The role of salivary nitrophorins in the ingestion of blood by the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus (Reduviidae: Triatominae).


:To assist haematophagy, Rhodnius prolixus produces several bioactive molecules in its saliva which it injects into the host skin. The most abundant of these molecules are the nitrophorins (NPs). In this work, we reduced the expression of NP1-4 in the saliva of R. prolixus by RNAi and evaluated the subsequent feeding performance of the bugs using the cibarial pump electromyogram either on the dorsal skin or on the tail vein of the mice. NPs salivary mRNA was reduced by >99% in comparison to controls. Saliva from knockdown nymphs also presented 82% less haemproteins while the total protein was not reduced. Knockdown nymphs feeding on the skin had lower ingestion rates mainly due to the longer cumulative probing time and lower cibarial pump frequency. Another difference was that knockdown insects bit approximately 5 times more. No differences were observed between groups fed on the tail vein. When the feeding sites were compared, nymphs fed on the tail vein had higher effective ingestion rates. These findings endorse the importance of the NPs for the ability of bugs to complete the meal in a short total contact time with a low number of bites, decreasing the perception of the insect by the host.


Araujo RN,Soares AC,Paim RM,Gontijo NF,Gontijo AF,Lehane MJ,Pereira MH




Has Abstract


2009-02-01 00:00:00














  • Structure and organization of the Bombyx mori sericin 1 gene and of the sericins 1 deduced from the sequence of the Ser 1B cDNA.

    abstract::The sericin 1 primary transcript of the silkworm Bombyx mori is differentially spliced via a tissue- and developmentally-regulated process. From a middle silk gland cDNA library, we have elucidated the sequence of one of the four mRNAs, the 4.0 kb Ser1B mRNA. Determination of alternative or constitutive exons and intr...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garel A,Deleage G,Prudhomme JC

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Drosophila odorant receptors are novel seven transmembrane domain proteins that can signal independently of heterotrimeric G proteins.

    abstract::Olfaction in Drosophila is mediated by a large family of membrane-bound odorant receptor proteins (Ors). In heterologous cells, we investigated whether the structural features and signalling mechanisms of ligand-binding Drosophila Ors are consistent with them being G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The detailed mem...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smart R,Kiely A,Beale M,Vargas E,Carraher C,Kralicek AV,Christie DL,Chen C,Newcomb RD,Warr CG

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • The silkmoth homolog of the Drosophila ecdysone receptor (B1 isoform): cloning and analysis of expression during follicular cell differentiation.

    abstract::To understand the role that 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) plays during ovarian development in Bombyx mori, we have undertaken the cloning of the silkworm ecdysone receptor (EcR) and a study of its expression during follicular cell differentiation. We have cloned a cDNA that contains a complete open reading frame for a 68....

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Swevers L,Drevet JR,Lunke MD,Iatrou K

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Identification, mRNA expression and functional analysis of several yellow family genes in Tribolium castaneum.

    abstract::Querying the genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, with the Drosophila melanogaster Yellow-y (DmY-y) protein sequence identified 14 Yellow homologs. One of these is an ortholog of DmY-y, which is required for cuticle pigmentation (melanization), and another is an ortholog of DmY-f/f2, which functions as...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arakane Y,Dittmer NT,Tomoyasu Y,Kramer KJ,Muthukrishnan S,Beeman RW,Kanost MR

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of a sugar clade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    abstract::Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription ...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mang D,Shu M,Endo H,Yoshizawa Y,Nagata S,Kikuta S,Sato R

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • The transcriptome of the salivary glands of the female western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    abstract::Sequencing of an Ixodes pacificus salivary gland cDNA library yielded 1068 sequences with an average undetermined nucleotide of 1.9% and an average length of 487 base pairs. Assembly of the expressed sequence tags yielded 557 contigs, 138 of which appear to code for secreted peptides or proteins based on translation o...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Francischetti IM,My Pham V,Mans BJ,Andersen JF,Mather TN,Lane RS,Ribeiro JM

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Is the mature endotoxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis inactivated by a coagulation reaction in the gut lumen of resistant Helicoverpa armigera larvae?

    abstract::Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins (Bt-toxins) are the most important biopesticides used in controlling insect pests and vectors of diseases. The emergence of widespread resistance to Bt in some insect species is a serious threat to agricultural production. Analysis of Bt-resistant and susceptible laboratory strains of...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma G,Roberts H,Sarjan M,Featherstone N,Lahnstein J,Akhurst R,Schmidt O

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a chitin synthase cDNA and its increased mRNA level associated with decreased chitin synthesis in Anopheles quadrimaculatus exposed to diflubenzuron.

    abstract::Chitin synthase (EC is a crucial enzyme responsible for chitin biosynthesis in all chitin-containing organisms. This paper reports a complete cDNA encoding chitin synthase 1 (AqCHS1), change of AqCHS1 mRNA level in response to diflubenzuron exposure, and concentration-dependent effect of diflubenzuron on chi...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang J,Zhu KY

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Targeted mutagenesis in the silkworm Bombyx mori using zinc finger nuclease mRNA injection.

    abstract::Targeted mutagenesis is one of the key methods for functional gene analysis. A simplified variant of gene targeting uses direct microinjection of custom-designed Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) mRNAs into Drosophila embryos. To evaluate the applicability of this method to gene targeting in another insect, we mutagenized th...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takasu Y,Kobayashi I,Beumer K,Uchino K,Sezutsu H,Sajwan S,Carroll D,Tamura T,Zurovec M

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • A genomic clone for a chitinase gene from the silkworm, Bombyx mori: structural organization identifies functional motifs.

    abstract::A genomic clone containing the chitinase gene was isolated and characterized from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using the polymerase chain reaction technique directed by primers designed from the chitinase cDNA of the insect previously cloned [Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 28 (1998) 163]. Results from nucleotide sequence ...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdel-Banat BM,Koga D

    更新日期:2001-03-15 00:00:00

  • Study of the aminopeptidase N gene family in the lepidopterans Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and Bombyx mori (L.): sequences, mapping and expression.

    abstract::Aminopeptidases N (APNs) are a class of ectoenzymes present in lepidopteran larvae midguts, involved in the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins mode of action. In the present work, seven aminopeptidases have been cloned from the midgut of Ostrinia nubilalis, the major Lepidopteran corn pest in the temperate climates. S...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crava CM,Bel Y,Lee SF,Manachini B,Heckel DG,Escriche B

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Small RNA responses of Culex mosquitoes and cell lines during acute and persistent virus infection.

    abstract::RNA interference is a crucial antiviral mechanism in arthropods, including in mosquito vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Although the exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway constitutes an efficient antiviral response in mosquitoes, virus-derived P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interactin...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rückert C,Prasad AN,Garcia-Luna SM,Robison A,Grubaugh ND,Weger-Lucarelli J,Ebel GD

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • A peptidomics study reveals the impressive antimicrobial peptide arsenal of the wax moth Galleria mellonella.

    abstract::The complete antimicrobial peptide repertoire of Galleria mellonella was investigated for the first time by LC/MS. Combining data from separate trypsin, Glu-C and Asp-N digests of immune hemolymph allowed detection of 18 known or putative G. mellonella antimicrobial peptides or proteins, namely lysozyme, moricin-like ...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown SE,Howard A,Kasprzak AB,Gordon KH,East PD

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of the chitin recognition mechanism of cuticle proteins from the soft cuticle of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    abstract::Insect cuticle is composed mainly of chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, and chitin-binding cuticle proteins. Four major cuticle proteins, BMCP30, 22, 18, and 17, have been previously identified and purified from the larval cuticle of silkworm, B. mori. We analyzed the chitin-binding activity of BMCP30 by use of...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Togawa T,Nakato H,Izumi S

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Prostaglandin biosynthesis by salivary glands isolated from the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum.

    abstract::Salivary glands separated from internal tissues of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, are competent to synthesize prostaglandins (PGs). Using an in vitro PG biosynthesis assay four major PGs, namely, PGA2/PGB2, PGD2, PGE2, and PGF2 alpha were synthesized. Under standard assay conditions PGA2/PGB2 was the predom...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pedibhotla VK,Sauer JR,Stanley-Samuelson DW

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • N-linked glycosylation of a beetle (Apriona germari) cellulase Ag-EGase II is necessary for enzymatic activity.

    abstract::We previously reported that the beta-1,4-endoglucanase (EGase) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 45 of the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari (Ag-EGase II), has three potential N-linked glycosylation sites; these sites are located at amino acid residues 56-59 (NKSG), 99-102 (NSTF), and 237-239 (NYS...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wei YD,Lee KS,Gui ZZ,Yoon HJ,Kim I,Je YH,Lee SM,Zhang GZ,Guo X,Sohn HD,Jin BR

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Host hemolymph proteins and protein digestion in larval Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: braconidae).

    abstract::Host plasma proteins and protein digestion in larval parasitoids were studied during trophic interactions of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a host, larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We could detect no apparent differences i...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baker JE,Fabrick JA

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Purification and molecular cloning of a novel serine protease from the centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    abstract::A novel serine protease, named as scolonase, was purified and characterized from the tissue of the Korean centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. Purified scolonase showed an apparent molecular weight of 25 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and an isoelectric point of 4.8 o...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: You WK,Sohn YD,Kim KY,Park DH,Jang Y,Chung KH

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Biological actions of synthetic locust ion transport peptide (ITP).

    abstract::Locust Ion Transport Peptide (ITP) a member of the arthropod neuropeptide family which includes hyperglycemic, vitellogenesis-inhibiting, and moult-inhibiting hormones (CHH, VIH, MIH, respectively) was synthesized as proposed by Meredith et al. (1996) with terminal amidation of amino acid residue 72 and with 3 disulph...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: King DS,Meredith J,Wang YJ,Phillips JE

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Major chorion proteins and their crosslinking during chorion hardening in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    abstract::The chorion of Aedes aegypti eggs undergoes a hardening process following oviposition and individual chorion proteins become insoluble thereafter. Our previous studies determined that peroxidase-catalyzed chorion protein crosslinking and phenoloxidase-mediated chorion melanization are primarily responsible for the for...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li JS,Li J

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • A protein from the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, regulated by a bacterial infection is homologous to 3-dehydroecdysone 3beta-reductase.

    abstract::During the screening of immune-regulated genes from the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a 3-dehydroecdysone 3beta-reductase homologue (DERH) was cloned. In the course of development, 3-dehydroecdysone 3beta-reductase mediates the conversion of 3-dehydroecdysone (3dE) secreted from the prothoracic glands to ecdysone (...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lundström A,Kang D,Liu G,Fernandez C,Warren JT,Gilbert LI,Steiner H

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of a developmentally regulated gene, esr16, in the tracheal epithelium of Manduca sexta, with homology to a protein from human epididymis.

    abstract::Events related to both ecdysis and metamorphosis require the expression of a new set of genes, the majority of which are regulated by the changes in ecdysteroid levels. We have initiated studies to identify genes whose expression is up-regulated between 24 and 4 h before pupal ecdysis in Manduca sexta. In this paper w...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mészáros M,Morton DB

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular cloning of a multidomain cysteine protease and protease inhibitor precursor gene from the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the cathepsin F-like cysteine protease domain.

    abstract::A Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm) cysteine protease inhibitor, MsCPI, purified from larval hemolymph has an apparent molecular mass of 11.5 kDa, whereas the size of the mRNA is very large (∼9 kilobases). MsCPI cDNA consists of a 9,273 nucleotides that encode a polypeptide of 2,676 amino acids, which includes nine tan...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyaji T,Murayama S,Kouzuma Y,Kimura N,Kanost MR,Kramer KJ,Yonekura M

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • The shrimp FAMeT cDNA is encoded for a putative enzyme involved in the methylfarnesoate (MF) biosynthetic pathway and is temporally expressed in the eyestalk of different sexes.

    abstract::Methylfarnesoate (MF), an analogue of the insect juvenile hormone III, has been implicated to play a vital role in the regulation of the growth and reproductive development in crustaceans. Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) is the key enzyme involved in catalyzing the final step in the MF biosynthetic pathway....

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silva Gunawardene YI,Chow BK,He JG,Chan SM

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • A digestive beta-glucosidase from the salivary glands of the termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Shiraki): distribution, characterization and isolation of its precursor cDNA by 5'- and 3'-RACE amplifications with degenerate primers.

    abstract::beta-Glucosidase activity [EC] was measured in the salivary glands and the gut of wood-eating termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Shiraki). 75% of the activity was detected in the salivary glands, whereas 15% of the activity was present in the hindgut, where numerous symbiotic flagellates reside. The salivary bet...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tokuda G,Saito H,Watanabe H

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Male jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi, synthesizes the pheromone component frontalin in anterior midgut tissue.

    abstract::The male Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produces the bicyclic ketal frontalin as part of a complex semiochemical blend. A key regulated enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-R), showed high transcript levels in the anterior midgut ...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hall GM,Tittiger C,Blomquist GJ,Andrews GL,Mastick GS,Barkawi LS,Bengoa C,Seybold SJ

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Transcription factors, CncC and Maf, regulate expression of CYP6BQ genes responsible for deltamethrin resistance in Tribolium castaneum.

    abstract::Insecticide resistance is a global problem that presents an ongoing challenge to control insects that destroy crops, trees and transmit diseases. Dramatic progress has been made during the last decade on identification of insecticide resistance-associated genes. In one of the most common resistance mechanisms, insects...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kalsi M,Palli SR

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Efficient germ-line transformation of the economically important pest species Lucilia cuprina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae).

    abstract::The green blowfly species Lucilia cuprina and Lucilia sericata are economically important pests for the sheep industries of Australia and New Zealand. L. cuprina has long been considered a good target for a genetic pest management program. In addition, L. sericata maggots are used in the cleaning of wounds and necroti...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Concha C,Belikoff EJ,Carey BL,Li F,Schiemann AH,Scott MJ

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • A water-specific aquaporin involved in aphid osmoregulation.

    abstract::The osmotic pressure of plant phloem sap is generally higher than that of insect body fluids. Water cycling from the distal to proximal regions of the gut is believed to contribute to the osmoregulation of aphids and other phloem-feeding insects, with the high flux of water mediated by a membrane-associated aquaporin....

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shakesby AJ,Wallace IS,Isaacs HV,Pritchard J,Roberts DM,Douglas AE

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of an aspartylglucosaminidase-like protein in the venom of the parasitic wasp Asobara tabida (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    abstract::This study was designed to identify one of the main components of venomous secretions of the endoparasitic wasp Asobara tabida. By using electrophoretic methods, partial amino acid sequencing and immunostaining, we demonstrated the presence of an aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA)-like protein in the venom of this insect. ...

    journal_title:Insect biochemistry and molecular biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moreau SJ,Cherqui A,Doury G,Dubois F,Fourdrain Y,Sabatier L,Bulet P,Saarela J,Prévost G,Giordanengo P

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00