The history of the concept of epileptic encephalopathy.


:The first description of epileptic encephalopathies dates back to Dr. West who, in 1857, described the syndrome that took his name. In addition to West syndrome, in the last century other epileptic syndromes entered into the chapter of epileptic encephalopathies. Henry Gastaut has the virtue of having created the modern concept of epileptic encephalopathy and entering it into the official terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). After the first proposal, it was further defined and refined over time.






Capovilla G,Wolf P,Beccaria F,Avanzini G




Has Abstract


2013-11-01 00:00:00








54 Suppl 8


  • Tonic phase of a generalized convulsive seizure is an independent predictor of postictal generalized EEG suppression.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine the incidence, duration, risk factors for, and clinical correlates of postictal generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression (PGES), and to further delineate the significance of PGES in the pathogenesis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tao JX,Yung I,Lee A,Rose S,Jacobsen J,Ebersole JS

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Seizure outcomes in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis: A follow-up study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the long-term seizure outcome and potential factors associated with seizure outcome in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS:In the setting of a prospective, single-center, longitudinal cohort study, 109 patients were evaluated with ongoing follow-up....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu X,Yan B,Wang R,Li C,Chen C,Zhou D,Hong Z

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Antiepileptic drugs, learning, and behavior in childhood epilepsy.

    abstract::Cognitive and behavioral impairments are found more often among epileptic children than among their peers. The cause of these impairments is multifactorial. Identifying the relative contribution of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to these problems has been the object of a large number of clinical investigations. This area ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bourgeois BF

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Management and long-term outcome in patients presenting with ictal asystole or bradycardia.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Ictal asystole (IA) and ictal bradycardia (IB) are rare autonomic symptoms during epileptic seizures and may be potentially life-threatening. Guidelines for the care of these patients are missing. The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the management and long-term outcome in patients with IA and IB. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Strzelczyk A,Cenusa M,Bauer S,Hamer HM,Mothersill IW,Grunwald T,Hillenbrand B,Ebner A,Steinhoff BJ,Krämer G,Rosenow F

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dipropylacetic acid (Depakine) in experimental epilepsy in the alert cat.

    abstract::The effect od dipropylacetic acid (DPA; Depakine) on the bemegride-induced convulsive threshold was investigated in alert cats. Forty-five min after DPA 200 mg/kg, s.c., no significant effect was obtained; 5 min after the same dose iv., protection from bemegride-induced seizures was pronounced. DPA did not decrease fo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Duijn H,Beckmann MK

    更新日期:1975-03-01 00:00:00

  • Does adherence to epilepsy quality measures correlate with reduced epilepsy-related adverse hospitalizations? A retrospective experience.

    abstract::In 2011, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) established eight epilepsy quality measures (EQMs) for chronic epilepsy treatment to address deficits in quality of care. This study assesses the relationship between adherence to these EQMs and epilepsy-related adverse hospitalizations (ERAHs). A retrospective chart re...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ladner TR,Morgan CD,Pomerantz DJ,Kennedy VE,Azar N,Haas K,Lagrange A,Gallagher M,Singh P,Abou-Khalil BW,Arain AM

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment of partial seizures: 3. Long-term follow-up on first 67 patients exiting a controlled study. First International Vagus Nerve Stimulation Study Group.

    abstract::Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has demonstrated a significant anticonvulsant effect in preclinical studies, in pilot studies in humans, and in the acute phase of a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized study. After completion of a 14-week, blinded, randomized study, with 31 receiving high (therapeutic) VNS and 36 rec...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: George R,Salinsky M,Kuzniecky R,Rosenfeld W,Bergen D,Tarver WB,Wernicke JF

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Value of electrical stimulation and high frequency oscillations (80-500 Hz) in identifying epileptogenic areas during intracranial EEG recordings.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Electrical stimulation (ES) is used during intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) investigations to delineate epileptogenic areas and seizure-onset zones (SOZs) by provoking afterdischarges (ADs) or patients' typical seizure. High frequency oscillations (HFOs--ripples, 80-250 Hz; fast ripples, 250-500 Hz) ar...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacobs J,Zijlmans M,Zelmann R,Olivier A,Hall J,Gotman J,Dubeau F

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • The BOLD effect of interictal spike activity in childhood occipital lobe epilepsy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) presents in childhood with different manifestations, age of onset and EEG features that form distinct syndromes. The ictal clinical symptoms are difficult to correlate with onset in particular areas in the occipital lobes, and the EEG recordings have not been able to overcome this ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leal A,Dias A,Vieira JP,Secca M,Jordão C

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Subtle microscopic abnormalities in hippocampal sclerosis do not predict clinical features of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Subtle microdysplastic features are found in some patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The significance of these findings is unknown. We investigated their frequency, relation to the pattern of HS, and clinical associations. METHODS:One-hundred forty patients with his...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kalnins RM,McIntosh A,Saling MM,Berkovic SF,Jackson GD,Briellmann RS

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Absolute bioavailability of carbamazepine after oral administration of a 2% syrup.

    abstract::Two healthy male volunteers received 10 mg carbamazepine (CBZ) as a 2-h constant-rate intravenous (i.v.) infusion and 100 mg 15N-labeled CBZ as a 2% oral suspension, concomitantly. The two compounds have identical pharmacokinetics. Their respective concentrations in plasma were determined by gas chromatography-mass sp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gérardin A,Dubois JP,Moppert J,Geller L

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • Sodium channel SCN1A and epilepsy: mutations and mechanisms.

    abstract::Mutations in a number of genes encoding voltage-gated sodium channels cause a variety of epilepsy syndromes in humans, including genetic (generalized) epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy). Most of these mutations are in the SCN1A gene, and all are d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Escayg A,Goldin AL

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Functional and morphological changes in the hippocampal neuronal circuits associated with epileptic seizures.

    abstract:PURPOSE:We review what is currently known about functional and morphologic plasticity of hippocampal neuronal circuits in animal epilepsy models. RESULTS:Perforant-path kindling has been shown to enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus significantly, and this enhancement has lasted for > or =1 mo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maru E,Kanda M,Ashida H

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Choosing the tumoral epilepsy surgery candidate.

    abstract::The management of epilepsy is an essential clinical issue in many patients with brain tumors. Tumoral epilepsy is often drug resistant and is associated with poor quality of life. Surgery represents a key therapeutic option in the management of patients with refractory tumoral epilepsy, with high rates of postoperativ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rheims S,Ducray F,Ryvlin P

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Epilepsy duration, febrile seizures, and cerebral glucose metabolism.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Studies using magnetic resonance imaging have shown that reduced hippocampal volume is associated with a history of febrile seizures, the duration of epilepsy, and the number of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. It is uncertain whether these factors have the same influence on functional as on structural measur...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Theodore WH,Kelley K,Toczek MT,Gaillard WD

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Lateralization of event-related potentials during discontinuation of antiepileptic medication.

    abstract::The effect of short-term withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) was studied in 16 patients undergoing preoperative evaluation for epilepsy surgery. ERPs were performed for all patients during treatment with full medication and after a 1-week period during ongoing tapering ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tuunainen A,Nousiainen U,Pilke A,Mervaala E,Riekkinen P

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Brain amines and convulsions in four strains of parathyroidectomized, pinealectomized rat.

    abstract::The tendency for four strains of parathyroidectomized (PTx) rats to convulse after pinealectomy (Px) was observed in this experiment; telencephalic serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were examined to note any correlation between amines and convulsions. The strains of rats tested were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, Long-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Philo R,Reiter RJ

    更新日期:1978-04-01 00:00:00

  • Reproduction among individuals with idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy: risk factors for spontaneous abortion.

    abstract:PURPOSE:We wished to determine the effects of seizure type, age at onset, and family history of epilepsy on risk of spontaneous abortion in the pregnancies of adults with idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy. METHODS:We examined pregnancy outcomes in 812 adults with idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy who had ever had or fathe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schupf N,Ottman R

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Functional analysis of epilepsy-associated variants in STXBP1/Munc18-1 using humanized Caenorhabditis elegans.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Genetic variants in STXBP1, which encodes the conserved exocytosis protein Munc18-1, are associated with a variety of infantile epilepsy syndromes. We aimed to develop an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model that could be used to test the pathogenicity of such variants in a cost-effective manner. METHODS:The...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu B,Mak JCH,Morris AP,Marson AG,Barclay JW,Sills GJ,Morgan A

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Antiepileptic drug interactions.

    abstract::This article reviews the potential interactions of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles involved. It describes the absorptive and distributive properties of AEDs and the effects on protein binding, hepatic metabolism, and elimination resulting from co-administration of AEDs...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: French JA,Gidal BE

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology.

    abstract::The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure typ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fisher RS,Cross JH,French JA,Higurashi N,Hirsch E,Jansen FE,Lagae L,Moshé SL,Peltola J,Roulet Perez E,Scheffer IE,Zuberi SM

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Systems biology of human epilepsy applied to patients with brain tumors.

    abstract::Epilepsy is a disease of recurrent seizures that can be associated with a wide variety of acquired and developmental brain lesions. Current medications for patients with epilepsy can suppress seizures; they do not cure or modify the underlying disease process. On the other hand, surgical removal of focal brain regions...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mittal S,Shah AK,Barkmeier DT,Loeb JA

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Mapping the gene for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    abstract::The practice of epileptology at a molecular level, where gene products are identified by gene mapping, will soon be possible for a growing number of epilepsies. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the first of such epilepsies to be mapped to a chromosome, namely chromosome 6p21.3. Family studies of 68 JME probands fr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Delgado-Escueta AV,Greenberg DA,Treiman L,Liu A,Sparkes RS,Barbetti A,Park MS,Terasaki PI

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired hippocampal memory function and synaptic plasticity in experimental cortical dysplasia.

    abstract:PURPOSE:  Memory impairment is a common comorbidity in people with epilepsy-associated malformations of cortical development. We studied spatial memory performance and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in an animal model of cortical dysplasia. METHODS:  Embryonic day 17 rats were exposed to 2.25 Gy external radiation. O...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou FW,Roper SN

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term add-on pregabalin treatment in patients with partial-onset epilepsy: pooled analysis of open-label clinical trials.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of long-term pregabalin as add-on therapy for patients with poorly controlled partial seizures. METHODS:Analysis of data from six long-term clinical trials involving 2,061 patients receiving open-label pregabalin 75-600 mg/day adjunctive therapy for partial on...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Uthman BM,Bazil CW,Beydoun A,Schulze-Bonhage A,Benabou R,Whalen E,Emir B,Griesing T,Leon T

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Population pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam and dosing recommendation in children with epilepsy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To develop a population pharmacokinetic model to evaluate the demographic and physiologic determinants of levetiracetam (LEV) pharmacokinetics (PK) and to suggest recommended doses of LEV in children. METHODS:LEV PK were investigated in a prospective open trial of LEV as adjunctive therapy using a population a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Chhun S,Jullien V,Rey E,Dulac O,Chiron C,Pons G

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Atypical language lateralization in epilepsy patients.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate whether atypical language dominance in epilepsy patients is related to localization and type of lesions. METHODS:Four hundred and forty-five epilepsy patients received bilateral Wada testing. Language was classified as left (L), right (R), bilateral-dependent (BD, speech arrest after left and ri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Möddel G,Lineweaver T,Schuele SU,Reinholz J,Loddenkemper T

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Risk of seizure recurrence after achieving initial seizure freedom on the ketogenic diet.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Few studies have examined the long-term sustainability of complete seizure freedom on the ketogenic diet (KD). The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of seizure recurrence in children who achieved at least 1 month of seizure freedom on the KD, and to assess clinical features associated with sustai...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Taub KS,Kessler SK,Bergqvist AG

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Presurgical language mapping in children with epilepsy: clinical usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging for the planning of cortical stimulation.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Presurgical language mapping in dominant hemisphere epilepsy to evaluate the risk of postoperative deficit is particularly difficult in children. Extraoperative invasive cortical stimulation can show some areas critical to language, but not all of them, due to scarce sampling, poor cooperation, cortical immatur...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Ribaupierre S,Fohlen M,Bulteau C,Dorfmüller G,Delalande O,Dulac O,Chiron C,Hertz-Pannier L

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Experimental and clinical evidence for loss of effect (tolerance) during prolonged treatment with antiepileptic drugs.

    abstract::Development of tolerance (i.e., the reduction in response to a drug after repeated administration) is an adaptive response of the body to prolonged exposure to the drug, and tolerance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is no exception. Tolerance develops to some drug effects much more rapidly than to others. The extent of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Löscher W,Schmidt D

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00