Improved anticonvulsant activity of phenytoin by a redox brain delivery system. III: Brain uptake and pharmacological effects.

Abstract:

:Phenytoin (DPH) was delivered to the brain by a dihydropyridine in equilibrium pyridinium salt redox system, which was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity. Following iv injection of the lipophilic delivery system of DPH (2) to rats, concentrations of DPH were lower but sustained and, after 30 min, essentially the same as the levels after equimolar administration of DPH. While 2 delivered the same levels of DPH to the brain as DPH did, it was twice as potent as DPH in rats (ED50 was 7.5 mumol/kg for 2 and 14.2 mumol/kg for DPH) and mice (2: 10.5; DPH: 23.9) against maximal electroshock seizures (MES), and seven times more potent in mice (2: 10.0, DPH: 70.6) against maximal pentylenetetrazole seizures (MPS). Moreover, 2 was active against pentylenetetrazole threshold seizures (PTS) in mice and rats (ED50 = 44.1 and 40.5 mumol/kg, respectively), while DPH was ineffective (up to a dose of 79.2 mumol/kg). After evaluation of acute neurological toxicity in rats, 2 was found to possess 1.5 times higher a protective index (for MES) than DPH. It appeared also that while DPH was 2.9 times less sensitive to MPS than to MES, 2 was equally potent to both types of convulsions. Thus, the data indicate that 2 delivered DPH more efficiently to the brain. The better anticonvulsant activity (quantitatively as well as qualitatively) of 2 can be explained on the basis of an improved distribution in the brain due to its higher lipophilicity, and by favorable regional differences in the rates of conversion of 2 to DPH at the convulsing foci.

journal_name

J Pharm Sci

authors

Shek E,Murakami T,Nath C,Pop E,Bodor NS

doi

10.1002/jps.2600781012

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1989-10-01 00:00:00

pages

837-43

issue

10

eissn

0022-3549

issn

1520-6017

pii

S0022-3549(15)48083-9

journal_volume

78

pub_type

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