An assessment of the Chinese medicinal Dendrobium industry: Supply, demand and sustainability.


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:A high proportion of species native to China from the genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) have been used as folk medicine for more than 2300 years. The fresh or dried stem of many Dendrobium species are regarded as "superior grade" tonic in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), for their traditional properties of nourishing the kidney, moisturizing the lung, benefiting the stomach, promoting the production of body fluids and clearing heat. AIM OF THE STUDY:This review aims to provide comprehensive and updated information on the diversity of Dendrobium species used in TCM and the development of the Dendrobium industry. The supply and demand of the Chinese medicinal Dendrobium are investigated. Moreover, we discuss the problems the industry faces and the relationship between the cultivation and species conservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The available information on many Dendrobium species (especially D. officinale) was collected from the electronic databases (using Pubmed, CNKI, Baidu scholar, Google scholar and Web of Science). We also obtained information from communication with specialists with profound knowledge in related research field and industry practitioners. Information was also obtained from website of the Forestry Bureau or relevant government departments, online databases, books, Ph.D. dissertations and M.Sc. theses. RESULTS:Approximately 41 species in genus Dendrobium have been recorded in TCM. The development of the Dendrobium industry could be divided into three phases: (a) the wild-collection phase, (b) the massive commercial artificial-sheltered cultivation phase and (c) the diversified ecologically-friendly cultivation phase. The development of seedlings production technology, the improvement of substrates and the integration of cultivation technology support the rapid increase of Dendrobium herbs in the Chinese TCM market. Doubts around the quality and efficacy of product in artificial-sheltered cultivation, the lack of product standards and the low level of product development have limited the utilization for TCM and hampered the development of the Dendrobium industry. Both the artificial-sheltered cultivation and ecologically-friendly cultivation contribute to the conservation of Dendrobium species, through the use seedlings derived from seeds of sexual reproduction rather than meristematic-based clonal propagation. CONCLUSIONS:This review summarizes the species and cultivation history of medicinal herbs in the Dendrobium. The review can help inform future scientific research towards the TCM in Dendrobium, including mycorrhizal technology and microorganism fertilizer, pharmacological studies, the directed cultivation of varieties and diversified product. It is suggested that Dendrobium cultivation has a great potential to link the commercial TCM industry together with initiatives of biodiversity conservation.


J Ethnopharmacol


Cheng J,Dang PP,Zhao Z,Yuan LC,Zhou ZH,Wolf D,Luo YB




Has Abstract


2019-01-30 00:00:00












  • Effects of hydroethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile (Balanitaceae) on some resistant pathogens bacteria isolated from wounds.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The bark of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile (Balanitaceae) is widely used in the Togolese folk medicine for the treatment of wounds, malaria and skin diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and the activity of the bark extract of this plant against some resistant bacteria isolated ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anani K,Adjrah Y,Ameyapoh Y,Karou SD,Agbonon A,de Souza C,Gbeassor M

    更新日期:2015-04-22 00:00:00

  • Metabolomic strategy to study therapeutic and synergistic effects of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B and ginsenoside Rb1 in myocardial ischemia rats.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:Tanshinone IIA (T), salvianolic acid B (S) and ginsenoside Rb1 (G) are the three major active ingredients of Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) for its protective effects on myocardial ischemia (MI). In this study, we aimed to investigate therapeutic and synergistic effects of TSG (combination of T, S and ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu Y,Liu X,Liang X,Xiang L,Zhang W

    更新日期:2011-03-08 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the anti-ulcer activity between the crude and bran-processed Atractylodes lancea in the rat model of gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (AL, Compositae, Chinese name: Cangzhu; Japanese name: Sou-ju-tsu) has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases such as digestive disorders, rheumatic diseases, and influenza in China, Korea and Japan. The crude AL and AL bran-proces...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu Y,Jia TZ,Cai Q,Jiang N,Ma MY,Min DY,Yuan Y

    更新日期:2015-02-03 00:00:00

  • Toxicological safety evaluation in acute and 28-day studies of aqueous extract from Bei-Qi-Wu-Jia formula.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Bei Qi Wu Jia (BQWJ), a modern preparation of a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, is a combination of Radix Astragali and Acanthopanacis Senticosi. Although BQWJ has been used to treat insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite, toxicological safety studies are rare in the literature. ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhao L,Li P,Xu H,Han B,Chen J,Gao Z,Li J,Li X,Wu C

    更新日期:2020-02-10 00:00:00

  • Antitumour activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma.

    abstract::The antitumour activity of the ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) has been evaluated against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. A significant enhancement of mean survival time of EBV-treated tumour bearing mice was found with respect to control group. EBV treatment was found to enhance peri...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rajkapoor B,Jayakar B,Murugesh N

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of Asphodelus microcarpus methanolic extracts.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Asphodelus microcarpus is an important medicinal plant belonging to family Liliaceae. This plant is used in traditional medicine to treat abscesses by local application of the powder; the roots are used against white spots, and specifically used for ear pain. AIM OF THE STUDY:The aim of ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mayouf N,Charef N,Saoudi S,Baghiani A,Khennouf S,Arrar L

    更新日期:2019-07-15 00:00:00

  • Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of Passiflora edulis in an inflammation model.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:The popular medicine Passiflora edulis has been used as a sedative, tranquilizer, against cutaneous inflammatory diseases and intermittent fever. Most of the pharmacological investigations of Passiflora edulis have been addressed to its Central Nervous System activities, such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant an...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montanher AB,Zucolotto SM,Schenkel EP,Fröde TS

    更新日期:2007-01-19 00:00:00

  • Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol root extract of Mahonia oiwakensis in mice.

    abstract:AIMS OF THE STUDY:This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, and protoberberine alkaloid contents of ethanol extract of MO roots (MOR(EtOH)). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The analgesic activity of MOR(EtOH) was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inf...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chao J,Lu TC,Liao JW,Huang TH,Lee MS,Cheng HY,Ho LK,Kuo CL,Peng WH

    更新日期:2009-09-07 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological effects of Agapanthus africanus on the isolated rat uterus.

    abstract::The Agapanthus africanus plant is used by South African traditional healers as a phytomedicine in herbal remedies to treat pregnancy-related ailments and to augment labour. It has already been shown that an aqueous extract of A. africanus causes smooth muscle contractions in the isolated uterus and ileum preparations....

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veale DJ,Havlik I,Oliver DW,Dekker TG

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Investigation on the morphological protective effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural extracted from wine-processed Fructus corni on human L02 hepatocytes.

    abstract:AIM:To determine the mode of action of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) extracted from wine-processed Fructus corni on hepatoprotective activities, the effects of 5-HMF on H(2)O(2)-induced human L02 hepatocytes injury was examined. MTHODS: Hepatocytes L02 injured by H(2)O(2) was treated by 5-HMF. The morphological chang...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang MY,Zhao FM,Peng HY,Lou CH,Li Y,Ding X,Yu XY,Yang GM,Xu DQ,Jiang LH,Zhang X,Ye LH,Cai BC

    更新日期:2010-07-20 00:00:00

  • Effects of the Turkish subspecies of Viscum album on macrophage-derived cytokines.

    abstract::Viscum album L. herbs are used for the treatment of various diseases. Apart from their immunostimulatory, antitumor, and hypotension inducing activities, anti-inflammatory effects has also been recorded in the literature. Since the immunostimulatory activity of mistletoe is mainly attributed to a stimulation of the mo...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yesilada E,Deliorman D,Ergun F,Takaishi Y,Ono Y

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Studies on the vascular effects of the fractions and phenolic compounds isolated from Viscum album ssp. album.

    abstract::Viscum album L. has been used in the indigenous system of medicine for treatment of various diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. In the literature, phenylpropan and flavonoid derivatives were suggested to play a role in the inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-phosphodiesterase (PDE) and a...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deliorman D,Caliş I,Ergun F,Doğan BS,Buharalioğlu CK,Kanzik I

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for the treatment of female infertility in Baham, Cameroon.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Infertility affects many women in Cameroon, with a rate of about 25%. This study aimed at collecting and documenting information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of women infertility in Baham subdivision (Western Region of Cameroon). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Fieldwork...

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    authors: Telefo PB,Lienou LL,Yemele MD,Lemfack MC,Mouokeu C,Goka CS,Tagne SR,Moundipa FP

    更新日期:2011-06-14 00:00:00

  • Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom.

    abstract::Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Otero R,Núñez V,Jiménez SL,Fonnegra R,Osorio RG,García ME,Díaz A

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Taoren-Honghua herb pair and its main components promoting blood circulation through influencing on hemorheology, plasma coagulation and platelet aggregation.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Persicae Semen (Taoren) and Carthami Flos (Honghua) used in pair which is named as Taoren-Honghua (TH) herb pair has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis for many years in China. AIM OF THE STUDY:This paper investigated...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu L,Duan JA,Tang Y,Guo J,Yang N,Ma H,Shi X

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  • Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity of jigrine against galactosamine induced hepatopathy in rats.

    abstract::Jigrine a polypharmaceutical herbal hepatoprotective formulation containing aqueous extracts of 14 medicinal plants is used in Indian system of medicine (Unani). Jigrine was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against galactosamine induced hepatopathy in rats. Galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity resembles hum...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Najmi AK,Pillai KK,Pal SN,Aqil M

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  • A review of natural products and plants as potential antidiabetic drugs.

    abstract::The present paper reviews the active, natural principles and crude extracts of plants which have been experimentally studied for hypoglycemic activity in the last ten years. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been listed alphab...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ivorra MD,Payá M,Villar A

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  • Ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of some plants used in traditional medicine of Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México).

    abstract::The village of Zapotitlán de las Salinas is situated in the Valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Puebla, Mexico. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat gastrointestinal diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. Out of 119 interviews, 44 plant species were registered, of ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hernández T,Canales M,Avila JG,Duran A,Caballero J,Romo de Vivar A,Lira R

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dalspinin isolated from Spermacoce hispida (Linn.) protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes from hypoxic injury by modulating oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Spermacoce hispida (S.hispida), a potential medicinal plant has been traditionally used as an antibacterial, antieczemic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic agent. Although, this plant has been claimed to protect against oxidative injury and inflammatory conditions in r...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lakshmi Sundaram R,Vasanthi HR

    更新日期:2019-09-15 00:00:00

  • Dragon's Blood extract has antithrombotic properties, affecting platelet aggregation functions and anticoagulation activities.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Dragon's Blood from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen (Yunnan, China), as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, was shown to have certain antithrombotic effects. A new preparation process was used to extract effective components from Dragon's Blood. A 95% ethanol extract A (EA) a...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xin N,Li YJ,Li Y,Dai RJ,Meng WW,Chen Y,Schlappi M,Deng YL

    更新日期:2011-05-17 00:00:00

  • Effect of acute pancreatitis on the pharmacokinetics of Chinese herbal ointment Liu-He-Dan in anaesthetized rats.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Chinese herbal preparation of Liu-He-Dan ointment has been adapted for acute pancreatitis in external application for many years in West China. AIM OF THE STUDY:To investigate the effect of acute pancreatitis on the pharmacokinetics of Liu-He-Dan ointment in rats while it was used extern...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhao XL,Xiang J,Wan MH,Yu Q,Chen WW,Chen GY,Tang WF

    更新日期:2013-01-09 00:00:00

  • Protective effect of a polyphenolic rich extract from Magnolia officinalis bark on influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mice.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Magnolia officinalis bark is used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cough, colds, fever, chronic bronchitis and stomach ailments. AIM OF THE STUDY:To investigate therapeutic effects of polyphenol rich extract from M. officinalis bark (MPE) in influenza virus A-infected...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu XN,Yu CH,Cai W,Hua J,Li SQ,Wang W

    更新日期:2011-03-08 00:00:00

  • Effect of the desert plant Retama raetam on glycaemia in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    abstract::The effect of the aqueous extract of Retama raetam (RR) on blood glucose levels was investigated in fasting normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after single and repeated oral administration. The aqueous extract of RR at a dose of 20mg/kg significantly reduced the blood glucose in normal rats 6h after a sin...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maghrani M,Lemhadri A,Jouad H,Michel JB,Eddouks M

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of Sceletium tortuosum in an in vivo model of psychological stress.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:Sceletium, and especially Sceletium tortuosum, is traditionally used as masticator and thought to have a sedative effect which may be beneficial to reduce symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. The current study evaluated the scientific merit of these anecdotal claims in an in vivo model of psychologic...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith C

    更新日期:2011-01-07 00:00:00

  • Holistic quality evaluation of Qingwen Baidu Decoction and its anti-inflammatory effects.

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    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zheng Y,Liu S,Fan C,Zeng H,Huang H,Tian C,Lu Z,Cao H,Liu J,Yu L

    更新日期:2020-12-05 00:00:00

  • Developmental toxicity of Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum turcz ethanol extract in zebrafish embryo.

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    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen TH,Nguyen PD,Quetin-Leclercq J,Muller M,Ly Huong DT,Pham HT,Kestemont P

    更新日期:2021-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sedative activity of two flavonol glycosides isolated from the flowers of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz.

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    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kang TH,Jeong SJ,Kim NY,Higuchi R,Kim YC

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Afifi FU,Abu-Irmaileh B

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • The comparative clinical study of efficacy of Gamisoyo-San (Jiaweixiaoyaosan) on generalized anxiety disorder according to differently manufactured preparations: multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Gamisoyo-San (GSS) is a well-known Traditional Korean Medicine shown to be effective on mood disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY:The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of Gamisoyo-San on generalized anxiety disorder by its differently manufactured preparations. MATERIALS AND METH...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Park DM,Kim SH,Park YC,Kang WC,Lee SR,Jung IC

    更新日期:2014-12-02 00:00:00

  • Antineoplastic constituents of some Southern African plants.

    abstract::Extracts of several Southern African plants which have been used in folk remedies have been prepared, and the extracts were tested in a variety of experimental tumour test-systems. Raphionacme hirsuta and Cheilanthes contracta have been used in African anticancer medicines. Extracts of these plants showed antitumor ac...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Charlson AJ

    更新日期:1980-12-01 00:00:00