Consensus Guideline Based Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) in Psychiatry and Neurology.


:Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valuable tool for tailoring the dosage of the prescribed medication(s) to the individual pharmacokinetic characteristics of a patient. In psychiatry and neurology, however, proven evidence that TDM should be used for treatment with the multiple neuropsychiatric medications is restricted to few compounds. Well-designed clinical trials on medical and economic benefits of TDM are rare. The use of TDM is limited in most countries to few antiepileptics, especially carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin, some mood stabilizers, especially lithium and valproic acid, some antidepressants, especially tricyclic antidepressants and some antipsychotics, primarily clozapine because these drugs have a narrow therapeutic index. On the other hand, specific indications and distinct problems can make TDM most useful for individualized pharmacotherapy with almost any neuropsychiatric drug. Potential benefits of TDM can, however, only be reaped if the method is adequately integrated into the clinical treatment process. The TDM expert group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) issued consensus guidelines for the best practice of TDM in psychiatry and neurology. A first version was published in 2004. These guidelines were extended in 2011 and are actually updated (see: Exemplified by single cases it is shown here how to use TDM consensus guidelines for problem solving in psychiatry and neurology. Studies on depressed patients give evidence for tricyclic antidepressants, venlafaxine and citalopram that TDM could become a standard of care in psychiatry and neurology. There is potential to accelerate improvement. Reducing phases of suffering will not only have medical benefits for the patients but also an impact on costs for the health system which needs to be clarified by controlled studies.


Curr Drug Deliv


Current drug delivery


Hiemke C




Has Abstract


2016-01-01 00:00:00














  • Insights on the Use of Nanocarriers for Acne Alleviation.

    abstract::Among the common myths in the cosmetics industry is the perception that acne only happens to teenagers, and specifically to females. However, acne is neither limited to a specific age, nor to a certain gender, it creates a stressful problem for many people. Many chemical treatments for acne were proven to be successfu...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Amer SS,Nasr M,Mamdouh W,Sammour O

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Improved In vivo Effect of Chrysin as an Absorption Enhancer Via the Preparation of Ternary Solid Dispersion with Brij®L4 and Aminoclay.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chrysin is a strong inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) but it is practically insoluble in water. Effective solubilization of chrysin is critical for its pharmaceutical application as an absorption enhancer via inhibition of BCRP-mediated drug efflux. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to develop a...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee SH,Lee YS,Song JG,Han HK

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Surface modified nanoparticulate carrier constructs for oral mucosal vaccine delivery.

    abstract::Mucosal administration of vaccines is one of the most popular approaches to induce desired immunity against various types of antigen and microbial in central as well as peripheral blood and in most external mucosal surfaces. The oral route is a preferred choice over parenteral route for this purpose mainly due to an e...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mishra N,Singh D,Sharma S,Baldi A

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Liposomal drug delivery systems: an update review.

    abstract::The discovery of liposome or lipid vesicle emerged from self forming enclosed lipid bi-layer upon hydration; liposome drug delivery systems have played a significant role in formulation of potent drug to improve therapeutics. Recently the liposome formulations are targeted to reduce toxicity and increase accumulation ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Samad A,Sultana Y,Aqil M

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Advanced Drug Delivery Systems for Transdermal Delivery of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Transdermal route of delivery of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) has several advantages over other routes like reduced adverse effects, less systemic absorption, and avoidance of first-pass effect and degradation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Transdermal route is also beneficial for dru...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kumar L,Verma S,Singh M,Chalotra T,Utreja P

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Bupivacaine (S75:R25) Loaded in Nanostructured Lipid Carriers: Factorial Design, HPLC Quantification Method and Physicochemical Stability Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bupivacaine is the most used local anesthetic in surgical procedures, producing prolonged anesthesia. The major limiting factor for the clinical use of bupivacaine comes from its systemic toxicity. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are vehicles for sustained drug delivery that are able to minimize the toxi...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Da Silva GHR,de Morais Ribeiro LN,Guilherme VA,de Castro SR,Breitkreitz MC,de Paula E

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • New Thermoresponsive Eyedrop Formulation Containing Ibuprofen Loaded-Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC): Development, Characterization and Biocompatibility Studies.

    abstract::The low bioavailability and consequently the poor therapeutic response of traditional ophthalmic formulations is caused by reduced pre-corneal residence time of the formulation in contact with the ocular surface. The use of colloidal carrier systems, namely lipid nanoparticles in combination with in situ gelling polym...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Almeida H,Lobão P,Frigerio C,Fonseca J,Silva R,Palmeira-de-Oliveira A,Lobo JM,Amaral MH

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gemcitabine-loaded Folic Acid Tagged Liposomes: Improved Pharmacokinetic and Biodistribution Profile.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gemcitabine (GEM) is found effective in the treatment of many solid tumors. However, its use is restricted due to its small circulation half-life, fast metabolism and low capacity for selective tumor uptake. Folate receptors (FRs) have been recognized as cellular surface markers, which can be used for cancer...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Unnam S,Panduragaiah VM,Sidramappa MA,Muddana Eswara BR

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development and evaluation of in situ gel forming system for sustained delivery of cyclosporine.

    abstract::Phase-sensitive in situ gel forming controlled release formulations of cyclosporine were prepared using poly (lactide-co-glycolide) and a solvent system consisting of various proportions of benzyl benzoate and benzyl alcohol. Uniformity of content of cyclosporine in the formulation and in vitro release samples was det...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dhawan S,Kapil R,Kapoor DN,Kumar M

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Particulate systems as adjuvants and carriers for peptide and protein antigens.

    abstract::The most common feature for antigen-delivery systems is their particulate nature. Together with a certain depot effect, it is the particulate nature that primarily dictates whether the antigen-delivery system will be successful in inducing a certain type and strength of immune response. In this article, we will summar...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liang MT,Davies NM,Blanchfield JT,Toth I

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Investigation of in vitro iontophoresis facilitated transdermal delivery of glycine.

    abstract::The research presented in this paper discusses the potential of iontophoresis facilitated transdermal delivery of glycine. Iontophoresis has been widely investigated as a noninvasive transdermal drug delivery system. Iontophoresis is the use of a low electric current to carry ionized as well as unionized drug molecule...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dasgupta R,Banthia AK,Tibarewala DN

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Quantitation of serrapeptase in formulations by UV method in the microplate format.

    abstract::Serrapeptase is an anti-inflammatory, proteolytic enzyme isolated from the microorganism, Serratia sp. HY-6. Very few methods are available for the quantification of serrapeptase. The activity of the enzyme is determined by an ELISA assay, colorimetric method using casein as substrate or by HPLC method. These methods ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sandhya KV,Devi SG,Mathew ST

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Production and Characterization of Nanoparticle Based Hyaluronate Gel Containing Retinyl Palmitate for Wound Healing.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Wound healing is a biological process that can get in a state of pathologic inflammation, requiring the use of specific medications able to promote proper tissue repair. OBJECTIVE:The study describes the production and characterization of nanoparticle based gel for wound healing treatment designed to delive...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Esposito E,Pecorelli A,Sguizzato M,Drechsler M,Mariani P,Carducci F,Cervellati F,Nastruzzi C,Cortesi R,Valacchi G

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • A review on the molecular mechanisms involved in the placental barrier for drugs.

    abstract::The placenta has traditionally been considered as a highly permeable organ for a large variety of substances with diverse molecular structures that are readily able to cross it from the maternal blood to reach the foetus. This has recommended limiting the use of drugs during pregnancy as far as possible. However, our ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Marin JJ,Briz O,Serrano MA

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Photothermal Ablation of Cancer Cells Using Folate-Coated Gold/ Graphene Oxide Composite.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:A new tumor targeted polymer-coated gold/graphene hybrid has been developed for achieving simultaneously thermoablation and chemoterapy of folate receptor-positive cancer cells. METHODS:The gold/graphene hybrid was prepared by depositing gold nanospheres onto graphene oxide and coating it with an inulin-fola...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mauro N,Volsi AL,Scialabba C,Licciardi M,Cavallaro G,Giammona G

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • ADMET-Multi-Output Cheminformatics Models for Drug Delivery, Interactomics, and Nanotoxicology.

    abstract::ADMET Chemoinformatics multi-output models are useful for a parallel prediction of multiple experimental parameters related the absorption (A), distribution (D), metabolism (M), excretion (E), and toxicity (T) process of drugs, pollutants, and NPs with a single QSPR model. Here we present one state-of-art review about...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González-Díaz H

    更新日期:2016-04-19 00:00:00

  • Local delivery of therapeutics for percutaneous coronary intervention.

    abstract::Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a highly effective alternative for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rates of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling, however neointima formation still remains an issue. Local drug delivery is an attr...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kennedy KL,Lucas AR,Wan W

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • The Use of cyclodextrin or its complexes as a potential treatment against the 2019 novel coronavirus. A mini-review.

    abstract::Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread rapidly since its discovery in December 2019 in the Chinese province of Hubei, reaching this day, all the continents. This scourge is, unfortunately, in lineage with various dangerous outbreaks such as Ebola, Cholera, Spanish flu, American seasonal flu. Until ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sofiane F,Lamia T,Mohamed S,Mokrane IO

    更新日期:2020-09-17 00:00:00

  • A Microstructural Study of the O/W Primary Emulsion on the Formation of Oil-in-Water-in-Oil Multiple Emulsion.

    abstract:AIM:This study aimed to investigate the influence of the preparation process and composition on the microstructure of the O/W primary emulsions and the corresponding impact on the formation of oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) multiple emulsions. OBJECTIVES:Multiple emulsions were prepared by a two-step emulsification metho...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang Q,Qin Y,Duan G,Ou W,Wang Y,Zhang W

    更新日期:2020-12-31 00:00:00

  • Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Delivery Carrier in Cancer Therapeutics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The scope of nanotechnology has been extended to almost every sphere of our daily life. As a result of this, nanocarriers like Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are gaining considerable attention for their use in various therapeutic and diagnostic applications. OBJECTIVE:The objective of the current article is to rev...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Panigrahi BK,Nayak AK

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gelrite microgels for sustained oral drug delivery-formulation and evaluation.

    abstract::Gelrite is an ion-activated polymer prepared by partial acetylation of gellan gum, an exogeneous polysaccharide present in Pseudomonas elodea. Its unique cation-dependent gelling property at 33 degrees C has been exploited for the formulation of in situ gelling hydrogels for ophthalmic and oral drug delivery. Gelrite ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rastogi R,Aqil M,Ali A,Sultana Y

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pain control via opioid analgesic-local anesthetic loaded IPNs.

    abstract::Relief of chronic pain is an important clinical problem requiring special care and approaches. The present study was designed for the construction of a controlled release system for local application of analgesics (hydromorphone (HM), morphine (M), and codeine (C)) and a local anesthetic, bupivacaine (BP). An interpen...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keskin DS,Wise DL,Hasirci V

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preparation and characterization of water-soluble prodrug, liposomes and micelles of Paclitaxel.

    abstract::Alternative formulations of paclitaxel were developed in order to improve its aqueous solubility, and characterized in vitro. A methacrylic acid based nanoconjugate of paclitaxel was synthesized by a simple esterification reaction with molecular weight of 1657 Da. The in vitro hydrolysis study on the prodrug of paclit...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dhanikula AB,Panchagnula R

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reversal of Oxidative Stress in Neural Cells by an Injectable Curcumin/Thermosensitive Hydrogel.

    abstract::Curcumin as an antioxidative agent which has been widely used medicinally in India and China. However, rapid metabolism coupled with the instability of curcumin under physiological conditions has greatly limited its applications in vivo. In the present study, a thermosensitive hydrogel with high payload of curcumin wa...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu C

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Label Free Ultrasmall Fluoromagnetic Ferrite-clusters for Targeted Cancer Imaging and Drug Delivery.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The label free ultrasmall fluorescent ferrite clusters have been engineered in a controlled fashion which was stabilized by serum protein and functionalized by folic acid for the application of targeted multimodal optical and Magnetic Resonance (MR) cancer imaging. METHODS:The ultra-small manganese ferrite n...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haribabu V,Sharmiladevi P,Akhtar N,Farook AS,Girigoswami K,Girigoswami A

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Implementation of "Quality by Design (QbD)" Approach for the Development of 5-Fluorouracil Loaded Thermosensitive Hydrogel.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to investigate Quality by Design (QbD) principle for the preparation of hydrogel products to prove both practicability and utility of executing QbD concept to hydrogel based controlled release systems. Product and process understanding will help in decreasing the variability of ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dalwadi C,Patel G

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Advances in Targeted Gene Delivery.

    abstract::Gene therapy has the potential to treat both acquired and inherited genetic diseases. Generally, two types of gene delivery vectors are used - viral vectors and non-viral vectors. Non-viral gene delivery systems have attracted significant interest (e.g. 115 gene therapies approved for clinical trials in 2018; clinical...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Begum AA,Toth I,Hussein WM,Moyle PM

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • New therapeutic platforms for the treatment of epithelial and cutaneous lesions.

    abstract::There are still so-called unmet needs in the treatment of epithelial and cutaneous lesions. Mucositis, ocular lesions, chronic skin wounds represent typical examples. These pathologies do not yet afford a satisfactory treatment. In particular chronic wounds represent a major health care burden, likely to increase as t...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Caramella CM,Sandri G,Rossi S,Mori M,Cristina Bonferoni M,Ferrari F,Del Fante C,Perotti C

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hexosomes: a novel drug delivery system.

    abstract::Polar lipids and various surfactants exhibit rich phase behavior depending on the composition of the lipids and the physicochemical conditions. Lamellar (L(alpha)), hexagonal (Inverted [H(II)]) and normal or inverted cubic (bicontinuous or micellar) structures are some of the most common lyotropic liquid crystalline p...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirlekar R,Jain S,Patel M,Garse H,Kadam V

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Release of antithrombotic drugs from alginate gel beads.

    abstract::The aim of the present work was to evaluate alginate hydrogels in the form of spherical beads as carrier for antithrombotic drugs for future use in artificial grafts. The ionotropic gelation technique was employed to prepare beads from the L. hyperborea stipe of alginate with two different alginate concentrations and ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jämstorp E,Bodin A,Gatenholm P,Jeppsson A,Strømme M

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00