Endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed embryo transfer with or without pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.


OBJECTIVE:To test the efficacy of endometrial preparation with exogenous steroids, without pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, in women with normal ovarian function. DESIGN:Prospective randomized study. SETTING:Private outpatient infertility clinic. PATIENT(S):Two hundred ninety-six women undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer. INTERVENTION(S):In group 1 (146 patients), depot GnRH agonist was administered in the luteal phase; treatment with 17beta-estradiol transdermal patches at steadily increasing dosage from 100 to 300 microg was then given for at least 12 days. In group 2 (150 patients), endometrial preparation began on day 1 of menstrual cycle. The starting dose was 200 microg; this was increased to 300 microg after 7 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Pregnancy, abortion, implantation and cancellation rates. RESULT(S):In group 2, six cycles (4%) were cancelled due to evidence of ovulation. Groups were similar in the percentage of embryos that survived freezing-thawing (77.1% in group 1 and 76.6% in group 2) and in the number of embryos transferred per patient (2.1 +/- 0.6 and 2.1 +/- 0.7, respectively). Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in rates of pregnancy (19.7% and 24.1%), abortion (17.8% and 11.7%), and implantation (10.4% and 11.9%). CONCLUSION(S):Endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed embryo transfer based exclusively on steroid administration appears to be as effective as the more conventional protocol involving preliminary desensitization with a GnRH agonist. This simplified protocol reduces costs, minimizes pharmacologic treatment, and increases patient compliance.


Fertil Steril


Fertility and sterility


Dal Prato L,Borini A,Cattoli M,Bonu MA,Sciajno R,Flamigni C





Has Abstract


2002-05-01 00:00:00














  • Sequential analysis of spontaneous abortion. II. Collaborative study data show that gravidity determines a very substantial rise in risk.

    abstract::Evidence from more than 14,000 reproductive histories in the Collaborative Perinatal Project of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke indicates that the risk of spontaneous abortion increases considerably with gravidity. Maternal age, memory errors, and sampling bias related to ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Naylor AF,Warburton D

    更新日期:1979-03-01 00:00:00

  • A tissue-engineered human endometrial stroma that responds to cues for secretory differentiation, decidualization, and menstruation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To show the responsiveness of tissue-engineered human endometrial stroma to combinations of hormones that mimic the secretory and menstrual phases of the cycle. DESIGN:In vitro experimental study. SETTING:University uterine biology research laboratory. PATIENT(S):None. INTERVENTION(S):Telomerase immortali...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schutte SC,Taylor RN

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary carrot results in diminished ovarian progesterone secretion, whereas a metabolite, retinoic acid, stimulates progesterone secretion in the in vitro perfused rabbit ovary.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effects of dietary carrots and retinoic acid on P secretion in the in vitro perfused rabbit ovary. DESIGN:Controlled experiment. SETTING:Laboratory. SUBJECTS:Sexually mature New Zealand white rabbits. INTERVENTION(S):Experiments were done in vitro using an isolated rabbit ovarian perfusio...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keenan DL,Dharmarajan AM,Zacur HA

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Serum pattern of circulating free leptin, bound leptin, and soluble leptin receptor in the physiological menstrual cycle.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the serum pattern of free leptin, bound leptin, and soluble leptin receptor throughout the physiological menstrual cycle. DESIGN:Prospective observational study. SETTING:Tertiary care center for gynecological endocrinology and reproductive medicine and a university research laboratory. PATIE...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geisthövel F,Jochmann N,Widjaja A,Horn R,Brabant G

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Unilateral triplet ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To present a case report of a unilateral triplet ectopic pregnancy (EP) conceived by IVF-embryo transfer. DESIGN:Case report. SETTING:University Hospital, Budapest, Hungary. PATIENT(S):A 26-year-old infertile woman with a history of right salpingectomy, hyperprolactinemia, and male factor infertility under...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berkes E,Szendei G,Csabay L,Sipos Z,Joo JG,Rigo J Jr

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Fibrinolytic factors in endometriotic tissue, endometrium, peritoneal fluid, and plasma from women with endometriosis and in endometrium and peritoneal fluid from healthy women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether there is a difference in fibrinolytic compounds in endometriotic tissue, endometrium, peritoneal fluid (PF), and plasma from women with endometriosis and in endometrium and PF from healthy women. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:Two university clinics. PATIENT(S):Regularly menstruatin...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruse C,Bergqvist A,Carlström K,Fianu-Jonasson A,Lecander I,Astedt B

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Laparoscopic anatomy of the autonomic nerves of the pelvis and the concept of nerve-sparing surgery by direct visualization of autonomic nerve bundles.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To demonstrate the laparoscopic neuroanatomy of the autonomic nerves of the pelvis using the laparoscopic neuronavigation technique, as well as the technique for a nerve-sparing radical endometriosis surgery. DESIGN:Step-by-step explanation of the technique using videos and pictures (educational video) to de...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lemos N,Souza C,Marques RM,Kamergorodsky G,Schor E,Girão MJ

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Body weight, hyperinsulinemia, and gonadotropin levels in the polycystic ovarian syndrome: evidence of two distinct populations.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the impact of body weight (BW) and insulin levels on gonadotropin and androgen levels in women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN:Comparative study of endocrinologic parameters in PCOS women. SETTING:University Hospital Reproductive Endocrinology Unit. PATIENTS:Thirty obese ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dale PO,Tanbo T,Vaaler S,Abyholm T

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of hypothalamic opioid activity with transdermal estradiol administration in postmenopausal women.

    abstract::The effects of estradiol (E2) administered by a transdermal system on the induction of hypothalamic opioid activity was examined in 18 postmenopausal women. Women were given 25, 50, 100, or 200 micrograms/d dosages of E2 for 28 days each. Naloxone at a dosage of 2 mg/h was infused intravenously for 4 hours, and serum ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: D'Amico JF,Greendale GA,Lu JK,Judd HL

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Endometriosis may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in cumulus cells from subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection, as reflected by decreased adenosine triphosphate production.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether endometriosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in cumulus (granulosa [GC]) cells of subjects undergoing IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:An IVF clinic in a tertiary academic care center. PATIENT(S):Eleven women with endom...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hsu AL,Townsend PM,Oehninger S,Castora FJ

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by peritoneal macrophages in endometriosis-associated infertility.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Determine whether peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis-associated infertility express more inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and produce more NO than fertile controls. DESIGN:Unblinded clinical study. PATIENT(S):Nine infertile women with endometriosis and nine normal fertile women under...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osborn BH,Haney AF,Misukonis MA,Weinberg JB

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Significance of inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone in seminal plasma: a preliminary study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the predictive value of seminal inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) on the outcome of testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:Reproductive biology department. PATIENT(S):Forty-seven normospermic, 28 oligozoospermic...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Duvilla E,Lejeune H,Trombert-Paviot B,Gentil-Perret A,Tostain J,Levy R

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of progesterone on endometrial nitric oxide synthase expression.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effect of P on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression in human endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN:Laboratory-based study. SETTING:University-based research institute. PATIENT(S):None. INTERVENTION(S):The effect of P on the expression of NOS protein isoforms was examined in an in vitro p...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khorram O,Han G

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Internal jugular vein thrombosis in patients with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe a case of bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis complicating ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). DESIGN:Case report. SETTING:Internal medicine ward in a teaching hospital. PATIENT:A 28-year-old nulliparous woman undergoing IVF. INTERVENTION(S):Ultrasonographic Doppler of the neck ve...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ellis MH,Nun IB,Rathaus V,Werner M,Shenkman L

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of gonadal steroids on the dopamine inhibitory effect on gonadotropin release in men.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to ascertain whether an interrelationship exists between gonadal steroids and the inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by dopamine. The effect of dopamine infusion (4 micrograms/kg/minute intravenously) on gonadotropin plasma levels in four castrated men (18 to 23 years of age) and in four ag...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foresta C,Scanelli G,Marra S,Scandellari C

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Leukemia inhibitory factor is dysregulated in the endometrium and uterine flushing fluid of patients with adenomyosis during implantation window.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor during the implantation window in endometrial tissue and uterine flushing fluid of patients with adenomyosis differs from that of healthy fertile women. DESIGN:Experimental study using endometrial tissue and uterine flushing fluid. SETTING:Pe...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiao Y,Sun X,Yang X,Zhang J,Xue Q,Cai B,Zhou Y

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Nicotine induces apoptosis in TM3 mouse Leydig cells.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether nicotine-induced testicular toxicity involves the induction of apoptosis in Leydig cells. DESIGN:Cell study using cells of the TM3 cell line derived from mouse Leydig cells. SETTING:Academic research laboratory. INTERVENTION(S):Morphological and biochemical analyses for the detection...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim KH,Joo KJ,Park HJ,Kwon CH,Jang MH,Kim CJ

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Two randomized controlled trials comparing the tubal ring and filshie clip for tubal sterilization.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the effectiveness and safety of the Filshie Clip and Tubal Ring systems when applied via minilaparotomy and laparoscopy. DESIGN:Prospective, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial, with postoperative evaluation by a physician who was masked to the operative technique. SETTING:Healthy vo...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Sokal D,Gates D,Amatya R,Dominik R

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • The follicular and endocrine environment in women with endometriosis: local and systemic cytokine production.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine milieu in patients with endometriosis on the basis of the measurement of several cytokines in serum and follicular fluid (FF) and in vitro culture of granulosa luteal cells. DESIGN:Case-control study. SETTING:In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto V...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pellicer A,Albert C,Mercader A,Bonilla-Musoles F,Remohí J,Simón C

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Production of interleukin-1-like molecules by human sperm cells.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To characterize and localize interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-1beta in human sperm cells. DESIGN:Prospective and comparative study. SETTING:Andrology clinic of a university hospital. PATIENT(S):Two groups of normogonadotropic men: 17 fertile men (donors with proved fertility) and 8 oligoteratoasthenospermic ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huleihel M,Lunenfeld E,Horowitz S,Levy A,Potashnik G,Glezerman M

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with or without stem cell factor extends time to premature ovarian insufficiency in female mice treated with alkylating chemotherapy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine gonadal protective properties of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or in combination with stem cell factor (SCF) in female mice treated with high-dose alkylating chemotherapy. DESIGN:Experimental laboratory animal study. SETTING:Tertiary care academic hospital and research insti...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Skaznik-Wikiel ME,McGuire MM,Sukhwani M,Donohue J,Chu T,Krivak TC,Rajkovic A,Orwig KE

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • No increase in arteriolosclerotic retinopathy or activity in tests for circulating immune complexes 5 years after vasectomy.

    abstract::On the basis of studies in monkeys, the hypothesis has been proposed that vasectomy induces the formation of circulating immune complexes (CICs), which--via activation of the complement system--may result in immune injury of the endothelium and thereby exacerbate atherosclerosis; the same mechanism has been suggested ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Linnet L,Møller NP,Bernth-Petersen P,Ehlers N,Brandslund I,Svehag SE

    更新日期:1982-06-01 00:00:00

  • Reproductive outcomes of familial oocyte donation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Oocyte donation (OD) from a family member may be more available to patients. Our objective was to compare reproductive outcomes of familial OD with those of unrelated OD. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study in a single university-affiliated center. SETTING:Not applicable. PATIENT(S):Four hundred thirty OD cy...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hasson J,Tulandi T,Son WY,Al Ma'mari N,Badeghiesh A,Tannus S,Takefman J,Shavit T

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Ovarian stimulation with daily late follicular phase administration of low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin for in vitro fertilization: a prospective, randomized trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Evaluate the effectiveness of a new ovarian stimulation (OS) protocol before IVF. DESIGN:Prospective clinical randomized trial. SETTING:Private centers. PATIENT(S):Three hundred and twenty-three intended-to-treat women candidates for IVF. INTERVENTION(S):Patients were divided into three groups and adminis...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Serafini P,Yadid I,Motta EL,Alegretti JR,Fioravanti J,Coslovsky M

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Occurrence of a spontaneous luteinizing hormone surge in superovulated cycles--predictive value of serum progesterone.

    abstract::A preovulatory increase in serum progesterone (P) precedes the occurrence of an endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in a majority of women. This study evaluates whether a single daily measurement of serum P could reliably identify a spontaneous LH surge in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Ei...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Serafini P,Stone B,Kerin J,Batzofin J,Quinn P,Marrs RP

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in oocyte donors co-treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist: a dose-finding study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the optimal GnRH agonist dose for triggering of oocyte maturation in oocyte donors. DESIGN:Single-center, randomized, parallel, investigator-blinded trial. SETTING:IVFMD, My Duc Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. PATIENT(S):One hundred sixty-five oocyte donors (aged 18-35 years, body mass in...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Vuong TN,Ho MT,Ha TD,Phung HT,Huynh GB,Humaidan P

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Variations in seminal plasma constituents from fertile, subfertile, and vasectomized azoospermic men.

    abstract::Freshly ejaculated semen specimens from 20 normal fertile, 11 subfertile, and 20 vasectomized men whose semen analyses had reached complete azoospermia were compared. The mean levels of seminal acid phosphatase were significantly higher in the vasectomized men. The mean values of sialic acid in normal and postvasect...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nun S,Musacchio I,Epstein JA

    更新日期:1972-05-01 00:00:00

  • Assisted fertility using electroejaculation in men with spinal cord injury--a review of literature.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To review the effectiveness of rectal probe electroejaculation in terms of pregnancy in treatment of anejaculatory males due to spinal cord injury. The characteristics of electroejaculates also are examined. DATA IDENTIFICATION:All English language studies reporting pregnancies as a result of electroejaculat...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chung PH,Yeko TR,Mayer JC,Sanford EJ,Maroulis GB

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Epidermal growth factor promotes stromal cells migration and invasion via up-regulation of hyaluronate synthase 2 and hyaluronan in endometriosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the role(s) of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and hyaluronan in disease progression of endometriosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced motility changes of endometriotic cells. DESIGN:A case-control experimental study and in vitro primary cell culture study. SETTING:University hospital-a...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhan H,Peng B,Ma J,Lin K,Xu K,Lin J,Yong PJ,Leung PCK,Bedaiwy MA,Lin J

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Initial evaluation of a convection counter streaming galvanization technique of sex separation of human spermatozoa.

    abstract::A new method for separating X and Y human spermatozoa called convection counter streaming galvanization was evaluated. The method was independently performed by this semenology laboratory with the use of the special separation equipment and extending media provided by its developer, Dr. Bhairab C. Bhattacharya. The me...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Daniell JF,Herbert CM,Repp J,Torbit CA,Wentz AC

    更新日期:1982-08-01 00:00:00