Regulation of Kiss1 expression by sex steroids in the amygdala of the rat and mouse.


:Kisspeptin (encoded by the Kiss1 gene) is an important regulator of reproduction. In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in two hypothalamic regions, the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular/ periventricular continuum, where it is regulated by sex steroids. However, the distribution, regulation, and functional significance of neural kisspeptin outside of the hypothalamus have not been studied and are poorly understood. Here, we report the expression of Kiss1 in the amygdala, predominantly in the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA), a region implicated in social and emotional behaviors as well as various aspects of reproduction. In gonadally intact rats and mice, Kiss1-expressing neurons were identified in the MeA of both sexes, with higher Kiss1 expression levels in adult males than females in diestrus. In rats, Kiss1 expression in the MeA changed as a function of the estrous cycle, with highest levels at proestrus. Next, we tested whether Kiss1 in the MeA is regulated by the circulating sex steroid milieu. Kiss1 levels in the MeA were low in gonadectomized mice and rats of both sexes, and treatment with either testosterone or estradiol amplified Kiss1 expression in this region. Testosterone's inductive effect on Kiss1 expression in the MeA likely occurs via estrogen receptor-dependent pathways, not through the androgen receptor, because dihydrotestosterone (a nonaromatizable androgen) did not affect MeA Kiss1 levels. Thus, in rodents, Kiss1 is expressed and regulated by sex steroids in the MeA of both sexes and may play a role in modulating reproduction or brain functions that extend beyond reproduction.






Kim J,Semaan SJ,Clifton DK,Steiner RA,Dhamija S,Kauffman AS




Has Abstract


2011-05-01 00:00:00














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