Intraretinal oxygen consumption in the rat in vivo.


PURPOSE:To make the first quantitative assessment of the rate of oxygen consumption in high oxygen-consuming layers of both the outer and inner retina of the rat in vivo. METHODS:Oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure the oxygen tension as a function of depth through the retina in anesthetized rats. Individual PO2 profiles were fitted to a multilayer mathematical model of PO2 distribution that is able to determine the oxygen uptake in those retinal layers in which the oxygen supply is through diffusion from vascular layers of the retina. This includes the entire outer retina and the region of the inner retina containing the inner plexiform layer. Measurements were performed in the light (13 mW/cm2 at the cornea) and in the dark and the amplitude and time constant for light-induced changes in outer retinal oxygenation determined. RESULTS:Under light-adapted conditions, the oxygen consumption of the outer retina was 148 +/- 11 nL O2/min/cm2 (n = 20) [corrected] and that of the included portion of the inner retina was 184 +/- 17 nL O2/min/cm2 [corrected]. In the dark, outer retinal oxygen consumption increased by 47.8% (P < 0.001), and the time constant for the resultant PO2 decrease in the outer retina was 14.9 +/- 1.8 seconds (n = 16). There was no significant change in inner retinal oxygen consumption between light and dark conditions (P = 0.89). CONCLUSIONS:Under light-adapted conditions the oxygen uptake by the selected region of the inner retina (primarily the inner plexiform layer) is greater than that of the outer retina (P < 0.01). Dark adaptation rapidly and significantly increases outer retinal oxygen consumption, but the inner retina remains unaffected.


Cringle SJ,Yu DY,Yu PK,Su EN



Has Abstract


2002-06-01 00:00:00












  • Vertical saccades in senescence.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine the metrics of vertical saccades in elderly subjects for comparison in neurologic disease. METHODS:Sixteen elderly subjects, ten middle-aged subjects, and thirteen young subjects were examined using a magnetic search coil technique. Saccades were measured to predictable vertical target steps and m...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huaman AG,Sharpe JA

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Detection efficiency of circular gratings and bandpass filtered points with randomized phase spectra.

    abstract:PURPOSE:In the studies of spatial integration an increase in the spatial extent of the stimulus usually results in a decrease in the spatial frequency bandwidth of the stimulus. The authors investigated separately the effects of these two factors on contrast detectability. METHODS:Efficiencies were measured for a circ...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kukkonen H,Näsänen R,Rovamo J

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Visual fields of infants assessed with a new perimetric technique.

    abstract::The visual field of normal infants was assessed using a perimeter with LED stimuli and a forced-choice observation procedure. Central fixation was elicited by four central, pulsing LEDs and maintained with the aid of auditory stimuli. Field extent was derived from the four-alternative, forced-choice judgments of an ad...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mayer DL,Fulton AB,Cummings MF

    更新日期:1988-03-01 00:00:00

  • Vitreal IgM autoantibodies target neurofilament medium in a spontaneous model of autoimmune uveitis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Although the presence of IgG autoantibodies in the vitreous of spontaneous cases of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has been demonstrated, the potential role of IgM reactivities during ERU pathogenesis remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of IgM autoantibodies in vitreous spe...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Swadzba ME,Hirmer S,Amann B,Hauck SM,Deeg CA

    更新日期:2012-01-25 00:00:00

  • Surface-modified electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffold with improved optical transparency and bioactivity for damaged ocular surface reconstruction.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to modify and functionalize the surface of synthetic poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds to improve their biocompatibility in order to provide better "cell-substrate" interaction. METHODS:Poly-ε-caprolactone solution was electrospun and its surface functionality was mo...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma S,Gupta D,Mohanty S,Jassal M,Agrawal AK,Tandon R

    更新日期:2014-02-12 00:00:00

  • Gene expression in human accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. METHODS:Gland...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ubels JL,Gipson IK,Spurr-Michaud SJ,Tisdale AS,Van Dyken RE,Hatton MP

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of total and corneal wavefront high order aberrations for the detection of forme fruste keratoconus.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate the application of anterior corneal and ocular aberrations in detecting mildly ectatic corneas. METHODS:This study retrospectively reviewed the data of 220 eyes separated into three groups by the NIDEK Corneal Navigator System automated corneal classification software: normal (N) (n = 123); form...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saad A,Gatinel D

    更新日期:2012-05-17 00:00:00

  • A comparative effectiveness analysis of visual field outcomes after projected glaucoma screening using SD-OCT in African American communities.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To assess the impact on visual function of community glaucoma screening in an African American population using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS:Using a Monte Carlo microsimulation model with a 10-year time horizon, we analyzed the efficacy of SD-OCT screening on visual field outc...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blumberg DM,Vaswani R,Nong E,Al-Aswad L,Cioffi GA

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine whether a novel optical treatment using contact lenses to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia can slow the rate of progress of myopia. METHODS:Chinese children, aged 7 to 14 years, with baseline myopia from sphere -0.75 to -3.50 D and cylinder ≤1.00 D, were fitted with novel contact lenses (n = 4...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sankaridurg P,Holden B,Smith E 3rd,Naduvilath T,Chen X,de la Jara PL,Martinez A,Kwan J,Ho A,Frick K,Ge J

    更新日期:2011-12-09 00:00:00

  • Diabetic Optic Neuropathy and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Patients With Diabetic Retinopathy.

    abstract:Purpose:To investigate diabetic optic neuropathy (DON) prevalence and risk factors in Chinese diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients. Methods:This retrospective study included 1067 eyes (550 patients) that underwent ocular imaging. The diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure (SBP), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and high-dens...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hua R,Qu L,Ma B,Yang P,Sun H,Liu L

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the rhodopsin knockout mouse as a model of pure cone function.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine a time window in the rhodopsin knockout (Rho(-/-)) mouse during which retinal function is already sufficiently developed but cone degeneration is not yet substantial, thus representing an all-cone retina. METHODS:Electroretinograms (ERGs) were obtained from 14 homozygous Rho(-/-) mice and eight C5...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jaissle GB,May CA,Reinhard J,Kohler K,Fauser S,Lütjen-Drecoll E,Zrenner E,Seeliger MW

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Lacrimal Gland Inflammation Deregulates Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Alters Molecular Signature of Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The adult lacrimal gland (LG) is highly regenerative and is able to repair itself even after substantial damage; however, this ability to regenerate is lost with the development of dry eye conditions in chronically inflamed LGs.This study compares changes in the cell adhesion and cell matrix molecules and stem ...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Umazume T,Thomas WM,Campbell S,Aluri H,Thotakura S,Zoukhri D,Makarenkova HP

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Role of metallothioneins 1 and 2 in ocular neovascularization.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The incidence of blindness is increasing, in part, because of abnormal ocular neovascularization. Anti-VEGF therapies have yielded impressive results; however, they are not a cure for blindness. Recently, metallothioneins (MTs) 1 and 2 have been implicated in the process of angiogenesis. Therefore, we investiga...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamura S,Shimazawa M,Inoue Y,Takata S,Ito Y,Tsuruma K,Ikeda T,Honda A,Satoh M,Hara H

    更新日期:2014-09-23 00:00:00

  • Characteristics of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defect in Nonglaucomatous Eyes With Type II Diabetes.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate the characteristics of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects associated with type II diabetes. METHODS:Forty nonglaucomatous eyes with type II diabetes and 54 eyes with early open angle glaucoma that exhibited a localized RNFL defect and 42 eyes from age- and sex-matched nondiabetic, nonglauc...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jeon SJ,Kwon JW,La TY,Park CK,Choi JA

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Corneal sensitivity following lacrimal gland excision in the rat.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Dry eye disease (DED) produces ocular pain and irritation, yet a detailed characterization of ocular sensitivity in a preclinical model of DED is lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess nociceptive behaviors in an aqueous tear deficiency model of DED in the rat. METHODS:Spontaneous blinking, cornea...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meng ID,Barton ST,Mecum NE,Kurose M

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamic accommodation and myopia.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Accommodative effort during nearwork is thought to be a causative factor in the development of myopia. It has been proposed that an anomaly in autonomic control may be a precursor to the development of myopia. In the present study the closed-loop accommodation response after variations in fixation period was in...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Culhane HM,Winn B

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Coordinated genetic scaling of the human eye: shared determination of axial eye length and corneal curvature.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To examine the extent to which the two major determinants of refractive error, corneal curvature and axial length, are scaled relative to one another by shared genetic variants, along with their relationship to the genetic scaling of height. METHODS:Corneal curvature, axial length, and height were measured in ...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guggenheim JA,Zhou X,Evans DM,Timpson NJ,McMahon G,Kemp JP,St Pourcain B,Northstone K,Ring SM,Fan Q,Wong TY,Cheng CY,Khor CC,Aung T,Saw SM,Williams C

    更新日期:2013-03-07 00:00:00

  • Experimental induction of retinal ganglion cell death in adult mice.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Retinal ganglion cells die by apoptosis during development and after trauma such as axonal damage and exposure to excitotoxins. Apoptosis is associated with changes in the expression of genes that regulate this process. The genes that regulate apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells have not been characterized prim...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Y,Schlamp CL,Nickells RW

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Revalidating the Usefulness of a "Sector-Wise Regression" Approach to Predict Glaucomatous Visual Function Progression.

    abstract:PURPOSE:We previously developed a method to measure visual function progression using "Progression sectors," which were derived from a clustering analysis of pointwise rates of glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression; however, only short series of VFs, where pointwise linear regression (PLR) is typically not reliabl...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirasawa K,Murata H,Asaoka R

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • The inheritance of peripapillary atrophy.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To estimate the relative importance of genes and environment in peripapillary atrophy type beta (beta-PPA) in a classic twin study. METHODS:Female twin pairs (n = 506) aged 49 to 79 years were recruited from the St. Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry. Peripapillary atrophy was identified from masked grading of ste...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Healey PR,Mitchell P,Gilbert CE,Lee AJ,Ge D,Snieder H,Spector TD,Hammond CJ

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Diabetes on Mitochondrial Morphology and Its Implications in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    abstract:Purpose:To determine whether high glucose (HG) or diabetes alters mitochondrial morphology and promotes mitochondrial fragmentation in retinal vascular cells and thereby triggers apoptosis associated with diabetic retinopathy. Methods:To assess whether diabetes promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and thereby triggers...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim D,Roy S

    更新日期:2020-08-03 00:00:00

  • Retinal arteriolar and middle cerebral artery responses to combined hypercarbic/hyperoxic stimuli.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The relative effect of simultaneously administered oxygen and carbon dioxide on the retinal and cerebral vessels is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the superior-temporal retinal arteriole (RA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) responses to hypercarbic and combined hyper...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kisilevsky M,Mardimae A,Slessarev M,Han J,Fisher J,Hudson C

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of the retinal pigment epithelium protein RET-PE2 as CE-9/OX-47, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To identify the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) surface antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody RET-PE2. METHODS:A lambda bacteriophage complementary DNA (cDNA) expression library, representing the rat RPE cell line RPE-J, was constructed and screened with the RET-PE2 monoclonal antibody. Transient tran...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Finnemann SC,Marmorstein AD,Neill JM,Rodriguez-Boulan E

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Rat corneal allograft survival prolonged by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal conditions for prolonging corneal allograft survival by inducing anergy with the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). METHODS:A rat model of penetrating keratoplasty, whereby Fisher344 donor corneas are implanted into Lewis recipients, was used...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pan Z,Chen Y,Zhang W,Jie Y,Li N,Wu Y

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Contrast sensitivity is reduced in children with infantile spasms.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To investigate whether visual deficits in children with infantile spasm (IS) are the result of seizure activity or of treatment with the anticonvulsant drug vigabatrin (VGB). METHODS:Vision function was determined in three experiments by determining peak contrast sensitivity (CS) and grating acuity (GA) with t...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mirabella G,Morong S,Buncic JR,Snead OC,Logan WJ,Weiss SK,Abdolell M,Westall CA

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • The protective effect of functional connexin43 channels on a human epithelial cell line exposed to oxidative stress.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine the role of connexin43 (Cx43) and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in the response of the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 to oxidative stress. METHODS:ARPE-19 cells were treated with the chemical oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), and cell viability was ...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hutnik CM,Pocrnich CE,Liu H,Laird DW,Shao Q

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Three-dimensional modeling of metabolic species transport in the cornea with a hydrogel intrastromal inlay.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Intrastromal inlays for refractive correction of presbyopia are being adopted into clinical practice. An important concern is the effect of the inlay on the long-term health of the cornea due to disturbances in the concentration profiles of metabolic species. A three-dimensional metabolic model for the cornea i...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pinsky PM

    更新日期:2014-05-15 00:00:00

  • Heritability of macular pigment: a twin study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Several studies have reported higher levels of macular pigment (MP) in association with reduced risk for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), a disease to which there is a genetic predisposition. A classic twin study was performed to determine the heritability of MP in the healthy eye. METHODS:One hundred ...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liew SH,Gilbert CE,Spector TD,Mellerio J,Marshall J,van Kuijk FJ,Beatty S,Fitzke F,Hammond CJ

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Common and distinct pathways for cellular activities in FGF-2 signaling induced by IL-1beta in corneal endothelial cells.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine the mechanism by which IL-1beta induces FGF-2 and to elucidate the signaling pathways of IL-1beta-induced FGF-2 in corneal endothelial cells (CECs). METHODS:Expression and/or activation of FGF-2, p38, ERK1/2, and Akt was analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee JG,Kay EP

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Sildenafil accelerates anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis in sheep and rabbits.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Sildenafil increases ocular blood flow. Thus, the authors investigated if it also increases anterior chamber (AC) refilling after paracentesis. METHODS:Corriedale sheep and albino rabbits were used as animal models. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured, paracentesis performed on one eye, and AC refilling fo...

    journal_title:Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerometta R,Alvarez LJ,Candia OA

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00