Bacteriophage endolysins--current state of research and applications.


:Endolysins are phage-encoded enzymes that break down bacterial peptidoglycan at the terminal stage of the phage reproduction cycle. Their action is tightly regulated by holins, by membrane arrest, and by conversion from their inactive to active state. Recent research has not only revealed the unexpected diversity of these highly specific hydrolases but has also yielded insights into their modular organization and their three-dimensional structures. Their N-terminal catalytic domains are able to target almost every possible bond in the peptidoglycan network, and their corresponding C-terminal cell wall binding domains target the enzymes to their substrate. Owing to their specificity and high activity, endolysins have been employed for various in vitro and in vivo aims, in food science, in microbial diagnostics, and for treatment of experimental infections. Clearly, phage endolysins represent great tools for use in molecular biology, biotechnology and in medicine, and we are just beginning to tap this potential.


Curr Opin Microbiol


Loessner MJ




Has Abstract


2005-08-01 00:00:00














  • Inter-kingdom signaling: chemical language between bacteria and host.

    abstract::Chemical communication between cells ensures coordination of behavior. In prokaryotes, this chemical communication is usually referred to as quorum sensing, while eukaryotic cells signal through hormones. In the past years, a growing number of reports have shown that bacterial quorum sensing signals, called autoinduce...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pacheco AR,Sperandio V

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • The mycobiota: fungi take their place between plants and bacteria.

    abstract::Eukaryotes host numerous intracellular and associated microbes in their microbiota. Fungi, the so-called Mycobiota, are important members of both human and plant microbiota. Moreover, members of the plant mycobiota host their own microbiota on their surfaces and inside their hyphae. The microbiota of the mycobiota inc...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bonfante P,Venice F,Lanfranco L

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • How and why myxobacteria talk to each other.

    abstract::In response to starvation, myxobacteria build multicellular fruiting bodies that contain many thousands of cells and that have particular species-specific shapes. To coordinate fruiting body development, the myxobacterial cells signal to each other. The timing of and cellular responses to these signals help to give fo...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kaiser D

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Immune control of phagosomal bacteria by p47 GTPases.

    abstract::Sequestered from the action of complement, antibody and lytic peptides, phagosomal pathogens pose a unique problem for the innate immune system both in terms of detection and disposal. An immunologically induced 47-kDa (p47) GTPase family recruited to nascent phagosomes (PGs) has provided new insights into how vertebr...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: MacMicking JD

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Virus-host interactions in salt lakes.

    abstract::Natural hypersaline waters are widely distributed around the globe, as both continental surface waters and sea floor lakes, the latter being maintained by the large density difference between the hypersaline and overlying marine water. Owing to the extreme salt concentrations, close to or at saturation (approximately ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Porter K,Russ BE,Dyall-Smith ML

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Taking the pseudo out of pseudogenes.

    abstract::Pseudogenes are defined as fragments of once-functional genes that have been silenced by one or more nonsense, frameshift or missense mutations. Despite continuing increases in the speed of sequencing and annotating bacterial genomes, the identification and categorisation of pseudogenes remains problematic. Even when ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Goodhead I,Darby AC

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cell cycle and sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    abstract::Recent work on cell division and chromosome orientation and partitioning in Bacillus subtilis has provided insights into cell cycle regulation during growth and development. The cell cycle is an integral part of development and entrance into sporulation is modulated by signals that transmit the status of DNA integrity...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Levin PA,Grossman AD

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation: a bright new technique to kill resistant microbes.

    abstract::Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses photosensitizers (non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can oxidize biomolecules and destroy cells. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) can treat localized infections. aPDI neither cau...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hamblin MR

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Marine nitrogen fixation: what's the fuss?

    abstract::Biological nitrogen fixation is a much more important process in the nitrogen cycle of the oceans than previously thought. Further, nitrogen fixation may have an influence on the capacity of the oceans to sequester carbon. A greater diversity of marine nitrogen fixers has also been uncovered but their quantitative sig...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Capone DG

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Control of bacterial transcription, translation and replication by (p)ppGpp.

    abstract::The small nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp (or (p)ppGpp) are rapidly synthesized in response to nutritional stress. In Escherichia coli, the enzymes RelA and SpoT are triggered by different starvation signals to produce (p)ppGpp. In many Gram-positive bacteria this is carried out by RelA and two small homologs. (p)ppGpp, ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Srivatsan A,Wang JD

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring novel bioactive compounds from marine microbes.

    abstract::The historical paradigm of the deep ocean as a biological 'desert' has shifted to one of a 'rainforest' owing to the isolation of many novel microbes and their associated bioactive compounds. Recently, there has been an explosion of information about novel bioactive compounds that have been isolated from marine microb...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhang L,An R,Wang J,Sun N,Zhang S,Hu J,Kuai J

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Control of bacterial colonization in the glands and crypts.

    abstract::The epithelial cell layer of the major organs of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is extensively invaginated into thousands of gland and crypt structures. These are lined by distinct sets of epithelial cells and may comprise discrete niches. The host maximizes the distance between the epithelial cell layer an...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yang C,Ottemann KM

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Antibacterials - mechanisms of action.

    abstract::Recent studies on antibacterials have focused on the development of antimycobacterial agents and antibacterial peptides, and on furthering the understanding of agents that have been available for several decades, including imidazoles, beta-lactams and quinolones. New areas of research include antisense oligonucleotide...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Piddock LJ

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Transitions and transmission: behavior and physiology as drivers of honey bee-associated microbial communities.

    abstract::Microbial communities have considerable impacts on animal health. However, only in recent years have the host factors impacting microbiome composition been explored. An increasing wealth of microbiome data in combination with decades of research on behavior, physiology, and development have resulted in the European ho...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Miller DL,Parish AJ,Newton IL

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Eco-Aging: stem cells and microbes are controlled by aging antagonist FoxO.

    abstract::The review highlights the dual role that the conserved master regulator FoxO has in aging by coordinating both stem cell proliferation and antimicrobial peptides, effector molecules of the innate immune system. As observed in non-senescent Hydra, continuously high activity of the transcription factor FoxO contributes ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mortzfeld BM,Bosch TC

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Imaging bacteria inside their host by cryo-focused ion beam milling and electron cryotomography.

    abstract::Bacterium-host interactions are important for diverse ecological settings including pathogenicity and symbiosis. Electron cryotomography is a powerful method for studying the macromolecular complexes that mediate such interactions in situ. The main limitation of electron cryotomography is its restriction to relatively...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Medeiros JM,Böck D,Pilhofer M

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Emerging views on integrin signaling via Rac1 during invasin-promoted bacterial uptake.

    abstract::Enteropathogenic Yersinia species encode invasin, which promotes uptake into host cells by binding beta1 integrins. Invasin may cluster integrin heterodimers extracellularly and cause the integrin alpha and beta chains to splay apart in the cytoplasm. Cdc42 signaling is not essential for Yersinia uptake, whereas invas...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wong KW,Isberg RR

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Roles of cysteine proteinases of trypanosomes and Leishmania in host-parasite interactions.

    abstract::Trypanosomes and Leishmania contain an abundance of stage-regulated cysteine proteinases encoded by several gene families. Analysis of parasites rendered defective in cysteine proteinase function, either through genetic manipulation or through the use of specific inhibitors, has revealed roles for the enzymes in paras...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mottram JC,Brooks DR,Coombs GH

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial solute uptake and efflux systems.

    abstract::The recent discovery of binding protein dependent secondary transporters and the ever-growing family of membrane potential generating secondary transporters emphasize the diversity of transport systems in both the mechanistical and physiological sense. The vast amount of data on the lactose permease is now beginning t...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lolkema JS,Poolman B,Konings WN

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Advances in understanding the genetic basis of antimalarial drug resistance.

    abstract::The acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum has severely curtailed global efforts to control malaria. Our ability to define resistance has been greatly enhanced by recent advances in Plasmodium genetics and genomics. Sequencing and microarray studies have identified thousands of polymorphisms in the P....

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ekland EH,Fidock DA

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Microbial genomes: dealing with diversity.

    abstract::We have now complete genome sequences of several pairs of closely related prokaryotes (conspecific strains or congeneric species). Surprisingly, even strains of the same species can differ by as much as 20% in gene content. Conceptual and methodological approaches for dealing with such diversity are now being develope...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boucher Y,Nesbø CL,Doolittle WF

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Interactions of Bartonella henselae with vascular endothelial cells.

    abstract::The emerging human pathogen Bartonella henselae has the remarkable capacity to colonise vascular tissues and to stimulate vasoproliferative tumour growth. Although the molecular principle of bacterium-induced neovascularisation (angiogenesis) is still unclear, recent studies have indicated a novel mechanism of endothe...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dehio C

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • What's in the mix: phylogenetic classification of metagenome sequence samples.

    abstract::Metagenomics is a novel field which deals with the sequencing and study of microbial organisms or viruses isolated directly from a particular environment. This has already provided a wealth of information and new insights for the inhabitants of various environmental niches. For a given sample, one would like to determ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McHardy AC,Rigoutsos I

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Noncoding RNAs as emerging regulators of Plasmodium falciparum virulence gene expression.

    abstract::The eukaryotic unicellular pathogen Plasmodium falciparum tightly regulates gene expression, both during development and in adaptation to dynamic host environments. This regulation is evident in the mutually exclusive expression of members of clonally variant virulence multigene families. While epigenetic regulators h...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vembar SS,Scherf A,Siegel TN

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Next-generation precision antimicrobials: towards personalized treatment of infectious diseases.

    abstract::Antibiotics started to be used almost 90 years ago to eradicate life-threatening infections. The urgency of the problem required rapid, broad-spectrum elimination of infectious agents. Since their initial discovery, these antimicrobials have saved millions of lives. However, they are not exempt from side effects, whic...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de la Fuente-Nunez C,Torres MD,Mojica FJ,Lu TK

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of natural killer cell activity by viruses.

    abstract::Since their discovery, our understanding of NK cells has evolved from branding them marginal innate immunity cells to key players in anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity. Importance of NK cells in control of various viral infections is perhaps best illustrated by the existence of plethora of viral mechanisms aimed to mo...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lisnić VJ,Krmpotić A,Jonjić S

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Heterocyst development in Anabaena.

    abstract::Many filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria protect nitrogenase from oxygen in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Heterocyst development is controlled by the availability of nitrogen compounds in the environment and by intrinsic factors that regulate the frequency and pattern of heterocysts along vegetative c...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Golden JW,Yoon HS

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Rewiring two-component signal transduction with small RNAs.

    abstract::Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) and small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) form densely interconnected networks that integrate and transduce information from the environment into fine-tuned changes of gene expression. Many TCSs control target genes indirectly through regulation of sRNAs, which in turn regulate gene expr...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Göpel Y,Görke B

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Flexible genomic islands as drivers of genome evolution.

    abstract::Natural prokaryotic populations are composed of multiple clonal lineages that are different in their core genomes in a range that varies typically between 95 and 100% nucleotide identity. Each clonal lineage also carries a complement of not shared flexible genes that can be very large. The compounded flexible genome p...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rodriguez-Valera F,Martin-Cuadrado AB,López-Pérez M

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Auxiliary phosphatases in two-component signal transduction.

    abstract::Signal termination in two-component systems occurs by loss of the phosphoryl group from the response regulator protein. This review explores our current understanding of the structures, catalytic mechanisms and means of regulation of the known families of phosphatases that catalyze response regulator dephosphorylation...

    journal_title:Current opinion in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Silversmith RE

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00