Drug, delivery and devices for diabetic retinopathy (3Ds in DR).


INTRODUCTION:Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness among the working population worldwide. Clearly, there is an unmet clinical need to find better treatment options for DR. Areas covered: The literature search was conducted on PubMed with no limitation on language or year of publication. The review focuses on the clinically used drugs/proteins along with a brief background on the pathophysiology of DR. The major focus of this review revolves around three treatment approaches involving drugs/proteins, drug delivery formulations and drug delivery devices. In each category, major advances are discussed along with the possible solutions. We have also discussed the various modes of administration that are currently being evaluated in the clinic. An attempt has been made to address the potential targeted site of action for DR drug delivery, and also to understand the role of Blood Retinal Barrier (BRB). Expert Opinion: In the current scenario, although there have been some advances in the drug delivery devices for delivering drugs/proteins, there are still challenges to be overcome with regard to the particulate systems. For long-term success of DR therapeutics, research options should consider taking into account the 3Ds (drug, delivery and devices).


Expert Opin Drug Deliv


Nirmal J,Radhakrishnan K,Moreno M,Natarajan JV,Laude A,Lim TH,Venkatraman S,Agrawal R




Has Abstract


2016-11-01 00:00:00












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    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Rapid clearance of drugs from the body results in short therapeutic half-life and is an integral property of many protein and peptide-based drugs. To maintain the desired therapeutic effect patients are required to administer higher doses more frequently, which is inconvenient and risks undesirable side ef...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sleep D

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Photosensitiser delivery for photodynamic therapy. Part 1: Topical carrier platforms.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment in which a combination of a photosensitising drug and visible light causes destruction of selected cells. Due to the lack of true selectivity of preformed photosensitisers for neoplastic tissue and their high molecular weights, PDT of superficial skin lesions...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Donnelly RF,McCarron PA,Morrow DI,Sibani SA,Woolfson AD

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • A pilot study examining patient preference and satisfaction for ava®, a reusable electronic injection device to administer certolizumab pegol.

    abstract::Background: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) adherence is suboptimal. ava®, a reusable electromechanical self-injection device (e-Device) developed for certolizumab pegol (CZP) administration, aims to overcome some barriers to increase adherence. This study evaluates patient experience of the e-Device and its tra...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pouls BPH,Kristensen LE,Petersson M,van den Bemt BJF,Ballerini L,Bruggraber R,Karlen H,Mountian I,van Bracht E,Wiegratz S,Jørgensen TS

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Selective drug delivery approaches to lesioned brain through blood brain barrier disruption.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The development of therapeutics for central nervous system (CNS) disorders is still considered a challenging area in drug development due to insufficient translocation through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under normal conditions, BBB restrict the penetration of more than 98% of blood-borne molecules incl...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Al-Ahmady ZS

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Role of calcium in gene delivery.

    abstract::The treatment of genetic diseases using therapeutic gene transfer is considered to be a significant development. This development has brought with it certain limitations, and the process of overcoming these barriers has seen a drastic change in gene delivery. Many metal ions such as Mg2+, Mn2+, Ba2+ and, most importan...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kulkarni VI,Shenoy VS,Dodiya SS,Rajyaguru TH,Murthy RR

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Transdermal delivery of beta-blockers.

    abstract::Beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs (beta-blockers) are one of the most frequently used class of cardiovascular drugs that are mainly used in conventional dosage forms., which have their own limitations including hepatic first-pass metabolism, high incidence of adverse effects due to variable absorption profiles, higher ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Aqil M,Sultana Y,Ali A

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • A biorelevant dissolution stress test device - background and experiences.

    abstract:IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:The prediction of the in vivo drug release characteristics of modified release (MR) oral dosage forms by in vitro dissolution tests is a prerequisite for successful product development. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW:To improve the predictive power of dissolution testing, the authors recently dev...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Garbacz G,Klein S,Weitschies W

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Radioimmunotherapy for delivery of cytotoxic radioisotopes: current status and challenges.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with monoclonal antibodies and their fragments labelled with radionuclides emitting α -particles, β-particles or Auger electrons have been used for many years in the development of anticancer strategies. While RIT has resulted in approved radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of h...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Martins CD,Kramer-Marek G,Oyen WJG

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Advances in PEGylation of important biotech molecules: delivery aspects.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although various injected peptide and protein therapeutics have been developed successfully over the past 25 years, several pharmacokinetic and immunological challenges are still encountered that can limit the efficacy of both novel and established biotech molecules. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD:PEGylation is a pop...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ryan SM,Mantovani G,Wang X,Haddleton DM,Brayden DJ

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Tailoring antibodies for radionuclide delivery.

    abstract::Therapeutic antibodies are well established as an important class of drugs in modern medicine. The exquisite specificity and affinity for a specific target offered by antibodies has also encouraged their development as delivery vehicles for agents such as radionuclides to target tissues, for radioimmunoimaging and rad...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kenanova V,Wu AM

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • The role of intracochlear drug delivery devices in the management of inner ear disease.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Diseases of the inner ear include those of the auditory and vestibular systems, and frequently result in disabling hearing loss or vertigo. Despite a rapidly expanding pipeline of potential cochlear therapeutics, the inner ear remains a challenging organ for targeted drug delivery, and new technologies are...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ayoob AM,Borenstein JT

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Bacteriophages as vehicles for gene delivery into mammalian cells: prospects and problems.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The identification of more efficient gene delivery vehicles (GDVs) is essential to fulfill the expectations of clinical gene therapy. Bacteriophages, due to their excellent safety profile, extreme stability under a variety of harsh environmental conditions and the capability for being genetically manipulat...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bakhshinejad B,Sadeghizadeh M

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Drug delivery to the lymphatic system: importance in future cancer diagnosis and therapies.

    abstract::Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US. Currently, protocols for cancer treatment include surgery to remove diseased and suspect tissues, focused radiation, systemic chemotherapy, immunotherapy and their combinations. With conventional chemotherapy, it is almost impossible to deliver anticancer drugs sp...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Xie Y,Bagby TR,Cohen MS,Forrest ML

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • The rejuvenated pressurised metered dose inhaler.

    abstract::The pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) has now been available for 50 years. Once regarded as an inefficient and difficult-to-use device, the technology has evolved significantly over the last few years, particularly since the introduction of novel formulations containing hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellants. Many ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bell J,Newman S

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Topically applied methotrexate is rapidly delivered into skin by fractional laser ablation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic and anti-inflammatory drug that may cause systemic adverse effects. This study investigated kinetics and biodistribution of MTX delivered topically by ablative fractional laser (AFXL). METHODS:In vitro passive diffusion of 10 mg/ml MTX (1 w/v%) was measured from 0.25...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taudorf EH,Lerche CM,Vissing AC,Philipsen PA,Hannibal J,D'Alvise J,Hansen SH,Janfelt C,Paasch U,Anderson RR,Haedersdal M

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Microenvironmental pH-modification to improve dissolution behavior and oral absorption for drugs with pH-dependent solubility.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Drug release and oral absorption of drugs with pH-dependent solubility are influenced by the conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. In some cases, poor oral absorption has been observed for these drugs, causing insufficient drug efficacy. The pH-modification of a formulation could be a promising approac...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Taniguchi C,Kawabata Y,Wada K,Yamada S,Onoue S

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Process optimization for the production of nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.

    abstract::Various techniques have been developed to prepare nanoparticles for the delivery of drugs. The implementation of these techniques for large-scale production is still in its infancy, as it requires defined steps which include excipient compatibility, process feasibility, formulation optimization, process optimization, ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Saraf S

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin delivery with FlexPen: dose accuracy, patient preference and adherence.

    abstract::The introduction of insulin pens has helped improve adherence in Type 1 or 2 diabetes, and reduce inaccurate dosing, fear of injection, and social embarrassment associated with vial and syringe. This report presents the published evidence base for the accuracy, patient preference and economic evaluation of one prefill...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pfützner A,Asakura T,Sommavilla B,Lee W

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Recent advance of nanoparticle-based topical drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Considering that the number of patients afflicted by posterior eye diseases is increasing, effective drug delivery is currently in high clinical demand. Topical administration has been identified as the preferred option, while sufferingfrom multiple barriers. The development of nanoparticle-based drug deli...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang Y,Xu X,Gu Y,Cheng Y,Cao F

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures <4°C/39°F or >30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pfützner A,Pesach G,Nagar R

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies for tumor-directed delivery of siRNA.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Current treatment of malignant tumors relies predominantly on chemotherapy delivering a single antineoplastic drug or a combination of two or more drugs intravenously. Problems with such treatments can include the killing of healthy cells, adverse side effects and chemoresistance. As cancer basically resul...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chowdhury EH

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Liposome technology for cardiovascular disease treatment and diagnosis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Over the past several decades, liposomes have been used in a variety of applications, from delivery vehicles to cell membrane models. In terms of pharmaceutical use, they can offer control over the release of active agents encapsulated into their lipid bilayer or aqueous core, while providing protection fr...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bowey K,Tanguay JF,Tabrizian M

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Drug delivery strategies for therapy of visceral leishmaniasis.

    abstract:IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most overwhelming type of leishmaniasis associated with the poverty of developing countries and usually mortal if untreated. Most of the conventionally used dosage forms offer us the shortcomings of toxic side effects and emergence of drug resistance. Several e...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gupta S,Pal A,Vyas SP

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part I - peptide inhibitors of signal transduction cascades.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. OBJECTIVE:The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer th...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bidwell GL 3rd,Raucher D

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Microbubble-mediated ultrasound drug-delivery and therapeutic monitoring.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Recent developments in ultrasound imaging and ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) improved diagnostic confidence in echography and set into motion their combined use as a tool for drug delivery and therapeutic monitoring. Non-invasive, precise and targeted delivery of drug molecules to pathological tissues b...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sennoga CA,Kanbar E,Auboire L,Dujardin PA,Fouan D,Escoffre JM,Bouakaz A

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Antibodies as delivery vehicles for radioimmunotherapy of infectious diseases.

    abstract::The field of infectious diseases is in crisis and there is a need for strategies that can facilitate the rapid development of new antimicrobial agents. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a therapeutic modality originally developed for cancer treatment, has recently been suggested as a novel therapy for the treatment of a varie...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dadachova E,Casadevall A

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Platelet lysate embedded scaffolds for skin regeneration.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The work presents the development of acellular scaffolds extemporaneously embedded with platelet lysate (PL), as an innovative approach in the field of tissue regeneration/reparation. PL embedded scaffolds should have a tridimensional architecture to support cell migration and growth, in order to restore s...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sandri G,Bonferoni MC,Rossi S,Ferrari F,Mori M,Cervio M,Riva F,Liakos I,Athanassiou A,Saporito F,Marini L,Caramella C

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Drug nanosuspensions: a ZIP tool between traditional and innovative pharmaceutical formulations.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:A nanosuspension or nanocrystal suspension is a versatile formulation combining conventional and innovative features. It comprises 100% pure drug nanoparticles with sizes in the nano-scale range, generally stabilized by surfactants or polymers. Nanosuspensions are usually obtained in liquid media with bott...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Leone F,Cavalli R

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Drug delivery to macrophages: a review of nano-therapeutics targeted approach for inflammatory disorders and cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Macrophages are involved in the normal defense of the body; however, the varying phenotypes of macrophages and imbalance in their ratio lead to the impairment of immune response initiating the production of inflammation. As the role of macrophages in immunological disorders and their surface receptors modu...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mukhtar M,Ali H,Ahmed N,Munir R,Talib S,Khan AS,Ambrus R

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Peptide-mediated drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier for targeting brain tumors.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Transportation of the nutrients and other substances from the blood to the brain is selectively controlled by the brain capillary endothelial cells that form a restrictive barrier, so-called blood-brain barrier (BBB). Currently, there is no unimpeachable approach to overcome the BBB obstructiveness because...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on drug delivery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jafari B,Pourseif MM,Barar J,Rafi MA,Omidi Y

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00