Information in the behavior stream.


:The dynamic of a series of responses for four pigeons is analyzed using a discrete fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a measure of behavior's predictability. FFTs of moment-to-moment response rates reliably exhibited a continuous distribution for three of the four birds, with most of the power falling in the low frequencies-red noise. An information analysis of the predictability of a series of inter-response times (IRTs) reveals that there is some gain in prediction by knowing past behavior; moreover, predictability increases the more past behaviors are taken into account. However, the further into the future these predictions are extended, the less reliable they become-entropy. These findings suggest that the dynamic controlling behavior at the level of the individual response is, to some extent, deterministic and probably chaotic.


Behav Processes


Behavioural processes


Horner JM





Has Abstract


2002-06-28 00:00:00














  • Development of a raceway method to assess aversion of domestic fowl to concurrent stressors.

    abstract::The requirement for assessing the effects of stressor combinations in improving the welfare of animals has not been widely recognised. Knowledge of the effects of concurrent stressors is needed to improve environments such as transport, where animals are presented with many simultaneous challenges. However, no method ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abeyesinghe SM,Nicol CJ,Wathes CM,Randall JM

    更新日期:2001-12-03 00:00:00

  • The present values of delayed rewards are approximately additive.

    abstract::In two experiments, human subjects were asked to estimate their present values of single delayed rewards and their present values of temporal sequences of three rewards. Present values were solicited by asking subjects to indicate an amount of money v for which they would be indifferent between receiving v at the end ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kirby KN

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Stealing of dunked food in Carib grackles (Quiscalus lugubris).

    abstract::The use of tool or tool-like food processing behaviours can render animals vulnerable to theft (kleptoparasitism) because (1) large, nutritious items are usually involved, (2) value is added to the food due to long and/or complex handling, and (3) physical control of items is often temporarily lost during handling. In...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morand-Ferron J,Veillette M,Lefebvre L

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Temporal spacing of signals in communication, studied in weakly-electric mormyrid fish (teleostei, pisces).

    abstract::Both the shape of the electric pulses and their rhythm of emission serve in communication in weakly-electric mormyrid fish. Because the pulses emitted by a given individual show very little variability, whereas the rhythm of emission is highly variable, the mormyrids electric emission can be considered to be the repet...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teyssedre C,Serrier J

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Attack and defense in laboratory and wild Norway and black rats.

    abstract::Intra- and interspecific agonistic encounters in Long-Evans and field-trapped Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus showed a consistency in the form and character of attack and defensive behaviors. Colony alpha males exhibited high levels of lateral attack, on-top, and chasing behaviors which resulted in a high percenta...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takahashi LK,Blanchard RJ

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • Correlations between meals and inter-meal intervals in Japanese quail and their significance in the control of feeding.

    abstract::Significant correlations (P<0.05) between meals and preceding intervals were shown more often by Japanese quail when fed on diluted mash (40% cellulose) than with undiluted mash or pellets. They showed significant correlations between meals and succeeding intervals with about the same frequency on all three foods. Mos...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Savory CJ

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive bias in rats evoked by ultrasonic vocalizations suggests emotional contagion.

    abstract::Emotional contagion occurs when an individual acquires the emotional state of another via social cues, and is an important component of empathy. Empathic responses seen in rodents are often explained by emotional contagion. Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in positive contexts, and emit 22kHz USVs in ne...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saito Y,Yuki S,Seki Y,Kagawa H,Okanoya K

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of tied rank numbers on the linearity of dominance hierarchies.

    abstract::The occurence of tied rank numbers in dominance hierarchies is discussed, especially its effect on the linearity of the hierarchy. This linearity is measured with Landau's index, that is calculated for several hierarchies with tied ranks on one, two of three levels. Linearity is mostly affected by ties in small groups...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nelissen MH

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00

  • A test of the reward-contrast hypothesis.

    abstract::Source memory, a facet of episodic memory, is the memory of the origin of information. Whereas source memory in rats is sustained for at least a week, spatial memory degraded after approximately a day. Different forgetting functions may suggest that two memory systems (source memory and spatial memory) are dissociated...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dalecki SJ,Panoz-Brown DE,Crystal JD

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Tool-use and tool-making by captive, group-living orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) at an artificial termite mound.

    abstract::The present study examined the use and making of tools to obtain foodstuffs in artificial-mound holes by five captive, group-living Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Three adult orangutans frequently stripped leaves and twigs from a branch provided (tool-making), and then inserted the tool into a hole to ob...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamichi M

    更新日期:2004-01-30 00:00:00

  • The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    abstract::When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the oppo...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chuard PJC,Brown GE,Grant JWA

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Reinforcer frequency and reinforcer duration as biasers of signal detection.

    abstract::Five pigeons were trained to discriminate a constant luminance difference when both reinforcer frequency and reinforcer magnitude were varied in an animal analogue of the human discrete-trial yes- no detection task. Variation of relative reinforcer frequency was more effective in biasing detection performance than var...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boldero J,Davison M,McCarthy D

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ethological analyses of the effects of naloxone and the opiate antagonist ICI 154, 129 on social interactions in male house mice.

    abstract::The influences of the mu blocker naloxone and the novel opioid delta receptor antagonist ICI, 154, 129 on videotaped encounters between individually-housed, male Swiss mice and anosmic male 'standard opponents' were assessed using a variety of ethological analyses. The effects of drugs were studied on individual eleme...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brain PF,Brain S,Benton D

    更新日期:1985-05-01 00:00:00

  • Retroactive interference of a learnt action-outcome association by exposure to a stimulus-outcome learning experience.

    abstract::The current study used the protocol established to produce retroactive interference (RI) in contextual memory paradigms and applied it to an appetitive learning setting. Rats were first subjected to the learning of an operant conditioning, action-outcome (A-O) association and were tested in a probe (A-O probe) session...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pattabhiraman H,Ward RD

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • A new nonlinear model of mechanisms of motivation.

    abstract::Models of motivation have been traditionally classified along the lines of homeostatic/ priming dichotomies using a diversity of definitions and names. Here, similar classification is used to describe a model of behaviour made of two well-defined mechanisms connected in series representing priming and homeostasis, and...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kadri FL,Duncan IJ

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • The age of olfactory cues functioning in chemocommunication among male domestic cats.

    abstract::In a simulated open-field situation we tried to obtain information about the ability of tomcats to distinguish between urine marks of differing ages. Reactions to these marks were sniffing, sniffing intensively and "Flehmen". The variables we chose to demonstrate a possible discriminatory ability between urine marks o...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Boer JN

    更新日期:1977-11-01 00:00:00

  • Peripheral anosmia and display of lordosis behaviour in the male rat.

    abstract::The current study was designed to investigate the effects of peripheral anosmia on the display of lordosis behaviour in orchidectomized rats primed with oestradiol benzoate and progesterone. Peripheral anosmia was induced by intranasal Zn SO4 application in rats trained to locate a food pellet buried under shavings. T...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chateau D,Aron C

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of extinction in multiple contexts on renewal of instrumental responses.

    abstract::In two experiments with rats, we investigated the effects of using multiple contexts during extinction on renewal of lever-pressing behavior. During the first phase of both experiments, rats were reinforced to press a lever for food in Context A. Then, responses underwent extinction. For half of the animals, extinctio...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bernal-Gamboa R,Nieto J,Uengoer M

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • I saw where you have been--The topography of human demonstration affects dogs' search patterns and perseverative errors.

    abstract::Performance in object search tasks is not only influenced by the subjects' object permanence ability. For example, ostensive cues of the human manipulating the target markedly affect dogs' choices. However, the interference between the target's location and the spatial cues of the human hiding the object is still unkn...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Péter A,Topál J,Miklósi Á,Pongrácz P

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Does intraspecific competition among Allenby's gerbils lead to an Ideal Free Distribution across foraging patches?

    abstract::Employing the Ideal Free Distribution (IFD) principle as a tool, we investigated how Allenby's gerbils (Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi) utilized food patches within and moved between connected quadrants (i.e., 'habitats') in a large outdoor semi-natural enclosure. These habitats differed in initial forager densities, bu...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Makin DF,Kotler BP

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Properties of behavior under different random ratio and random interval schedules: A parametric study.

    abstract::Four pigeons were trained to peck a key under different values of a temporally defined independent variable (T) and different probabilities of reinforcement (p). Parameter T is a fixed repeating time cycle and p the probability of reinforcement for the first response of each cycle T. Two dependent variables were used:...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dembo M,De Penfold JB,Ruiz R,Casalta H

    更新日期:1985-03-01 00:00:00

  • A comparative analysis of auditory perception in humans and songbirds: a modular approach.

    abstract::We propose that a relatively small number of perceptual skills underlie human perception of music and speech. Humans and songbirds share a number of features in the development of their auditory communication systems. These similarities invite comparisons between species in their auditory perceptual skills. Here, we s...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weisman R,Hoeschele M,Sturdy CB

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Multimodal communication, mismatched messages and the effects of turbidity on the antipredator behavior of the Barton Springs salamander, Eurycea sosorum.

    abstract::Prey may use multiple sensory channels to detect predators, whose cues may differ in altered sensory environments, such as turbid conditions. Depending on the environment, prey may use cues in an additive/complementary manner or in a compensatory manner. First, to determine whether the purely aquatic Barton Springs sa...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zabierek KC,Gabor CR

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Activite operante et locomotrice chez des rats eleves dans des milieux differents.

    abstract::Male and female rats of the inbred August and Fischer strains were reared during two months after weaning either in a standard laboratory environment (controls) or in a more complex environment (treated animals). The performance of these rats was measured afterwards in an operant conditioning situation with positive r...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Will B,Ungerer A,Pallaud B,Ropartz P

    更新日期:1977-12-01 00:00:00

  • Rats are reluctant to use circadian timing in a daily time-place task.

    abstract::On daily time-place learning tasks animals can work for food at different spatial locations during sessions at different times of the day. In previous experiments rats tracked this pattern of food availability with ordinal timing-they learned to respond at the locations in the correct order each day. In contrast, pige...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carr JA,Wilkie DM

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mr. right versus Mr. right now: A discounting-based approach to promiscuity.

    abstract::Research has begun to examine how individuals discount delayed sex. However, these tasks have not evaluated the dimension of sexual behavior associated with promiscuity (i.e., choices between partners). The current study assessed choices between hypothetical sexual partners within a delay discounting paradigm. Partici...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jarmolowicz DP,Lemley SM,Asmussen L,Reed DD

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Lateral asymmetries during responses to novel-coloured objects in the domestic chick: A developmental study.

    abstract::Chicks were trained to peck on a small coloured (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a different colour (unfamiliar). Food reinforcement was delivered for pecking either box, and the right-left position of the two ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Regolin L,Vallortigara G

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Mental rehearsal in great apes (Pan troglodytes and Pongo pygmaeus) and children.

    abstract::The ability to rehearse possible future courses of action in the mind is an important feature of advanced social cognition in humans, and the "social brain" hypothesis implies that it might also be a feature of primate social cognition. We tested two chimpanzees, six orangutans and 63 children aged 3-7 years on a set ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dunbar RI,McAdam MR,O'connell S

    更新日期:2005-06-30 00:00:00

  • Increased latencies to respond in a judgment bias test are not associated with pessimistic biases in rats.

    abstract::Extinction of learning is a common, yet under-reported limitation of judgment bias testing methods Repeated exposure to the ambiguous probe of a judgment bias paradigm encourages the animal to cease display of the required behaviours. However, there remains a need to repeatedly test animals to achieve statistical powe...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barker TH,Howarth GS,Whittaker AL

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • A behavioral-economic analysis of the essential value of brands.

    abstract::Recently, Hursh and Silberberg (2008) have advanced a behavior-economic approach to measure the value of reinforcers, in which demand elasticity is measured relative to the point at which price is zero, a technique that allows for comparisons across reinforcers that show different consumption patterns or across differ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliveira-Castro JM,Foxall GR,Yan J,Wells VK

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00