Consensus Guideline Based Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) in Psychiatry and Neurology.


:Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valuable tool for tailoring the dosage of the prescribed medication(s) to the individual pharmacokinetic characteristics of a patient. In psychiatry and neurology, however, proven evidence that TDM should be used for treatment with the multiple neuropsychiatric medications is restricted to few compounds. Well-designed clinical trials on medical and economic benefits of TDM are rare. The use of TDM is limited in most countries to few antiepileptics, especially carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin, some mood stabilizers, especially lithium and valproic acid, some antidepressants, especially tricyclic antidepressants and some antipsychotics, primarily clozapine because these drugs have a narrow therapeutic index. On the other hand, specific indications and distinct problems can make TDM most useful for individualized pharmacotherapy with almost any neuropsychiatric drug. Potential benefits of TDM can, however, only be reaped if the method is adequately integrated into the clinical treatment process. The TDM expert group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) issued consensus guidelines for the best practice of TDM in psychiatry and neurology. A first version was published in 2004. These guidelines were extended in 2011 and are actually updated (see: Exemplified by single cases it is shown here how to use TDM consensus guidelines for problem solving in psychiatry and neurology. Studies on depressed patients give evidence for tricyclic antidepressants, venlafaxine and citalopram that TDM could become a standard of care in psychiatry and neurology. There is potential to accelerate improvement. Reducing phases of suffering will not only have medical benefits for the patients but also an impact on costs for the health system which needs to be clarified by controlled studies.


Curr Drug Deliv


Current drug delivery


Hiemke C




Has Abstract


2016-01-01 00:00:00














  • In vitro Evaluation of Genipin-crosslinked Na-alginate/Chitosan Hydrogel Films for Delivery of Metformin: Effect of Chitosan Molecular Weight.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:In this study, central composite factorial design was used for the preparation and optimization of chitosan/Na-alginate hydrogel films containing metformin via solvent evaporation technique. METHODS:Low and high molecular weight (MW) chitosan was used as a polymer in different concentrations while genipin w...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ubaid M,Murtaza G

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Simultaneous Bilateral Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The basal ganglia, an important functional integrity of the brain, comprises multiple subcortical nuclei. The area is mainly supplied by the perforating branches of ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA). The unilateral non-traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage, commonly located in the putamen, most often res...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yang Z,Chen J,Mu J

    更新日期:2017-09-06 00:00:00

  • Development of novel floating delivery system based on psyllium: application on metformin hydrochloride.

    abstract::psyllium, a medicinally active gel forming natural polysaccharide and a dietary fiber has been used as a medicine in myriad of conditions such as constipation and inflammatory bowel syndrome. One of its more recent uses that have received attention has been its ability to reduce blood sugar levels in diabetics. Theref...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rathnanand M,Narkhede R,Udupa N,Kalra A

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Sterically stabilized polyionic complex nanogels of chitosan lysate and PEG-b-polyglutamic acid copolymer for delivery of irinotecan active metabolite (SN-38).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Polyionic Complex (PIC) nanogels are promising delivery systems with numerous attractions such as simple, fast, and organic solvent-free particle formation and mild drug loading conditions. Among polyelectrolytes, poly (L-amino acid) copolymers such as poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (L-glutamic acid) copo...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salmanpour M,Saeed-Vaghefi M,Abolmaali SS,Tamaddon A

    更新日期:2020-11-03 00:00:00

  • Development and Optimization of Dual Drugs (Isoniazid and Moxiflox-acin) Loaded Functional PLGA Nanoparticles for the Synergistic Treatment of Tuberculosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The management of TB is difficult due to the resistance developed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis against anti-tubercular drugs causes the new challenges for treating and managing the disease. OBJECTIVE:The objective of the study was to combat multiple drug resistance (MDR) exhibited by mycobacterium species ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moin A,Raizaday A,Hussain T,Nagshubha B

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Phospholipid vesicles as carriers in aquaculture: preparation and stability study of thiamine hydrochloride-loaded liposomes.

    abstract::The aim of this work is to study liposomes as carriers of nutrients and therapeutic agents in aquaculture with Venerupis decussatus and Venerupis pullastra larvae. Multilamellar (MLVs) and large unilamellar (LUVs) vesicles were prepared from a commercial mixture of soy phosphatidylcholine, rich in unsaturated and poly...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lai F,Valenti D,Sinico C,Manconi M,Mendez JB,Fadda AM

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Preparation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of acyclovir.

    abstract::The present study performed by preparation and evaluation of floating tablets of Acyclovir as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. Floating effervescent tablets were formulated by various materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K 4M, K 15M, psyllium husk, swelling agent as crospovidone and micro...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garg R,Gupta GD

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Application of Central Composite Design in Optimization of Valsartan Nanosuspension to Enhance its Solubility and Stability.

    abstract::The objective of the present research is to prepare stable nano suspensions of Valsartan (VAL) with high solubility and dissolution. VAL is an orally administered anti-hypertensive drug with lower bio-availability of 25%, this is attributed to its lower aqueous solubility (0.082 mg/ml). VAL nano suspensions were prepa...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vuppalapati L,Cherukuri S,Neeli V,Yeragamreddy PR,Kesavan BR

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Surface modified nanoparticulate carrier constructs for oral mucosal vaccine delivery.

    abstract::Mucosal administration of vaccines is one of the most popular approaches to induce desired immunity against various types of antigen and microbial in central as well as peripheral blood and in most external mucosal surfaces. The oral route is a preferred choice over parenteral route for this purpose mainly due to an e...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mishra N,Singh D,Sharma S,Baldi A

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Artificial organs: a new option for treating osteoarthritis.

    abstract::Osteoarthritis is usually regarded as a localized disease whose optimal treatment is a therapy applied directly to the affected joint. Unfortunately, current local therapies such as repeated intraarticular injections or constant infusions are associated with a higher risk of infection. One way to overcome this would b...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stöve J,Lehmann L,Fickert S,Aigner T,Brenner R

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Realgar Nanoparticles Inhibit Migration, Invasion and Metastasis in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer by Suppressing Matrix Metalloproteinases and Angiogenesis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Realgar, a traditional Chinese medicine, has shown antitumor efficacy in several tumor types. We previously showed that realgar nanoparticles (nano-realgar) had significant antileukemia, anti-lung cancer and anti-liver cancer effects. In addition, the anti-tumor effects of nanorealgar were significantly bett...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiaoxia X,Jing S,Dongbin X,Yonggang T,Jingke Z,Yanying Z,Hulai W

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Local delivery of therapeutics for percutaneous coronary intervention.

    abstract::Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a highly effective alternative for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rates of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling, however neointima formation still remains an issue. Local drug delivery is an attr...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kennedy KL,Lucas AR,Wan W

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Improved In vivo Effect of Chrysin as an Absorption Enhancer Via the Preparation of Ternary Solid Dispersion with Brij®L4 and Aminoclay.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chrysin is a strong inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) but it is practically insoluble in water. Effective solubilization of chrysin is critical for its pharmaceutical application as an absorption enhancer via inhibition of BCRP-mediated drug efflux. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to develop a...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee SH,Lee YS,Song JG,Han HK

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated Levofloxacin: For Improved Antibacterial Activity Over Levofloxacin Alone.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Levofloxacin is a potent antibiotic with severe side effects due to its high doses. Bacterial resistance may be due to frequent use of antibiotics. Biogenic gold nanoparticles conjugated levofloxacin (Au-HSA-LvN-NPs) were developed by Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and nitrate reductasemediated pathways. METHODS...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bagga P,Siddiqui HH,Akhtar J,Mahmood T,Zahera M,Khan MS

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Design and Development of Thermoreversible Ophthalmic In Situ Hydrogel of Moxifloxacin HCl.

    abstract::Conventional eye drops show relatively low bioavailability due to poor precorneal contact time. In situ hydrogels are of great importance in providing sustained ocular drug delivery. By exhibiting elastic properties they resist ocular drainage of the drug leading to longer contact times. In the present study an in sit...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shastri DH,Prajapati ST,Patel LD

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Combined patch containing salicylic acid and nicotinamide: role of drug interaction.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to formulate a combined patch containing salicylic (SA) acid and nicotinamide (NA), useful for the treatment of mild acne, and to verify their mutual effect on drug permeation and skin retention. The performance of the patch was tested in vitro in permeation experiments using pig ear s...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Padula C,Ferretti C,Nicoli S,Santi P

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Overcoming the Challenges of siRNA Delivery: Nanoparticle Strategies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite therapeutics based on siRNA have an immense potential for the treatment of incurable diseases such as cancers. However, the in vivo utilization of siRNA and also the delivery of this agent to the target site is one of the most controversial challenges. The helpful assistance by nanoparticles can impr...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shajari N,Mansoori B,Davudian S,Mohammadi A,Baradaran B

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Targeted Delivery of Cabazitaxel by Conjugation to Albumin-PEG-folate Nanoparticles Using a Cysteine-acrylate Linker and Simple Synthesis Conditions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cabazitaxel (CBZ) is a new taxane approved by FDA for treatment of castration- resistant prostate cancer not responding to docetaxel. However, CBZ is not a suitable substrate for p-glycoprotein 60, an efflux pump which transports anticancer drugs out of malignant cells and is therefore a promising drug for t...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khoeeniha MK,Esfandyari-Manesh M,Behrouz H,Amini M,Varnamkhasti BS,Atyabi F,Dinarvand R

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Optimization of Performance Variables of Exemestane Nanosuspension Using Box-Behnken Design to Improve Dissolution and Oral Bioavailability.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Present investigation was aimed to fabricate nanocrystal of exemestane, an anticancer drug with poor dissolution properties and oral bioavailability. METHODS:Influence of various process parameters on the formulation of exemestane nanosuspension using media milling technique were investigated in the trial batc...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parmar K,Shah J

    更新日期:2021-01-12 00:00:00

  • Physicochemical Characterization and Skin Permeation of Cationic Transfersomes Containing the Synthetic Peptide PnPP-19.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:PnPP-19 is a 19-amino-acid synthetic peptide previously described as a novel drug for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of cationic transfersomes containing PnPP-19 and the skin permeation of free PnPP-19 and PnPP-19-loaded t...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Marco Almeida F,Silva CN,de Araujo Lopes SC,Santos DM,Torres FS,Cardoso FL,Martinelli PM,da Silva ER,de Lima ME,Miranda LAF,Oliveira MC

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of drug incorporation, temperature and storage time on the pH, textural and rheological properties of different poloxamer hydrogels.

    abstract::In recent years, Poloxamers had attracted a particular interest in the design of dermal and transdermal delivery systems in order to improve or retard drug permeation through the skin. In the present study, the influence of different parameters, such as, temperature, storage time, type of polymer (Lutrol(®) F-127 and ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Almeida H,Amaral MH,Lobão P,Lobo JM

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Lipid Based Norfloxacin Prodrug.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fluoroquinolones, the synthetic antibacterial agents are being successfully utilized against bacterial infections, since the time immemorial. Despite of enormous useful features, these drugs are associated with some limitations also. Large number of efforts has been made by various scientists to improve phar...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma PC,Piplani M,Rajak H

    更新日期:2018-02-14 00:00:00

  • Killing Rates of Caspofungin in 50 Percent Serum Correlate with Caspofungin Efficacy Against Candida albicans in a Neutropenic Murine Model.

    abstract::Previous studies suggested that caspofungin dose escalation against Candida species is more beneficial than currently used lower daily doses. Thus, we determined in vitro and in vivo activity of caspofungin against six wild-type C. albicans clinical isolates, the ATCC 10231 strain and an echinocandin resistant strain....

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Domán M,Kovács R,Kardos G,Gesztelyi R,Juhász B,Bozó A,Kardos T,Saleh Q,Majoros L

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preparation and evaluation of isosorbide mononitrate hydrogels for topical fissure treatment.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate hydrogels containing 0.1% isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) for topical treatment of anal fissure. The hydrogels were prepared on the base of Carbopol 940, Poloxamer 407 or their combination. The highest viscosity and significant thyxotropy were observed for the com...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Yoncheva K,Doytchinova I,Tankova L

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Polylactide-co-glycolide microparticles with surface adsorbed antigens as vaccine delivery systems.

    abstract::Several groups have shown that vaccine antigens can be encapsulated within polymeric microparticles and can serve as potent antigen delivery systems. We have recently shown that an alternative approach involving charged polylactide co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles with surface adsorbed antigen(s) can also be used to ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Singh M,Kazzaz J,Ugozzoli M,Malyala P,Chesko J,O'Hagan DT

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Use of cyclodextrin or its complexes as a potential treatment against the 2019 novel coronavirus. A mini-review.

    abstract::Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread rapidly since its discovery in December 2019 in the Chinese province of Hubei, reaching this day, all the continents. This scourge is, unfortunately, in lineage with various dangerous outbreaks such as Ebola, Cholera, Spanish flu, American seasonal flu. Until ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sofiane F,Lamia T,Mohamed S,Mokrane IO

    更新日期:2020-09-17 00:00:00

  • Solid Dispersion of Hesperetin Co-crystals Synergistically Attenuates Hepatic Toxicity of Carbon Tetrachloride Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hesperetin (HSP) is a low water-soluble flavanone aglycone with low bioavailability. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed at enhancing the hepatoprotective effects of HSP by a combinatory technique based on solid dispersions of co-crystals of HSP. METHODS:Co-crystals were prepared using citric acid, tartaric acid, ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Varshosaz J,Jalali M,Hosseini-Sharifabad A

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chitosan and gelatin based prototype delivery systems for the treatment of oral mucositis: from material to performance in vitro.

    abstract::In this study we developed and evaluated a prototype of an effective occlusive mucoadhesive system for prophylaxis and/or treatment of oral mucositis based on chitosan and gelatine models together with nystatin as a prophylactic agent incorporated into the formulation and investigated drug release in-vitro. Results of...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perchyonok VT,Zhang S,Oberholzer T

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • ADMET-Multi-Output Cheminformatics Models for Drug Delivery, Interactomics, and Nanotoxicology.

    abstract::ADMET Chemoinformatics multi-output models are useful for a parallel prediction of multiple experimental parameters related the absorption (A), distribution (D), metabolism (M), excretion (E), and toxicity (T) process of drugs, pollutants, and NPs with a single QSPR model. Here we present one state-of-art review about...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González-Díaz H

    更新日期:2016-04-19 00:00:00

  • Preparation and characterization of methylene blue nanoparticles for Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.

    abstract::Methylene blue (MB) has been shown to slow down the progression of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies; however distribution of MB into the brain is limited due its high hydrophilicity. In this study, we aimed to prepare novel hydrophobic glutathione coated PLGA nanoparticles to improve bioavailability ...

    journal_title:Current drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jinwal UK,Groshev A,Zhang J,Grover A,Sutariya VB

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00