A guide to guidelines for the treatment of PTSD and related conditions.


:In recent years, several practice guidelines have appeared to inform clinical work in the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Although there is a high level of consensus across these documents, there are also areas of apparent difference that may lead to confusion among those to whom the guidelines are targeted-providers, consumers, and purchasers of mental health services for people affected by trauma. The authors have been responsible for developing guidelines across three continents (North America, Europe, and Australia). The aim of this article is to examine the various guidelines and to compare and contrast their methodologies and recommendations to aid clinicians in making decisions about their use.


J Trauma Stress


Forbes D,Creamer M,Bisson JI,Cohen JA,Crow BE,Foa EB,Friedman MJ,Keane TM,Kudler HS,Ursano RJ




Has Abstract


2010-10-01 00:00:00












  • Use of mental health treatment among veterans filing claims for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    abstract::This study examines predictors of current mental health service use in a sample of 154 veterans filing claims for Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits based on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Our conceptual framework was the behavioral model that classifies predictors of service utilization into predisposin...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sayer NA,Clothier B,Spoont M,Nelson DB

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Development and validation of the sources of trauma-related guilt survey-war-zone version.

    abstract::Despite clinical observations that many veterans have multiple sources of war-related guilt, many problematic guilt issues are commonly not treated or even detected by clinicians. We describe development of a survey that systematically assesses idiosyncratic sources of guilt across the spectrum of events that are pote...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kubany ES,Abueg FR,Kilauano WL,Manke FP,Kaplan AS

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prediction of numbing and effortful avoidance in female rape survivors with chronic PTSD.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships among numbing, arousal, intrusion, and avoidance in a sample of 272 female rape survivors. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to test a theoretical model, which posits that hyperarousal and numbing are functionally related mechanisms and in...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feuer CA,Nishith P,Resick P

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring Reliability and Validity of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 Among a Nonclinical Sample of Discharged Soldiers Following Mandatory Military Service.

    abstract::The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory (DRRI) is a widely used questionnaire assessing deployment-related risk and resilience factors among war veterans. Its successor, the DRRI-2, has only been validated and used among veterans deployed for overseas military missions, but because many countries still enforce co...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maoz H,Goldwin Y,Lewis YD,Bloch Y

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Emotional deficits in military-related PTSD: an investigation of content and process disturbances.

    abstract::To expound on the nature of emotional deficits in PTSD, the current study investigated the relationships among emotion content and process variables and PTSD symptomatology in a sample of 85 veterans with military-related trauma. Alexithymic externally oriented thinking and negative affectivity emerged as the most con...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monson CM,Price JL,Rodriguez BF,Ripley MP,Warner RA

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Moving Moral Injury Into the Future With Functional Contextualism: A Response to Nash's "Unpacking Two Models for Understanding Moral Injury" (2019).

    abstract::In his commentary on the Journal of Traumatic Stress special issue on moral injury (Vol. 32, Issue 3), Nash (2019) critiques both Farnsworth's (2019) descriptive-prescriptive framework for differentiating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from moral injury and Farnsworth, Drescher, Evans, and Walser's (2017) functi...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Farnsworth JK,Borges LM,Walser RD

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Perceived Support From Multiple Sources: Associations With PTSD Symptoms.

    abstract::Perceived social support is negatively associated with severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the literature lacks data about specific sources of support. Using 2 service member (SM) samples (n = 207 and 465), this study examined perceived support from family/friends and the broader public. SMs perceive...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DiMauro J,Renshaw KD,Smith BN,Vogt D

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Measurement of perceived disruption during rebuilding following Hurricane Andrew.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a measure of perceived disruption during rebuilding following a disaster. Two eight-item scales, which measured intensity of disruption during the entire repair phase (Intensity-RP) and intensity of disruption during the past month (Intensity-PM) were developed and...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burnett K,Ironson G,Benight C,Wynings C,Greenwood D,Carver CS,Cruess D,Baum A,Schneiderman N

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Negative Posttrauma Cognitions Mediate the Association Between Morally Injurious Events and Trauma-Related Psychopathology in Treatment-Seeking Veterans.

    abstract::Exposure to potentially morally injurious events has been shown to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in military personnel. Few studies have examined factors that help to explain how potentially morally injurious events may contribute to the development of trauma-related p...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Held P,Klassen BJ,Zou DS,Schroedter BS,Karnik NS,Pollack MH,Zalta AK

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Dreams and exposure therapy in PTSD.

    abstract::Exposure therapy is a well-established treatment for PTSD that requires the patient to focus on and describe the details of a traumatic experience. Nightmares that refer to or replicate traumatic experiences are prominent and distressing symptoms of PTSD and appear to exacerbate the disorder. With this apparent parado...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rothbaum BO,Mellman TA

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • The ISTSS/Rand guidelines on mental health training of primary healthcare providers for trauma-exposed populations in conflict-affected countries.

    abstract::Mental health care for trauma-exposed populations in conflict-affected developing countries often is provided by primary healthcare providers (PHPs), including doctors, nurses, and lay health workers. The Task Force on International Trauma Training, through an initiative sponsored by the International Society for Trau...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引


    authors: Eisenman D,Weine S,Green B,de Jong J,Rayburn N,Ventevogel P,Keller A,Agani F

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Trauma-related risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined in a sample of 125 veterans with spinal cord injury. Category of injury was found to be the most consistent predictor of PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity with paraplegia predicting more PTSD symptoms than quadriplegia. The occurrence...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Attachment, social cognition, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a traumatized, urban population: evidence for the mediating role of object relations.

    abstract::Research has linked multiple risk and resiliency factors to developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potentially important construct for understanding connections between trauma and PTSD is attachment. Although relationships between attachment and risk for PTSD have been described theoretically, limited re...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ortigo KM,Westen D,Defife JA,Bradley B

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Associations between perceived social reactions to trauma-related experiences with PTSD and depression among veterans seeking PTSD treatment.

    abstract::The Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ; Maercker & Mueller, ) is a measure of trauma survivors' perceptions of social acknowledgment and disapproval from others, and these factors are shown to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among civilian trauma survivors. This study seeks to validate th...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schumm JA,Koucky EM,Bartel A

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Measuring Trauma Exposure: Count Versus Variety of Potentially Traumatic Events in a Binational Sample.

    abstract::Traumatic event checklists typically ask respondents to indicate whether they have experienced particular types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and then sum these endorsements to gauge cumulative trauma exposure. However, the sum of these endorsements indicates the variety of PTEs respondents have experienced r...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rasmussen A,Romero S,Leon M,Verkuilen J,Morales P,Martinez-Maganalles S,García-Sosa I

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • "I felt like a slut": the cultural context and women's response to being raped.

    abstract::This paper examines how cultural beliefs (cultural constructions) about women influence how women survivors of rape make sense of their traumatic experience. A thematic content analysis of interviews with female survivors of rape was undertaken to provide a systematic description of the phenomenology of the experience...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lebowitz L,Roth S

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Posttraumatic symptoms and self-dysfunction as consequences and predictors of sexual revictimization.

    abstract::Posttraumatic symptomatology (PTS) and self-dysfunction (SD) were examined as correlates and predictors of sexual revictimization in a prospective study of 339 college women. Both PTS and SD were associated with a history of child and adult sexual victimization. Compared to a history of child victimization, a history ...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Messman-Moore TL,Brown AL,Koelsch LE

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • More than symptom reduction: changes in executive function over the course of PTSD treatment.

    abstract::Persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have neuropsychological impairments in multiple cognitive domains, though particularly in executive function. This exploratory study examined whether these cognitive impairments were alleviated following trauma-focused treatment. Fifteen women underwent neuropsychologi...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Walter KH,Palmieri PA,Gunstad J

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in DSM-5 and ICD-11: Clinical and Behavioral Correlates.

    abstract::The American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization provide distinct trauma-based diagnoses in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), and the forthcoming 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), respectively. The DSM-5 conceptualizes posttra...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hyland P,Shevlin M,Fyvie C,Karatzias T

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in injured children.

    abstract::This study indexed the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in injured children. Consecutive children between 7-13 years admitted to a hospital after traumatic injury (n = 76) were assessed for ASD. Children were followed up 6-months posttrauma (n = 62), ...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bryant RA,Salmon K,Sinclair E,Davidson P

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Memory functioning in adult women traumatized by childhood sexual abuse.

    abstract::Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learni...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stein MB,Hanna C,Vaerum V,Koverola C

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Examining Associations Between Hurricane Sandy Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder by Community of Residence.

    abstract::Exposure to 2012's Hurricane Sandy differed by community across New York City and nearby Long Island, and the differential impact of exposure on mental health concerns must be studied to enhance resilience in vulnerable communities. We assessed the association between self-reported Hurricane Sandy exposure and subsequ...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwartz RM,Rasul R,Gargano LM,Lieberman-Cribbin W,Brackbill RM,Taioli E

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Resource Loss and Stress Outcomes in a Setting of Chronic Conflict: The Conservation of Resources Theory in the Eastern Congo.

    abstract::The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine conservation of resources (COR) theory in the context of armed conflict in Africa. Specifically, within the setting of ongoing chronic conflict in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), we tested the COR theory prediction that resource loss contribu...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Snyder JD,Boan D,Aten JD,Davis EB,Van Grinsven L,Liu T,Worthington EL Jr

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Factor structure and concurrent validity of the world assumptions scale.

    abstract::The factor structure of the World Assumptions Scale (WAS) was assessed by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The sample was comprised of 1,710 participants who had been exposed to trauma that resulted in whiplash. Four alternative models were specified and estimated using LISREL 8.72. A correlated 8-factor solutio...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elklit A,Shevlin M,Solomon Z,Dekel R

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • The Preliminary Development and Validation of a Trauma-Related Safety-Seeking Behavior Measure for Youth: The Child Safety Behavior Scale (CSBS).

    abstract::Safety-seeking behaviors (SSBs) may be employed after exposure to a traumatic event in an effort to prevent a feared outcome. Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder propose SSBs contribute to maintaining this disorder by preventing disconfirmation of maladaptive beliefs and preserving a sense of current thr...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alberici A,Meiser-Stedman R,Claxton J,Smith P,Ehlers A,Dixon C,Mckinnon A

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Alcohol-involved assault and the course of PTSD in female crime victims.

    abstract::Although alcohol use has been associated with increased risk of victimization, little is known about how victim substance use at the time of assault may affect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom development. The present study is a longitudinal examination of substance use on PTSD symptom severity and course....

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaysen DL,Lindgren KP,Lee CM,Lewis MA,Fossos N,Atkins DC

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparing Outcomes of Women-Only and Mixed-Gender Intensive Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment for Female Veterans.

    abstract::Although most female veterans treated in specialized intensive Veterans Health Administration (VHA) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs receive services in settings in which over 95% of participants are men, two programs include only women. Whether outcomes for women with PTSD are superior in women-only prog...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Stefanovics EA,Rosenheck RA

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Validity of Attention Bias Variability Indices for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Research: Evidence From Patient Data.

    abstract::Although initial findings indicated that threat-related attention bias variability (ABV), an index designed to capture dynamic shifts in threat-related attention over time, was positively correlated with the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, a recent study relying on simulated data has raised ...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alon Y,Naim R,Pine DS,Bliese PD,Bar-Haim Y

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • The lifetime prevalence of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in the Netherlands.

    abstract::Little information exists on the lifetime prevalence of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general population of the Netherlands. A national representative sample of 1087 adults aged 18 to 80 years was selected using random digit dialing and then surveyed by telephone using the Composite ...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Vries GJ,Olff M

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Twenty-four-hour ambulatory assessment of heart rate and blood pressure in chronic PTSD and non-PTSD veterans.

    abstract::This study examined 24-hr levels of ambulatory heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in 2 groups of male veterans: 19 with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 who never met criteria for PTSD. The relationships between diagnostic status, basal cardiovascular activity, and cardiovascular reactivity to ...

    journal_title:Journal of traumatic stress

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buckley TC,Holohan D,Greif JL,Bedard M,Suvak M

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00