Chlorophyll, chlorophyllin and related tetrapyrroles are significant inducers of mammalian phase 2 cytoprotective genes.


:Plant chlorophylls and carotenoids are highly colored, conjugated polyenes that play central roles in photosynthesis. Other porphyrins (tetrapyrroles), such as cytochromes, which are structurally related to chlorophyll, participate in redox reactions in many living systems. An unexpected new property of tetrapyrroles, including tetramethyl coproporphyrin III, tetrabenzoporphine, copper chlorin e4 ethyl ester, and of carotenoids including zeaxanthin and alpha-cryptoxanthin is their ability to induce mammalian phase 2 proteins that protect cells against oxidants and electrophiles. The capacity of these compounds to induce the phase 2 response depends upon their ability or that of their metabolites to react with thiol groups, a property shared with all other classes of phase 2 inducers, which show few other structural similarities. Pseudo second-order rate constants of these inducers are correlated with their potency in inducing the phase 2 enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in murine hepatoma cells. One of the most potent inducers was isolated from chlorophyllin, a semisynthetic water-soluble chlorophyll derivative. Although chlorophyll itself is low in inducer potency, it may nevertheless account for some of the disease-protective effects attributed to diets rich in green vegetables because it occurs in much higher concentrations in those plants than the widely studied 'phytochemicals'.






Fahey JW,Stephenson KK,Dinkova-Kostova AT,Egner PA,Kensler TW,Talalay P





Has Abstract


2005-07-01 00:00:00














  • Selective changes of retroelement expression in human prostate cancer.

    abstract::Retroelements constitute a large part of the human genome. These sequences are mostly silenced in normal cells, but genome-wide DNA hypomethylation in cancers might lead to their re-expression. Whether this re-expression really occurs in human cancers is largely unkown. We therefore investigated expression and DNA met...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goering W,Ribarska T,Schulz WA

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of 15 retinoic acid amides on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in the mouse.

    abstract::A series of experiments was conducted to determine the efficacy of 15 synthetic retinoic acid amides (retinamides) as inhibitors of chemical carcinogenesis of the urinary bladder in C57BL/6 x DBA/2F1 mice. Eight of the retinamides tested had significant protective activity when administered at nontoxic levels in the d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moon RC,McCormick DL,Becci PJ,Shealy YF,Frickel F,Paust J,Sporn MB

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Increase in mutation frequency in lung of Big Blue rat by exposure to diesel exhaust.

    abstract::Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to cause lung tumors in rats. To clarify the mutagenicity of DE, we estimated mutant frequency (MF) and determined the mutation spectra in rat lung after exposure to DE using lambda/lacI transgenic rats (Big Blue system). Male Big Blue rats (6 weeks old) were exposed for 4 week...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sato H,Sone H,Sagai M,Suzuki KT,Aoki Y

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans.

    abstract::Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwartz AG,Wenzlaff AS,Bock CH,Ruterbusch JJ,Chen W,Cote ML,Artis AS,Van Dyke AL,Land SJ,Harris CC,Pine SR,Spitz MR,Amos CI,Levin AM,McKeigue PM

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of melanoma in TPras transgenic mice.

    abstract::In order to study the oncogenesis of melanocytes, transgenic mouse lines were established that express a mutated human Ha-ras (TPras) gene in pigment producing cells. The ras transgenic mice exhibit an altered phenotype, including melanocytic hyperplasia and a muted agouti coat, indicative of hyperproliferative melano...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Broome Powell M,Gause PR,Hyman P,Gregus J,Lluria-Prevatt M,Nagle R,Bowden GT

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Bioactivation of N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorenes by N,O-acyltransferase: substituent effects on covalent binding to DNA.

    abstract::N-Acetoxyarylamines are reactive metabolites that lead to arylamine adduct formation with biological macromolecules. A series of 7-substituted-N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorenes were converted to reactive N-acetoxyarylamines by enzymatic N,O-acyltransfer in the presence of DNA. The N-arylhydroxamic acid substrates that ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boteju LW,Hanna PE

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • 32P-post-labelling analysis of DNA adducts formed by food-derived heterocyclic amines: evidence for incomplete hydrolysis and a procedure for adduct pattern simplification.

    abstract::Food-derived aminoimidazoazarenes have been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic and to form covalent DNA adducts. 32P-Post-labelling analysis of DNA modified with these heterocyclic amines (HA), including 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pfau W,Brockstedt U,Söhren KD,Marquardt H

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • A variant in the CHEK2 promoter at a methylation site relieves transcriptional repression and confers reduced risk of lung cancer.

    abstract::Checkpoint kinase (CHEK) 2, a tumor suppressor gene, plays an essential role in the DNA damage checkpoint response cascade. We first investigated two polymorphisms in the proximal promoter of the CHEK2 gene and evaluated their associations with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study using 500 incident lung ca...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang S,Lu J,Zhao X,Wu W,Wang H,Lu J,Wu Q,Chen X,Fan W,Chen H,Wang F,Hu Z,Jin L,Wei Q,Shen H,Huang W,Lu D

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • 3,3-Diindolylmethane (DIM): a nutritional intervention and its impact on breast density in healthy BRCA carriers. A prospective clinical trial.

    abstract::Women who carry the BRCA mutation are at high lifetime risk of breast cancer, but there is no consensus regarding an effective and safe chemoprevention strategy. A large body of evidence suggests that 3,3-diindolylmethane (DIM), a dimer of indole-3-carbinol found in cruciferous vegetables, can potentially prevent carc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yerushalmi R,Bargil S,Ber Y,Ozlavo R,Sivan T,Rapson Y,Pomerantz A,Tsoref D,Sharon E,Caspi O,Grubsrein A,Margel D

    更新日期:2020-10-15 00:00:00

  • Selenium and the genesis of murine mammary tumors.

    abstract::One hundred forty-seven female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups and at 60 days of age were treated i.g. with 5 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) suspended in 1.0 ml of sesame oil. Selenium (Se), as selenium dioxide (SeO2), was administered in the drinking water to 4 of the 5 groups (30 rats/group)...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Welsch CW,Goodrich-Smith M,Brown CK,Greene HD,Hamel EJ

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Apoptosis and proliferation under conditions of deoxynucleotide pool imbalance in liver of folate/methyl deficient rats.

    abstract::Weanling male F344 rats were fed either a semi-purified diet low in methionine and lacking in choline and folic acid (folate/methyl deficient) or a supplemented control diet for periods of 2, 5, 7 days, 3 weeks, and 9 weeks. Two days after initiating the folate/methyl deficient diet in weanling F344 rats, the incidenc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: James SJ,Miller BJ,Basnakian AG,Pogribny IP,Pogribna M,Muskhelishvili L

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • The use of initiated cells as a test system for the detection of inhibitors of gap junctional intercellular communication.

    abstract::The effects of five non-mutagenic carcinogens--Aroclor 1260, benzoyl peroxide (BP), phenobarbital (PB), 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene] (DDT)--on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) were tested in a cell line consisting of initiated cel...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jansen LA,Jongen WM

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • The oncoprotein ErbB3 is endocytosed in the absence of added ligand in a clathrin-dependent manner.

    abstract::The oncoprotein ErbB3 is overexpressed in several human cancers, for example in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and in ovarian cancers, and ErbB3-containing heterodimers have been demonstrated to be potent signaling units in carcinogenesis. This especially applies to ErbB2-ErbB3 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-E...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sak MM,Breen K,Rønning SB,Pedersen NM,Bertelsen V,Stang E,Madshus IH

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Dibenz[a,j]acridine metabolism: identification of in vitro products formed by liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-pretreated rats.

    abstract::The metabolism of the carcinogenic pentacyclic azaaromatic compound, dibenz[a,j]acridine, has been examined in liver microsomal incubations using preparations from 3-methylcholanthrene-pretreated Wistar rats. Using authentic synthetic standards, u.v. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, the following were proved to be ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gill JH,Duke CC,Rosario CA,Ryan AJ,Holder GM

    更新日期:1986-08-01 00:00:00

  • Na+/H+ exchanger 1, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 and calmodulin complex regulates interleukin 6-mediated cellular behavior of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    abstract::Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a key cytokine involved in the development and progression of inflammation-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms of IL6 action on HCC remain largely unknown. Proton and Ca(2+) are two intracellular messenger ions, which are believed to play a central role in tumorige...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu J,Ji B,Wen G,Yang Y,Jin H,Liu X,Xie R,Song W,Song P,Dong H,Tuo B

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Unmasking the impact of Rictor in cancer: novel insights of mTORC2 complex.

    abstract::Genomic alterations affecting components of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway are found rather frequently in cancers, suggesting that aberrant pathway activity is implicated in oncogenesis of different tumor types. mTOR functions as the core catalytic kinase of two distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gkountakos A,Pilotto S,Mafficini A,Vicentini C,Simbolo M,Milella M,Tortora G,Scarpa A,Bria E,Corbo V

    更新日期:2018-07-30 00:00:00

  • 32P-postlabeling analysis of adducts formed from 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene (Sudan I, Solvent Yellow 14) with DNA and homopolydeoxyribonucleotides.

    abstract::A 32P-postlabeling assay was employed for detection and quantitation of DNA adducts formed with carcinogenic 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene (Sudan I, Solvent Yellow 14) activated by a peroxidase system. Enrichment of adducts by digestion with nuclease P1 or by extraction into n-butanol prior to 32P-labeling was used...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stiborová M,Frei E,Schmeiser HH,Wiessler M

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of free radicals and tumors in the kidneys of Wistar rats by ferric ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate.

    abstract::An iron chelate, ferric ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate [Fe(III)-EDDA], was found to produce hydroxyl radicals with hydrogen peroxide, as determined by both a deoxyribose degradation test and electron spin resonance. Hydroxyl radical production was inhibited not only by adding hydroxyl radical scavengers and catalase, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu M,Okada S

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • EPHA7, a new target gene for 6q deletion in T-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas.

    abstract::Cryptic deletions at chromosome 6q are common cytogenetic abnormalities in T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-LBL), but the target genes have not been formally identified. Our results build on detection of specific chromosomal losses in a mouse model of γ-radiation-induced T-LBLs and provide interesting clues f...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: López-Nieva P,Vaquero C,Fernández-Navarro P,González-Sánchez L,Villa-Morales M,Santos J,Esteller M,Fernández-Piqueras J

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of two keratinocyte stem cell regulatory loci implicated in skin carcinogenesis.

    abstract::Several converging lines of evidence suggest that keratinocyte stem cells including those clonogenic in vitro, are the target cells in skin carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism of their involvement in carcinogenesis continues to be unknown. Recently, we have demonstrated that the number of keratinocyte clonogenic st...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Popova NV,Teti KA,Wu KQ,Morris RJ

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Functional identification of LRF as an oncogene that bypasses RASV12-induced senescence via upregulation of CYCLIN E.

    abstract::Mutant RAS (RAS(V12)) is known to transform most immortal cells but to induce premature senescence in primary cells. RAS(V12)-induced senescence in murine cells depends on the induction of the ARF/p53 and the retinoblastoma (Rb) family tumor suppressor pathways. We and others have shown previously that oncogene-induce...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vredeveld LC,Rowland BD,Douma S,Bernards R,Peeper DS

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro enzymatic recognition of DNA modified by O,O'-diacetyl or O-acetyl derivatives of the carcinogen 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide.

    abstract::Purified DNA was modified in vitro by 3H-labelled O-acetyl or O,O'-diacetyl-4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide (Ac4HAQO or di Ac-4HAQO). It was then subjected to the action of the single-stranded DNA specific nuclease S1 and the digested fractions were analysed. For both types of modified DNA, the release of non-modified...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galiègue S,Bailleul B,Loucheux-Lefebvre MH,Laval J

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chemopreventive effects of early-stage and late-stage supplementation of vitamin E and selenium on esophageal carcinogenesis in rats maintained on a low vitamin E/selenium diet.

    abstract::Low vitamin E and selenium (Ve/Se) nutritional status is known to be associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A previous human intervention trial demonstrated that Ve/Se supplementation decreased the occurrence of esophageal cancer death among younger participants but not among olde...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang H,Fang J,Jia X,Han C,Chen X,Yang CS,Li N

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of small G protein isoprenylation by anticancer monoterpenes in in situ mammary gland epithelial cells.

    abstract::Monoterpenes have been shown to both prevent and treat mammary cancer in animal models and are currently in clinical testing in advanced cancer patients. In this study, we investigated a biochemical modulation associated with the antitumor activity of monoterpenes, the inhibition of protein isoprenylation in monoterpe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ren Z,Gould MN

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Fractionation of grape seed extract and identification of gallic acid as one of the major active constituents causing growth inhibition and apoptotic death of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells.

    abstract::The anti-cancer efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer (PCA) via its anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic activities in both cell culture and animal models have recently been described by us. GSE is a complex mixture containing gallic acid (GA), catechin (C), epicatechin (EC) and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veluri R,Singh RP,Liu Z,Thompson JA,Agarwal R,Agarwal C

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cooperative alterations of Rb pathway regulators in mouse primary T cell lymphomas.

    abstract::Alterations in the Rb pathway have been described in many different tumors. In order to study this cell cycle regulatory mechanism in murine T cell lymphomas, we have analyzed the RNA and protein expression of the cyclin D1, cdk4 and retinoblastoma genes in primary tumor samples. We have detected overexpression of the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pérez de Castro IP,Malumbres M,Santos J,Pellicer A,Fernández-Piqueras J

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • The activity of 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylate in animal tissues in relation to carcinogenesis.

    abstract::3-Methyladenine is one of the major products formed by reaction of a large number of environmental methylating agents with DNA in vivo and in vitro. In spite of the rapid spontaneous depurination of this base an enzyme, 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase, has been shown to catalyse its excision. The relevance of this enz...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Craddock VM,Henderson AR

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of neutral metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene in urine from germfree rats.

    abstract::[14C]Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) was administered to male germfree rats. Urinary metabolites, constituting 9% of the administered radioactivity, were fractionated by lipophilic ion exchange chromatography. More than 80% of the urinary metabolites were conjugated, while neutral metabolites constituted 13-18%. The latter group ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang Y,Sjövall J,Rafter J,Gustafsson JA

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • CEBPG regulates ERCC5/XPG expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and this regulation is modified by E2F1/YY1 interactions.

    abstract::Marked inter-individual variation in lung cancer risk cannot be accounted for solely by cigarette smoke and other environmental exposures. Evidence suggests that variation in bronchial epithelial cell expression of key DNA repair genes plays a role. Variation in these genes correlates with variation in expression of C...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crawford EL,Blomquist T,Mullins DN,Yoon Y,Hernandez DR,Al-Bagdhadi M,Ruiz J,Hammersley J,Willey JC

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • 5-Aminolevulinic acid mediates the in vivo and in vitro formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA.

    abstract::5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a heme precursor accumulated in chemical and inborn porphyrias, may behave as an endogenous pro-oxidant. In chronically treated rats (40 mg ALA/kg body wt every 2 days for 15 days) the steady-state level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in liver DNA (94.5 +/- 23.3 residues/10(6) dG)...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fraga CG,Onuki J,Lucesoli F,Bechara EJ,Di Mascio P

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00