Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning: The influence of trial number and reinforcement history.


:Pavlovian conditioning is sensitive to the temporal relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). This has motivated models that describe learning as a process that continuously updates associative strength during the trial or specifically encodes the CS-US interval. These models predict that extinction of responding is also continuous, such that response loss is proportional to the cumulative duration of exposure to the CS without the US. We review evidence showing that this prediction is incorrect, and that extinction is trial-based rather than time-based. We also present two experiments that test the importance of trials versus time on the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE), in which responding extinguishes more slowly for a CS that was inconsistently reinforced with the US than for a consistently reinforced one. We show that increasing the number of extinction trials of the partially reinforced CS, relative to the consistently reinforced CS, overcomes the PREE. However, increasing the duration of extinction trials by the same amount does not overcome the PREE. We conclude that animals learn about the likelihood of the US per trial during conditioning, and learn trial-by-trial about the absence of the US during extinction. Moreover, what they learn about the likelihood of the US during conditioning affects how sensitive they are to the absence of the US during extinction.


Behav Processes


Behavioural processes


Chan CKJ,Harris JA




Has Abstract


2017-08-01 00:00:00




Pt 1










  • The evolution of the behavior systems framework and its connection to interbehavioral psychology.

    abstract::The present article traces the development of Timberlake's behavior systems framework while noting connections between it and Kantor's interbehavioral psychology. Congruent with Timberlake's behavior systems approach, interbehaviorists assert that (a) behavior is best understood as part of a complex causal system inst...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Silva KM,Silva FJ,Machado A

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reproductive behavior and physiology of nulliparous female rats after sexual experience.

    abstract::There is an extensive literature suggesting that following sexual experience male mammals show chronic elevation of sexual behavior and growth of reproductive organs and glands. An hypothesis was examined in the present research that a similar pattern of changes would be revealed in females after sexual contact withou...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taylor GT,Bardgett M,Griffin M,Weiss J

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Time-place learning in food-restricted Nile tilapia.

    abstract::Time-place learning based on food association was investigated in eight food-restricted Nile tilapias. Each fish was individually housed for 10 days in an experimental tank for adjustments to laboratory conditions, and fed daily in excess. Feeding was then interrupted for 17 days. Training was then started, based on a...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Delicio HC,Barreto RE

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Fear reactions of domestic sheep confronted with either a human or a human-like model.

    abstract::Fear reactions of ewes towards a human, a human-like model or a control (plastic cylinder 1.95 m high) were studied using a test previously designed and validated, in which 16 behavioural parameters have been interpreted as indicators of fear (e.g. a relatively long time spent away from the stimulus) or absence of fea...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bouissou MF,Vandenheede M

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review.

    abstract::The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of appro...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Agrillo C,Miletto Petrazzini ME,Bisazza A

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Repeated post trial administration of vasopressin impairs subsequent Differential Reinforcement of Low rates (DRL) performance.

    abstract::Twenty-six male rats, maintained on a 23-h food deprivation regime, were trained on a DRL learning schedule. During pretraining (CRF) rats were placed in two groups according to speed in obtaining the criterion (good and poor learners). The performance of good and poor learners, injected with lysine vasopressin (LVP) ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alliot J,Alexinsky T

    更新日期:1983-10-01 00:00:00

  • Les Sequences De Remplacement Chez Ctenodactylus gundi: Competition Ou Cooperation?

    abstract::Ctenodactylus gundi, a colonial rodent inhabiting saharian Atlas, is often seen standing at the top of the rocks. At more or less regular intervals, another conspecific is taking the place of the "resident" animal. This relief impues only amicable reliationships and is to be considered as a kind of cooperation. The fu...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gouat P,Ggouat J

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • The tendency for social submission predicts superior cognitive performance in previously isolated male mice.

    abstract::The imposition of subordination may negatively impact cognitive performance in common social settings (e.g., the classroom), and likewise, laboratory studies of animals indicate that the stress associated with social defeat can impair cognitive performance. It is less clear whether an animal's predisposition for socia...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Matzel LD,Kolata S,Light K,Sauce B

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Serial feature negative training to a target unconditioned stimulus.

    abstract::In serial feature-negative (SFN) training to a target unconditioned stimulus (US), eight rats received two types of intermingled trials: (1) trials in which a tone was followed by the delivery of a single food pellet US, and (2) trials in which the delivery of a single food pellet US was followed by three additional f...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goddard MJ

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Ambient temperature and air pressure modulate hormones and behaviour in Greylag geese (Anser anser) and Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita).

    abstract::Ambient temperature and air pressure are relevant stimuli that can elicit hormonal responses in alignment with adjusting individuals' physiology and behaviour. This study investigated possible changes in corticosterone (C) and testosterone (T) and contingencies with behaviour in response to ambient temperature and air...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dorn S,Wascher CA,Möstl E,Kotrschal K

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in social behavior and brain catecholamines during the development of ascorbate deficiency in Guinea pigs.

    abstract::Behavioral patterns of pairs of guinea pigs were recorded in 15-min observation sessions on alternate days during a 6-day baseline phase and a 21- to 25-day period following the introduction of an ascorbate-free diet. Ascorbate-deficient animals were compared to two pair-fed control groups. During the last 5 days of t...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaufmann P,Wiens W,Dirks M,Krehbiel D

    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • ecco: An error correcting comparator theory.

    abstract::Building on the work of Ralph Miller and coworkers (Miller and Matzel, 1988; Denniston et al., 2001; Stout and Miller, 2007), I propose a new formalization of the comparator hypothesis that seeks to overcome some shortcomings of existing formalizations. The new model, dubbed ecco for "Error-Correcting COmparisons," re...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghirlanda S

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Choice of timeout from fixed-time schedules: Comparison of two procedures.

    abstract::Four rats obtained food on fixed-time (FT) 1-, 4-, and 16-min schedules. During FT schedules, a lever press produced a timeout period during which food could not be delivered. When timeout was in effect, a lever press ended the timeout period and reinstated the FT schedule. In different conditions, the timing of the F...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lydersen T

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of resource dispersion and site familiarity on movements of translocated wild turkeys on fragmented landscapes.

    abstract::Animals in unfamiliar environments may increase exploratory movements, which may result in predation mortalities (the site familiarity hypothesis). Furthermore, increases in resource dispersion may reduce animal foraging time in small patches, and increase movements and home ranges of animals to acquire sufficient res...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marable MK,Belant JL,Godwin D,Wang G

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple exposures to adult males and reproductive activation of virgin female Microtus Ochrogaster.

    abstract::Virgin female Microtus ochrogaster living in family groups were reproductively activated by twelve 1-hr exposures over a 3-day period to unrelated sexually experienced males. Reproductive activation among virgin females receiving six or eight exposures over a 2- or 3-day period did not differ significantly from that o...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hofmann JE,Getz LL

    更新日期:1988-07-01 00:00:00

  • Intertrial intervals and contextual conditioning in appetitive pavlovian learning: effects over the ABA renewal paradigm.

    abstract::Three experiments using rats in an appetitive conditioning procedure analyzed the effect of short and long (50s vs. 1440s) intertrial intervals (ITI) over the acquisition of conditioned stimulus (CS), context (Ctxt), and unconditioned stimulus (US) associations, as well as the effect on the extinction and renewal of t...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carranza-Jasso R,Urcelay GP,Nieto J,Sánchez-Carrasco L

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Different behaviour-body length correlations in two populations of juvenile three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    abstract::Behavioural variation among individuals has received a lot of attention by behavioural ecologists in the past few years. Its causes and consequences are becoming vast areas of research. The origin and maintenance of individual variation in behaviour within and among populations is affected by many facets of the biotic...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Winter G,Martins HR,Trovo RA,Chapman BB

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Adduction of untested derived stimulus relations depends on environmental complexity.

    abstract::The present research assessed adduction involving derived stimulus relations as a function of environmental complexity. In Group CA, four college students were trained with arbitrary-matching-to-sample discriminations that could have established four, 3-member stimulus classes. In Group EA, four other students were tr...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rippy SM,Doughty AH

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Seasonal use and selection of habitat by mouflon (Ovis gmelini):Comparison of the sexes.

    abstract::We studied seasonal habitat use of female, mixed-sex and male groups in a free-ranging mouflon (Ovis gmelini) population. The three group types differed in the use of the five different habitats (forests, broom moorlands, heather moorlands, meadows and rocky areas) only in spring (lambing period) and in autumn (ruttin...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cransac N,Hewison AJ

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Preferences of farmed blue foxes for different floor types.

    abstract::In the first experiment, farmed blue foxes were allowed to choose for 1 week between four standard farm cages equipped with different floor materials: plastic-coated wire mesh, dry wood, dry sand and wet (summer) or icy (winter) sand. Resting consisted of 10-15 separate bouts/day occupying 50-60% of the total 24-h. Th...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harri M,Kasanen S,Mononen J,Sepponen J

    更新日期:2000-04-03 00:00:00

  • Counting in a time discrimination task in children and adults.

    abstract::The present study investigated in 5- and 8-year-olds, as well as in adults, the effect of verbal counting on temporal discrimination behavior in a generalization task with two duration ranges in order to test the scalar timing property. The results showed that counting improved temporal sensitivity in all age groups, ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Clément A,Droit-Volet S

    更新日期:2006-02-28 00:00:00

  • Species-specific response-topography of chickens' and pigeons' water-induced autoshaped responding.

    abstract::Four pigeons and eight chickens received autoshaping training where a keylight (conditioned stimulus) signaled response-independent deliveries of water (unconditioned stimulus). Pigeons drink while keeping their beaks submerged in water and moving their beaks to create suction ("mumbling"), whereas chickens drink by t...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ploog BO

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Properties of behavior under different random ratio and random interval schedules: A parametric study.

    abstract::Four pigeons were trained to peck a key under different values of a temporally defined independent variable (T) and different probabilities of reinforcement (p). Parameter T is a fixed repeating time cycle and p the probability of reinforcement for the first response of each cycle T. Two dependent variables were used:...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dembo M,De Penfold JB,Ruiz R,Casalta H

    更新日期:1985-03-01 00:00:00

  • Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    abstract::Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same es...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kiriazis J,Slobodchikoff CN

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Group choice and individual choices: modeling human social behavior with the Ideal Free Distribution.

    abstract::Group choice describes the behavioral phenomenon in which a group of individuals chooses between two behavioral alternatives over time and the Ideal Free Distribution (IFD) [Acta Biotheor. 19 (1970) 16] describes group choice analogous to individual choice and the matching law. Our experiments investigated the usefuln...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kraft JR,Baum WM,Burge MJ

    更新日期:2002-04-28 00:00:00

  • Sensory basis of vigilance behavior in birds: synthesis and future prospects.

    abstract::Birds gather visual information through scanning behavior to make decisions relevant for survival (e.g., detecting predators and finding food). The goal of this study was (a) to review some visual properties involved in scanning behavior (retinal specialization for visual resolution and motion detection, visual acuity...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fernández-Juricic E

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Development of play behavior between potential guide dogs for the blind and human raisers.

    abstract::This study shows longitudinal development of human-dog interactions in a guide dog raising program. Social play interactions between potential guide dogs for the blind (puppies) and their adult female raisers (PWs) were videotaped at home during the period from two months to 11 or 12 months of the puppies' age. The pu...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koda N

    更新日期:2001-03-13 00:00:00

  • Tuberculosis detection by pouched rats: Opportunities for reinforcement under low-prevalence conditions.

    abstract::Giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys ansorgei) have been employed successfully in two operational tuberculosis-detection projects in which they sniff sputum samples from symptomatic individuals who have visited tuberculosis clinics. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in this population is high, approximately 2...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edwards TL,Ellis H,Watkins EE,Mulder C,Mgode G,Cox C,Poling A

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of rearing conditions on sand digging efficiency in juvenile cuttlefish.

    abstract::The effect of environment on the maturation of sand digging behaviour in cuttlefish was studied. Sand digging behaviour of cuttlefish individually reared on sand was daily observed in their rearing tanks (first study). Other cuttlefish were individually reared from hatching to 2 weeks of life in different conditions (...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poirier R,Chichery R,Dickel L

    更新日期:2004-09-30 00:00:00

  • Lateralisation in birds of prey: adaptive and phylogenetic considerations.

    abstract::Lateralisation, the different use of one or other side or appendix of the body, is basically determined by brain asymmetry which, in turn, is likely to be due to adaptive reasons. Several studies have been carried out on birds in general. However, birds of prey in particular, although they are very good candidates, ha...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Csermely D

    更新日期:2004-11-30 00:00:00