generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures per week unresponsive to phenobarbital (PB) and valproate (VPA). Interictal EEG demonstrated left occipital spikes. When carbamazepine (CBZ) therapy was started, he developed very frequent (4-6/day) complex partial seizures (CPS) characterized on ictal E...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dhuna A,Pascual-Leone A,Talwar D

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Antiepileptogenic and antiictogenic effects of retigabine under conditions of rapid kindling: an ontogenic study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To examine antiepileptogenic and antiictogenic potential of retigabine (RTG) under conditions of rapid kindling epileptogenesis during different stages of development. METHODS:The experiments were performed in postnatal day 14 (P14), P21, and P35 male Wistar rats. After stereotaxic implantation of hippocampal ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mazarati A,Wu J,Shin D,Kwon YS,Sankar R

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Levetiracetam in the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    abstract::Since its introduction into clinical practice in 1999, levetiracetam, the S enantiomer of piracetam, has rapidly found a secure place, initially in the therapy of partial onset seizures and subsequently in the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). It has many of the properties of an "ideal" antiepilept...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grünewald R

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differential effects of acute and repeated electrically and chemically induced seizures on [3H]Nimodipine and [125I]omega-conotoxin GVIA binding in rat brain.

    abstract::[3H]Nimodipine and high-affinity [125I]omega-conotoxin GVIA (CgTX) binding were investigated in membranes from rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus after electrically and chemically induced seizures. Animals were decapitated 30 min after a single electroconvulsive shock (ECS) or lidocaine-induced seizure a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gleiter CH,Cain CJ,Weiss SR,Post RM,Marangos PJ

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • In situ metabolism of levetiracetam in blood of patients with epilepsy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Although levetiracetam undergoes minimum metabolism, B-esterases have been identified in whole blood that are capable of metabolising levetiracetam. The present study was designed to ascertain any variability in levetiracetam blood concentrations that could be attributed to in situ metabolism and which could im...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patsalos PN,Ghattaura S,Ratnaraj N,Sander JW

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Self-discontinuation of antiepileptic medication in pregnancy: detection by hair analysis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Concerns over teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy must be balanced against the risks of seizures to the mother and developing fetus. Pharmacokinetic changes and vomiting may alter drug levels, but more important may be the patient's decision to stop medication before or during pregnanc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams J,Myson V,Steward S,Jones G,Wilson JF,Kerr MP,Smith PE

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • The ketogenic diet inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.

    abstract::The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for epilepsy, but its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that the KD inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway signaling. The expression of pS6 and pAkt, markers of mTOR pathway activation, was reduced in hippocampus ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDaniel SS,Rensing NR,Thio LL,Yamada KA,Wong M

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    abstract::Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically sign...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mourand I,Crespel A,Gelisse P

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy: does reduction of entorhinal and perirhinal cortices influence good clinical seizure outcome?

    abstract:PURPOSE:Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE) has been modified recently in our center for the therapy of mesial temporal epilepsy (MTLE). It has promising clinical results comparable with microsurgical amygdalohippocampectomy despite smaller volume reduction of the hippocampus. We hypothesized tha...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malikova H,Liscak R,Vojtech Z,Prochazka T,Vymazal J,Vladyka V,Druga R

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Altered behavior in experimental cortical dysplasia.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Developmental delay and cognitive impairment are common comorbidities in people with epilepsy associated with malformations of cortical development (MCDs). We studied cognition and behavior in an animal model of diffuse cortical dysplasia (CD), in utero irradiation, using a battery of behavioral tests for neuro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou FW,Rani A,Martinez-Diaz H,Foster TC,Roper SN

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Systems biology of human epilepsy applied to patients with brain tumors.

    abstract::Epilepsy is a disease of recurrent seizures that can be associated with a wide variety of acquired and developmental brain lesions. Current medications for patients with epilepsy can suppress seizures; they do not cure or modify the underlying disease process. On the other hand, surgical removal of focal brain regions...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mittal S,Shah AK,Barkmeier DT,Loeb JA

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Focal cortical dysplasia type IIb: completeness of cortical, not subcortical, resection is necessary for seizure freedom.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Focal cortical dysplasia type IIb (FCD IIb) lesions are highly epileptogenic and frequently cause pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Complete surgical resection leads to seizure freedom in most cases. However, the term "complete" resection is controversial with regard to the necessity of performing resections of the s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wagner J,Urbach H,Niehusmann P,von Lehe M,Elger CE,Wellmer J

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Functional plasticity after left anterior temporal lobectomy: reconstitution and compensation of verbal memory functions.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study investigated the functional plasticity of the brain to reconstitute and compensate for verbal memory functions after epilepsy surgery of left temporocortical and temporomesial structures. We hypothesized that memory outcome would be best when surgery is performed within the period of cerebral plastic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Helmstaedter C,Elger CE

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • The natural history of untreated epilepsy in a rural community in Africa.

    abstract::The duration of epilepsy was evaluated in over 460 previously untreated patients who attended newly established epilepsy clinics in a rural area of Malawi. The mean duration at first attendance was 6.5 years. It was found that as the duration of active epilepsy increased, the number of patients having epilepsy of a gi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watts AE

    更新日期:1992-05-01 00:00:00

  • Hospitalization rates for epilepsy in the United States, 1973-1976.

    abstract::Data on numbers of admissions and admission rates for all-listed and first-listed epilepsy in nonfederal short-stay hospitals are presented. These statistics are based on 232,000 hospital discharge records from a probability sample of approximately 7,000 hospitals. The patterns of admission rates for epilepsy are comp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jerath BK,Kimbell BA

    更新日期:1981-02-01 00:00:00

  • Screening for major depression in epilepsy with common self-report depression inventories.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Major depression is a common psychiatric comorbidity in chronic epilepsy that is frequently unrecognized and untreated. A variety of self-report mood inventories are available, but their validity as well as ability to detect major depression in epilepsy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones JE,Hermann BP,Woodard JL,Barry JJ,Gilliam F,Kanner AM,Meador KJ

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Defining epileptogenic networks: Contribution of SEEG and signal analysis.

    abstract::Epileptogenic networks are defined by the brain regions involved in the production and propagation of epileptic activities. In this review we describe the historical, methodologic, and conceptual bases of this model in the analysis of electrophysiologic intracerebral recordings. In the context of epilepsy surgery, the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bartolomei F,Lagarde S,Wendling F,McGonigal A,Jirsa V,Guye M,Bénar C

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Synergism between topiramate and budipine in refractory status epilepticus in the rat.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate the antiepileptic and neuroprotective properties of topiramate (TPM) alone and with coadministration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist budipine in a rat model of refractory status epilepticus. METHODS:Male Sprague-Dawley rats had electrodes implanted into the perforant path and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fisher A,Wang X,Cock HR,Thom M,Patsalos PN,Walker MC

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology.

    abstract::The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure typ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fisher RS,Cross JH,French JA,Higurashi N,Hirsch E,Jansen FE,Lagae L,Moshé SL,Peltola J,Roulet Perez E,Scheffer IE,Zuberi SM

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Hippocampal melatonin receptors modulate seizure threshold.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The pineal hormone melatonin has been shown to enhance hippocampal excitability. We therefore investigated whether inactivation of hippocampal melatonin receptors affects behavioral seizures. METHODS:Intrahippocampal infusions were performed in rats to study the effect of different melatonin receptor antagonis...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stewart LS,Leung LS

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of rapid suicidality screening in epilepsy using the NDDIE.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Standard mortality ratio for suicide in patients with epilepsy is three times higher than in the general population, and such a risk remains high even after adjusting for clinical and socioeconomic factors. It is thus important to have suitable screening instruments and to implement care pathways for suicide ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mula M,McGonigal A,Micoulaud-Franchi JA,May TW,Labudda K,Brandt C

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00