Intra- and extra-oral halitosis: finding of a new form of extra-oral blood-borne halitosis caused by dimethyl sulphide.


AIM:The aim of this study was to unravel the origen and cause of intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We studied 58 patients complaining of halitosis, using gas chromatography of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in mouth and nose breath, organoleptic scoring of mouth and nose breath, Halimeter readings of mouth air and tongue-coating inspection. Subjects had no precence or history of periodontitis. RESULT:Of 58 patients, 47 patients had halitosis of oral origin, six had halitosis of extra-oral origin and five had no halitosis (halitophobia). A strong correlation was found between the degree of intra-oral halitosis as measured by organoleptic scoring of mouth breath and the concentration of the VSCs hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH) in mouth breath. Taking into account the much larger odour index of CH(3)SH, it was concluded that CH(3)SH is the main contributor to intra-oral halitosis. In all six cases of extra-oral halitosis, halitosis was caused by the presence of elevated levels of dimethyl sulphide (CH(3)SCH(3)) in mouth and nose breath. CONCLUSION:Our study provides evidence that the VSC, CH(3)SH and to a lesser extent H(2)S are the main contributors to intra-oral halitosis and that CH(3)SCH(3) is the main contributor to extra-oral or blood-borne halitosis, due to a hitherto unknown metabolic disorder.


J Clin Periodontol


Tangerman A,Winkel EG




Has Abstract


2007-09-01 00:00:00














  • Probing pocket depth at mobile/nonmobile teeth.

    abstract::The aim of the present investigation was to study the influence of an increased tooth mobility on the resistance offered by the periodontal tissues to probing. 6 beagle dogs were used. At the start of the experiment, the animals had clean teeth and normal gingival and periodontal conditions. In each dog, a device was ...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neiderud AM,Ericsson I,Lindhe J

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma TGF-beta1 as a risk factor for gingival overgrowth.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Induction of the pro-fibrotic growth factor TGF-beta1 has been suggested as a possible mechanism through which immunosuppressant drugs may induce gingival overgrowth. This study aims to investigate plasma levels of TGF-beta1 and relate them to the development and severity of gingival overgrowth in i...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ellis JS,Morgan CL,Kirby JA,Taylor JJ,Thomason JM

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dark field microscopy of the subgingival microflora in insulin-dependent diabetics.

    abstract::The subgingival microflora was assessed by means of dark field microscopy in 106 pockets of 47 subjects with long-term insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDD). The microbiota of 55 healthy sulci (probing depth < 4 mm) and 51 periodontally diseased (probing depth > or = 4 and 6 mm) pockets were analyzed. The mean dur...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seppää B,Ainamo J

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in peri-implant conditions between fully and partially edentulous subjects: a systematic review.

    abstract:AIM:The aim of this study was to compare peri-implant conditions between fully edentulous (FES) and partially edentulous subjects (PES). MATERIAL AND METHODS:A systematic review was conducted. The MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE databases were searched for publications up to January 1st 2012. Studies reporting on the ble...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Waal YC,van Winkelhoff AJ,Meijer HJ,Raghoebar GM,Winkel EG

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Reconstruction of the maxillary midline papilla following a combined orthodontic-periodontic treatment in adult periodontal patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of a combined orthodontic-periodontic treatment in determining the reconstruction of midline papilla lost following periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Twenty-eight patients, with infrabony defect and extrusion of one maxillary central incisor, were treat...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cardaropoli D,Re S,Corrente G,Abundo R

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • The recovery efficiency of various materials for sampling enzymes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes from gingival crevices.

    abstract::The present investigation was designed to assess the effects of strips made of different materials on the recovery of enzymes in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) (Experiment 1), and to examine a possible relationship between lysosomal enzyme activities and number of crevicular polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) (Exper...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakashima K,Demeurisse C,Cimasoni G

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Periodontal diseases and depression: A preclinical in vivo study.

    abstract:AIM:To analyse, through a pre-clinical in vivo model, the possible mechanisms linking depression and periodontitis at behavioural, microbiological and molecular levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Periodontitis (P) was induced in Wistar:Han rats (oral gavages with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum) during...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martínez M,Martín-Hernández D,Virto L,MacDowell KS,Montero E,González-Bris Á,Marín MJ,Ambrosio N,Herrera D,Leza JC,Sanz M,García-Bueno B,Figuero E

    更新日期:2021-01-12 00:00:00

  • Cost effectiveness of periodontal services.

    abstract::This paper presents the combined use of decision trees and cost-effectiveness analysis to determine on which patients new diagnostic tests can be useful, and whether they can change the dentist's decision to provide different services and thus improve patient outcomes in 5 different categories of patients. A decision ...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Douglass CW,Fox CH

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Microbial identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing, an aid for patients refractory to periodontal therapy. A report of 3 cases.

    abstract::The importance of microbial surveillance is illustrated in 3 clinical cases. Each case demonstrated a continued lack of response to conventional periodontal treatment. Repeated bouts of periodontal abscess formation and bone loss occurred over a 3- to 4-year period, despite numerous surgeries supplemented with antibio...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fine DH

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • A papillary-verrucous lesion in the gingiva, developing into squamous cell carcinoma.

    abstract::This report will focus attention on the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties involved in a patient who presented with a gingival papillary-verrucous lesion, which subsequently developed into a squamous cell carcinoma. ...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Helldén L,Jonsson R

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of a dexibuprofen mouth rinse on experimental gingivitis in humans.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The pharmacodynamic properties of ibuprofen are related nearly exclusively to the S(+)enantiomer (dexibuprofen). This study investigated the effect of a 1.5% dexibuprofen mouth rinse in an experimentally induced gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The trial was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Rosin M,Kähler ST,Hessler M,Schwahn Ch,Kuhr A,Kocher T

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Periodontal health improves systemic inflammatory and haemostatic status in subjects with coronary heart disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:A relationship between poor oral health and coronary heart disease (CHD) and systemic inflammatory and haemostatic factors has been recently documented in an Italian population. The present study was performed to assess whether intensive dental care may produce a periodontal improvement along with a change i...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montebugnoli L,Servidio D,Miaton RA,Prati C,Tricoci P,Melloni C,Melandri G

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of a dentifrice containing a zinc salt and a nonionic antimicrobial agent on the maintenance of gingival health.

    abstract::The purpose of the present investigation was to test the concept that a dentifrice containing zinc citrate and Triclosan could maintain gingival health. The gingival health of 101 young predominately female student nurses in Oslo was brought to a high level by professional cleaning supported by oral hygiene instructio...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Svatun B,Saxton CA,van der Ouderaa F,Rölla G

    更新日期:1987-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of ultrasonic debridement using a chlorhexidine irrigant on circulating levels of lipopolysaccharides and interleukin-6.

    abstract:AIM:Transient bacteraemia and endotoxaemia, and elevated levels of systemic cytokines have been reported following subgingival debridement. This study aimed to investigate the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) solution on circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) when used as an irrigant durin...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lee MK,Ide M,Coward PY,Wilson RF

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical evaluation of injectable platelet-rich fibrin with connective tissue graft for the treatment of deep gingival recession defects: A controlled randomized clinical trial.

    abstract:AIM:The aim of this study was to determine whether the combined connective tissue graft (CTG) with injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) with coronally advanced flap (CAF) improved root coverage of deep Miller Class I or II gingival recessions compared with CTG alone with CAF. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Seventy-two patien...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ucak Turer O,Ozcan M,Alkaya B,Surmeli S,Seydaoglu G,Haytac MC

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • C-reactive protein in patients with coexistent periodontal disease and acute coronary syndromes.

    abstract:AIM:To evaluate periodontal disease (PD) influence on changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations in patients with acute coronary syndromes and coexistent PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Dental examinations were carried out in a group of 50 consecutive patients, less than 60 years old, hospitalized...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Czerniuk MR,Górska R,Filipiak KJ,Opolski G

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Lactate dehydrogenase activity in gingival crevicular fluid collected with filter paper strips: analysis in subjects with non-inflamed and mildly inflamed gingiva.

    abstract::A previous study of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) suggested that the concentration is 10 to 25 times that of serum (means = 2300 international units/1 versus 100 IU/1 for serum). That study used capillary tubes to collect microliter amounts of GCF. Since invasive collection techniques ...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lamster IB,Mandella RD,Gordon JM

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2(PAI-2) in gingival crevicular fluid from healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The regulation of plasminogen activation is a key element in controlling proteolytic events in the extracellular matrix. Our previous studies had demonstrated that in inflamed gingival tissues, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is significantly increased in the extracellular matrix of the connective t...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yin X,Bunn CL,Bartold PM

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of periodontitis in adults: clinical results.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/AIMS:The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological effects of azithromycin as an adjunct to the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis in adults. Azithromycin is an antibiotic which is taken up by phagocytes and is released over long periods in inflamed tissue but requires a total...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Smith SR,Foyle DM,Daniels J,Joyston-Bechal S,Smales FC,Sefton A,Williams J

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) levels in gingival crevicular fluid from adults with previous evidence of destructive periodontitis. A cross sectional study.

    abstract::We have estimated the levels of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) by ELISA in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at 58 sites from 37 patients with adult periodontitis. GCF was collected for 5 s on filter papers and a 2nd sample was collected for 30 s 1 min later. 68/116 strips yielded detectable levels of IL-1 beta. IL-1 be...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilton JM,Bampton JL,Griffiths GS,Curtis MA,Life JS,Johnson NW,Powell JR,Harrap GJ,Critchley P

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of non-erupted 3rd molars on distal roots and supporting structures of approximal teeth. A radiographic survey of 202 cases.

    abstract::Root resorption of 2nd molars in proximity to non-erupted 3rd molars has been widely reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of root resorption in second molars adjacent to non-erupted third molars. Its association to age and gender of the patient, location and inclination of the non-erupte...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nemcovsky CE,Libfeld H,Zubery Y

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • Probiotic effects of orally administered Lactobacillus reuteri-containing tablets on the subgingival and salivary microbiota in patients with gingivitis. A randomized clinical trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of an orally administered probiotic on the oral microbiota. METHODS:A placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted in 40 gingivitis subjects during 8 weeks. Treatment consisted on the administration of a daily tablet, either containing Lactobacillus reuteri or placebo. Unstimul...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Iniesta M,Herrera D,Montero E,Zurbriggen M,Matos AR,Marín MJ,Sánchez-Beltrán MC,Llama-Palacio A,Sanz M

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cannabis use and destructive periodontal diseases among adolescents.

    abstract:AIM:The aim of this experiment was to investigate the association between cannabis use and destructive periodontal disease among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Data from a population screening examination carried out among Chilean high school students from the Province of Santiago were used to determine whether the...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: López R,Baelum V

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial community shifts during healing of palatal wounds: comparison of two graft harvesting approaches.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to investigate the postoperative healing and microbial profile of donor sites of routine and pre-wounded free gingival grafts (FGGs). METHODS:Ten volunteers, recruited into a split mouth study, had one side of the palate pre-wounded. Five days later, grafts were harvested from both...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Delima SL,Kumar PS,Tatakis DN

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ridge regeneration of damaged extraction sockets using rhBMP-2: an experimental study in canine.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study evaluated the dimensional ridge alteration in a buccal-bone-deficient extraction socket, and ridge regeneration following socket grafting accompanied by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) or a collagen membrane covering. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In five beagle dogs, entire bucca...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee JS,Jung JS,Im GI,Kim BS,Cho KS,Kim CS

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Synergistic effect of maternal obesity and periodontitis on preterm birth in women with pre-eclampsia: a prospective study.

    abstract:AIM:The aim of this study was to investigate if pregnant women with both obesity and periodontitis are more likely to experience preterm birth (PTB) in women with pre-eclampsia (PE) than pregnant women with only obesity or only periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The study examined a total of 328 pregnant women at 21...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee HJ,Ha JE,Bae KH

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of oral strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to seven antibiotics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Periodontal infections with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans seem to be refractory to conventional therapy. The aim of the present study was to test the in vitro susceptibilities of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains to a panel of seven orally administrable antibiotics. METHODS:A total of 60 isolates...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Müller HP,Holderrieth S,Burkhardt U,Höffler U

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Microscopic spirochete counts in untreated subjects with and without periodontal tissue destruction.

    abstract::The purpose of the study was to determine microscopically the %s of spirochetes at sites without periodontal destruction in subjects with destructive periodontal diseases (cases) and in subjects free of it (controls), who had not received professional prophylaxis. From a sample of 164 individuals aged between 30-44 ye...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lembariti BS,Mikx FH,van Palenstein Helderman WH

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of two different healing times on the mineralization of newly formed bone using a bovine bone substitute in sinus floor augmentation: a randomized, controlled, clinical and histological investigation.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate the amount of the mineralization of a bovine bone substitute material in sinus floor augmentation after healing times of 3 and 6 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Fifty-one patients were randomized into two healing time groups and received sinus floor augmentations with a bovine bone material. After...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kohal RJ,Gubik S,Strohl C,Stampf S,Bächle M,Hurrle AA,Patzelt SB

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Essential oil mouthwashes: a key component in oral health management.

    abstract::This Supplement provides clear evidence that essential oil (EO) mouthwashes can be a beneficial, safe component of daily oral health routines. However, despite the wealth of supporting evidence, several issues are worthy of discussion. Patient compliance is a clear issue with oral home-care routines, and the emphasis ...

    journal_title:Journal of clinical periodontology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Claffey N

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00