Adding Sarcosine to Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients with Stable Schizophrenia Changes the Concentrations of Neuronal and Glial Metabolites in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

Abstract:

:The glutamatergic system is a key point in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Sarcosine (N-methylglycine) is an exogenous amino acid that acts as a glycine transporter inhibitor. It modulates glutamatergic transmission by increasing glycine concentration around NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors. In patients with schizophrenia, the function of the glutamatergic system in the prefrontal cortex is impaired, which may promote negative and cognitive symptoms. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method enabling the evaluation of brain metabolite concentration, which can be applied to assess pharmacologically induced changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a six-month course of sarcosine therapy on the concentration of metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with stable schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, treated with constant antipsychotics doses, in stable clinical condition were randomly assigned to administration of sarcosine (25 patients) or placebo (25 patients) for six months. Metabolite concentrations in DLPFC were assessed with 1.5 Tesla ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The first spectroscopy revealed no differences in metabolite concentrations between groups. After six months, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr and mI/Cho ratios in the left DLPFC were significantly higher in the sarcosine than the placebo group. In the sarcosine group, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr, mI/Cho ratios also significantly increased compared to baseline values. In the placebo group, only the NAA/Cr ratio increased. The addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy for six months increased markers of neurons viability (NAA) and neurogilal activity (mI) with simultaneous improvement of clinical symptoms. Sarcosine, two grams administered daily, seems to be an effective adjuvant in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia.

journal_name

Int J Mol Sci

authors

Strzelecki D,Podgórski M,Kałużyńska O,Stefańczyk L,Kotlicka-Antczak M,Gmitrowicz A,Grzelak P

doi

10.3390/ijms161024475

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2015-10-15 00:00:00

pages

24475-89

issue

10

issn

1422-0067

pii

ijms161024475

journal_volume

16

pub_type

杂志文章,随机对照试验
  • Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals the Differentially Expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs Involved in Cryoinjuries in Frozen-Thawed Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Sperm.

    abstract::Sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination are important methods for giant panda breeding and preservation of extant genetic diversity. Lower conception rates limit the use of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed giant panda sperm, due to the lack of understanding of the cryodamaging or cryoinjuring mech...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms19103066

    authors: Ran MX,Li Y,Zhang Y,Liang K,Ren YN,Zhang M,Zhou GB,Zhou YM,Wu K,Wang CD,Huang Y,Luo B,Qazi IH,Zhang HM,Zeng CJ

    更新日期:2018-10-08 00:00:00

  • Identification and Functional Characterization of Tissue-Specific Terpene Synthases in Stevia rebaudiana.

    abstract::In addition to the well-known diterpenoid steviol glycosides, Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) produces many labdane-type diterpenoids and a wide range of mono- and sesquiterpenoids. However, biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in Stevia remains unknown. Here we analyzed the extracts of Stevia leaves, flowers, stems,...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms21228566

    authors: Dhandapani S,Kim MJ,Chin HJ,Leong SH,Jang IC

    更新日期:2020-11-13 00:00:00

  • Understanding Melanocyte Stem Cells for Disease Modeling and Regenerative Medicine Applications.

    abstract::Melanocytes in the skin play an indispensable role in the pigmentation of skin and its appendages. It is well known that the embryonic origin of melanocytes is neural crest cells. In adult skin, functional melanocytes are continuously repopulated by the differentiation of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) residing in the ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms161226207

    authors: Mull AN,Zolekar A,Wang YC

    更新日期:2015-12-21 00:00:00

  • Obatoclax, a Pan-BCL-2 Inhibitor, Downregulates Survivin to Induce Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells Via Suppressing WNT/β-catenin Signaling.

    abstract::Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly prevailing cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Aberrant expression of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins is closely linked to neoplastic progression and chemoresistance. Obatoclax is a clinically developed drug, which binds antiapoptotic BCL-2, BCL-xL...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms21051773

    authors: Or CR,Huang CW,Chang CC,Lai YC,Chen YJ,Chang CC

    更新日期:2020-03-05 00:00:00

  • Development-Related miRNA Expression and Target Regulation during Staggered In Vitro Plant Regeneration of Tuxpeño VS-535 Maize Cultivar.

    abstract::In vitro plant regeneration addresses basic questions of molecular reprogramming in the absence of embryonic positional cues. The process is highly dependent on the genotype and explant characteristics. However, the regulatory mechanisms operating during organ differentiation from in vitro cultures remain largely unkn...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms20092079

    authors: López-Ruiz BA,Juárez-González VT,Sandoval-Zapotitla E,Dinkova TD

    更新日期:2019-04-27 00:00:00

  • Tumor-Associated CSF MicroRNAs for the Prediction and Evaluation of CNS Malignancies.

    abstract::Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a readily reachable body fluid that is reflective of the underlying pathological state of the central nervous system (CNS). Hence it has been targeted for biomarker discovery for a variety of neurological disorders. CSF is also the major route for seeding metastases of CNS malignancies and...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms161226150

    authors: Shalaby T,Grotzer MA

    更新日期:2015-12-07 00:00:00

  • Theranostics Aspects of Various Nanoparticles in Veterinary Medicine.

    abstract::Nanoscience and nanotechnology shows immense interest in various areas of research and applications, including biotechnology, biomedical sciences, nanomedicine, and veterinary medicine. Studies and application of nanotechnology was explored very extensively in the human medical field and also studies undertaken in rod...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms19113299

    authors: Bai DP,Lin XY,Huang YF,Zhang XF

    更新日期:2018-10-24 00:00:00

  • Protective Effect of CXCR4 Antagonist CX807 in a Rat Model of Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    abstract::Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major cause of stroke, with high mortality and morbidity. There is no effective pharmacological therapy for ICH. Previous studies have indicated that CXCR4 antagonists reduced microglia activation, attenuated infiltration of T cells, and improved functional recovery in ischemic stro...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms21197085

    authors: Yu SJ,Wu KJ,Wang YS,Song JS,Wu CH,Jan JJ,Bae E,Chen H,Shia KS,Wang Y

    更新日期:2020-09-25 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a Functional Role of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum Isocitrate Lyase in Desiccation Tolerance.

    abstract::Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of soybean. In previous studies, transcriptomic profiling of B. japonicum USDA110, grown under various environmental conditions, revealed the highly induced gene aceA, encoding isocitrate lyase (ICL). The ICL catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms160716695

    authors: Jeon JM,Lee HI,Sadowsky MJ,Sugawara M,Chang WS

    更新日期:2015-07-22 00:00:00

  • Enteric Microbiota⁻Gut⁻Brain Axis from the Perspective of Nuclear Receptors.

    abstract::Nuclear receptors (NRs) play a key role in regulating virtually all body functions, thus maintaining a healthy operating body with all its complex systems. Recently, gut microbiota emerged as major factor contributing to the health of the whole organism. Enteric bacteria have multiple ways to influence their host and ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms19082210

    authors: Duszka K,Wahli W

    更新日期:2018-07-28 00:00:00

  • The Role of Peptide Signals Hidden in the Structure of Functional Proteins in Plant Immune Responses.

    abstract::Plants have evolved a sophisticated innate immune system to cope with a diverse range of phytopathogens and insect herbivores. Plasma-membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as receptor-like kinases (RLK), recognize special signals, pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or DAMP...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms20184343

    authors: Lyapina I,Filippova A,Fesenko I

    更新日期:2019-09-05 00:00:00

  • Redox-Responsive Porphyrin-Based Polysilsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer Cells.

    abstract::The development of stimulus-responsive photosensitizer delivery systems that carry a high payload of photosensitizers is of great importance in photodynamic therapy. In this study, redox-responsive polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles (PSilQNPs) built by a reverse microemulsion approach using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyph...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms17010056

    authors: Vega DL,Lodge P,Vivero-Escoto JL

    更新日期:2015-12-31 00:00:00

  • Can We Prevent Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus? Pathophysiology and Treatment Options.

    abstract::Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a disease involving changes to energy metabolism. Chronic hyperglycemia is a major cause of diabetes complications. Hyperglycemia induces mechanisms that generate the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, leading to the development of oxidative stress. Studies with animal models ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms21082852

    authors: Cieluch A,Uruska A,Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz D

    更新日期:2020-04-19 00:00:00

  • Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Ascorbate Oxidase Gene Family in Gossypium hirsutum Reveals the Critical Role of GhAO1A in Delaying Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence.

    abstract::Ascorbate oxidase (AO) plays important roles in plant growth and development. Previously, we reported a cotton AO gene that acts as a positive factor in cell growth. Investigations on Gossypium hirsutum AO (GhAO) family genes and their multiple functions are limited. The present study identified eight GhAO family gene...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms20246167

    authors: Pan Z,Chen L,Wang F,Song W,Cao A,Xie S,Chen X,Jin X,Li H

    更新日期:2019-12-06 00:00:00

  • Stem cell tracking by nanotechnologies.

    abstract::Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms11031070

    authors: Villa C,Erratico S,Razini P,Fiori F,Rustichelli F,Torrente Y,Belicchi M

    更新日期:2010-03-12 00:00:00

  • Anti-Metastatic Effects of Antrodan with and without Cisplatin on Lewis Lung Carcinomas in a Mouse Xenograft Model.

    abstract::Antrodan, a unique protein-bound polysaccharide derived from the fungal mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea, has been reported to exhibit antitumor and anti-metastatic effects on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells through direct action and immunomodulation in vitro. In this study, we investigated the combined treatment of an...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms19061565

    authors: Chen PC,Chen CC,Ker YB,Chang CH,Chyau CC,Hu ML

    更新日期:2018-05-24 00:00:00

  • Stress-Responsive Expression, Subcellular Localization and Protein-Protein Interactions of the Rice Metacaspase Family.

    abstract::Metacaspases, a class of cysteine-dependent proteases like caspases in animals, are important regulators of programmed cell death (PCD) during development and stress responses in plants. The present study was focused on comprehensive analyses of expression patterns of the rice metacaspase (OsMC) genes in response to a...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms160716216

    authors: Huang L,Zhang H,Hong Y,Liu S,Li D,Song F

    更新日期:2015-07-17 00:00:00

  • Modulatory Effects of Silymarin on Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

    abstract::Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a group 1 carcinogen that introduces mutagenic DNA adducts into the genome. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of silymarin in the reduction of DNA adduct formation by B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms21072369

    authors: Jee SC,Kim M,Sung JS

    更新日期:2020-03-30 00:00:00

  • Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy: Turning up the Heat.

    abstract::Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death among gynecological malignancies. Despite surgery and chemotherapy, 5-years survival rates have improved only modestly over the past few decades remaining at 45% for advanced stages. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed. The presence of tumor-infi...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms20122927

    authors: Ghisoni E,Imbimbo M,Zimmermann S,Valabrega G

    更新日期:2019-06-15 00:00:00

  • Wound Dressing Selection Is Critical to Enhance Platelet-Rich Fibrin Activities in Wound Care.

    abstract::The use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is investigated in ulcer management because it provides a healing milieu rich in growth factors and cytokines. Although crucial, the relevance of secondary dressings is under-researched and no data support the use of any particular dressing in preference to another. We assessed th...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms21020624

    authors: Del Amo C,Perez-Valle A,Perez-Zabala E,Perez-Del-Pecho K,Larrazabal A,Basterretxea A,Bully P,Andia I

    更新日期:2020-01-17 00:00:00

  • Analysis of Centranthera grandiflora Benth Transcriptome Explores Genes of Catalpol, Acteoside and Azafrin Biosynthesis.

    abstract::Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of health loss in the world. Prevention and treatment of this disease by traditional Chinese medicine is a promising method. Centranthera grandiflora Benth is a high-value medicinal herb in the prevention and treatment of CVDs; its main medicinal components include irid...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms20236034

    authors: Zhang X,Li C,Wang L,Fei Y,Qin W

    更新日期:2019-11-29 00:00:00

  • TGF-β Signaling and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition during Palatal Fusion.

    abstract::Signaling by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays an important role in development, including in palatogenesis. The dynamic morphological process of palatal fusion occurs to achieve separation of the nasal and oral cavities. Critically and specifically important in palatal fusion are the medial edge epithelial (ME...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms19113638

    authors: Nakajima A,F Shuler C,Gulka AOD,Hanai JI

    更新日期:2018-11-19 00:00:00

  • Route and Regulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Iron Transport in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) during Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling: Metal Transporters, Metal Speciation, Grain Cd Reduction and Zn and Fe Biofortification.

    abstract::Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential but are sometimes deficient in humans, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic if it accumulates in the liver and kidneys at high levels. All three are contained in the grains of rice, a staple cereal. Zn and Fe concentrations in rice grains harvested under different levels of soil/hydroponic...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms160819111

    authors: Yoneyama T,Ishikawa S,Fujimaki S

    更新日期:2015-08-13 00:00:00

  • Modulation of Innate Immunity by lignin-Carbohydrate, a Novel TLR4 Ligand, Results in Augmentation of Mucosal IgA and Systemic IgG Production.

    abstract::Previous study revealed that a specific lignin-carbohydrate preparation, named as lignin-rich enzyme lignin (LREL) derived from plant husk, is a novel toll-like receptor 4 ligand and shows a potent immune-stimulatory activity against dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. In this report, we investigated immune-stimulatory ac...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms19010064

    authors: Tsuji R,Ikado K,Fujiwara D

    更新日期:2017-12-26 00:00:00

  • psbE-psbL and ndhA Intron, the Promising Plastid DNA Barcode of Fagopyrum.

    abstract::Buckwheat is an important functional food material with high nutritional value. However, it is still a difficult task for the taxonomy studies of wild buckwheat that are only based on morphology. In order to demonstrate the most efficient DNA barcode in the phylogenetic research of buckwheat, promote the investigation...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms20143455

    authors: Huang Y,Li Z,Wang C,Zou C,Wen W,Shao J,Zhu X

    更新日期:2019-07-14 00:00:00

  • Biomimetic Membranes for Multi-Redox Center Proteins.

    abstract::His-tag technology was applied for biosensing purposes involving multi-redox center proteins (MRPs). An overview is presented on various surfaces ranging from flat to spherical and modified with linker molecules with nitrile-tri-acetic acid (NTA) terminal groups to bind his-tagged proteins in a strict orientation. The...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms17030330

    authors: Naumann RL,Geiss AF,Steininger C,Knoll W

    更新日期:2016-03-03 00:00:00

  • The COX-2 selective blocker etodolac inhibits TNFα-induced apoptosis in isolated rabbit articular chondrocytes.

    abstract::Chondrocyte apoptosis contributes to the disruption of cartilage integrity in osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, we reported that activation of volume-sensitive Cl- current (ICl,vol) mediates cell shrinkage, triggering apoptosis in rabbit articular chondrocytes. A cyclooxygenase (COX) blocker is frequently used for the tr...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms141019705

    authors: Kumagai K,Kubo M,Imai S,Toyoda F,Maeda T,Okumura N,Matsuura H,Matsusue Y

    更新日期:2013-09-30 00:00:00

  • The Genetic Basis of Psoriasis.

    abstract::Psoriasis is widely regarded as a multifactorial condition which is caused by the interaction between inherited susceptibility alleles and environmental triggers. In the last decade, technological advances have enabled substantial progress in the understanding of disease genetics. Genome-wide association studies have ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.3390/ijms18122526

    authors: Capon F

    更新日期:2017-11-25 00:00:00

  • Energy-Dependent Endocytosis is Involved in the Absorption of Indomethacin Nanoparticles in the Small Intestine.

    abstract::We previously reported that oral formulations containing indomethacin nanoparticles (IND-NPs) showed high bioavailability, and, consequently, improved therapeutic effects and reduced injury to the small intestine. However, the pathway for the transintestinal penetration of nanoparticles remained unclear. Thus, in this...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms20030476

    authors: Ishii M,Fukuoka Y,Deguchi S,Otake H,Tanino T,Nagai N

    更新日期:2019-01-22 00:00:00

  • EphrinA1-Fc Attenuates Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Chronically Nonreperfused WT but not EphA2-R-M mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:EphrinA1-Fc abolishes acute I/R injury and attenuates nonreperfused cardiac injury 4 days after permanent occlusion in mice. The goal of this study was to assess the capacity of a single intramyocardial administration of ephrinA1-Fc at the time of coronary artery ligation, to determine the degree to which ea...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.3390/ijms21165811

    authors: Whitehurst KS,Chan VA,Estes HK,Valsaraj S,Kent S,Sharma UM,Chase RC,Bhuiyan M,Virag JAI

    更新日期:2020-08-13 00:00:00