Effects of brief monocular deprivation on binocular depth perception in the cat: a sensitive period for the loss of stereopsis.


:The period of susceptibility for binocular depth vision was studied in kittens by subjecting them to periods of monocular deprivation beginning at different ages. In an initial study, we found that normally reared kittens can learn a depth-discrimination task much more rapidly when tested binocularly than monocularly, even when testing is begun as early at 30 d. In subsequent experiments, kittens were monocularly deprived by eyelid suture, following which their monocular and binocular depth thresholds were measured using the jumping-stand procedure. We obtained the following results: (1) When monocular deprivation is applied before the time of natural eye opening but is discontinued by no later than 30 d, there is very little effect on binocular depth thresholds. (2) When deprivation is begun at 90 d, binocular depth thresholds are unaffected. (3) When deprivation is begun between these two ages, the magnitude of the deficit varies with the period of deprivation and the age at which it begins. (4) By imposing brief (5 or 10 d) periods of deprivation, beginning at different ages, we were able to demonstrate that the peak of the sensitive period is between the ages of 35 and 45 d, with a fairly rapid decline in susceptibility outside those age limits. (5) Even with as little as 5 d of deprivation, substantial permanent deficits in binocular depth vision can be induced.


Vis Neurosci


Visual neuroscience


Timney B




Has Abstract


1990-09-01 00:00:00














  • An in vitro study of retinotectal transmission in the chick: role of glutamate and GABA in evoked field potentials.

    abstract::We have developed two brain slice preparations for studying tectofugal visual pathways in the chick: conventional, 400-microns slices ("thin slices"), and "thick slices" which encompass the rostral pole of the optic tectum and the contralateral optic nerve. Stimulation was delivered with a bipolar electrode positioned...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dye JC,Karten HJ

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Contributions of GABAA receptors and GABAC receptors to acetylcholine release and directional selectivity in the rabbit retina.

    abstract::GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian retina and it acts at many different sites via a variety of postsynaptic receptors. These include GABAA receptors and bicuculline-resistant GABAC receptors. The release of acetylcholine (ACh) is inhibited by GABA and strongly potentiated by GABA antagonists....

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Massey SC,Linn DM,Kittila CA,Mirza W

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Visual arrestin in Limulus is phosphorylated at multiple sites in the light and in the dark.

    abstract::Arrestins participate in the termination of phototransduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the visual arrestins of invertebrates and vertebrates differ significantly from one another in that the invertebrate visual arrestins become phosphorylated rapidly in response to light while those in the photo...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Battelle BA,Andrews AW,Kempler KE,Edwards SC,Smith WC

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of retinal degeneration in a crab by light and okadaic acid in vitro: comparison with the Drosophila light-dependent retinal degeneration mutant w rdgBKS222.

    abstract::Retinae of the crab Leptograpsus which had been maintained on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle were cultured in vitro and exposed to 1 microM okadaic acid (OKA) at 0.75 h before light onset. Control retinae were subjected to the same routine and sampled at the same times without OKA treatment. At the concentration used, O...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blest AD,Carter M,Clausen JA,Stowe S,Trowell SC,Tsukitani Y

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

  • Interlaminar connections of the superior colliculus in the tree shrew. II: Projections from the superficial gray to the optic layer.

    abstract::This study of the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, provides evidence for an intracollicular pathway that arises in the superficial gray layer and terminates in the optic layer. As a first step, Nissl, myelin, and cytochrome oxidase stains were used to identify the layers of the superior colliculus in the tree shrew. Seco...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee P,Hall WC

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Antidromic latency of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular (Blue-ON) geniculocortical relay cells in marmosets.

    abstract::We studied the functional connectivity of cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) with the primary visual cortex (V1) in anesthetized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The LGN sends signals to V1 along parallel visual pathways called parvocellular (P), magnocellular (M), and koniocellular (K). To better understand...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheong SK,Johannes Pietersen AN

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • The retinae of Prototherian mammals possess neuronal types that are characteristic of non-mammalian retinae.

    abstract::This study has shown that the retinae of Prototherian (egg-laying) mammals possess two neuronal types that are present in non-mammalian retinae, but absent or morphologically different in the retinae of Eutherian (placental) mammals. First, endogenous serotonin-like immunoreactivity has been localized in a population ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Young HM,Vaney DI

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Bipolar or rectified chromatic detection mechanisms?

    abstract::It is widely accepted that human color vision is based on two types of cone-opponent mechanism, one differencing L and M cone types (loosely termed "red-green"), and the other differencing S with the L and M cones (loosely termed "blue-yellow"). The traditional view of the early processing of human color vision sugges...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sankeralli MJ,Mullen KT

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Controversies about the visual areas located at the anterior border of area V2 in primates.

    abstract::Anatomical and electrophysiological studies have provided us with detailed information regarding the extent and topography of the primary (V1) and secondary (V2) visual areas in primates. The consensus about the V1 and V2 maps, however, is in sharp contrast with controversies regarding the organization of the cortical...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gattass R,Lima B,Soares JG,Ungerleider LG

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Photoreceptor distribution in the retina of adult Pacific salmon: corner cones express blue opsin.

    abstract::The retina of salmonid fishes has two types of cone photoreceptors: single and double cones. At the nuclear level, these cones are distributed in a square mosaic such that the double cones form the sides of the square and the single cones occupy positions at the centre and at the corners of the square. Double cones co...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheng CL,Flamarique IN

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Regenerating axons from adult chick retinal ganglion cells recognize topographic cues from embryonic central targets.

    abstract::We investigated whether regenerating mature axons recapitulate embryonic features essential to successful reconnectivity within the injured nervous system. Strips from embryonic and adult chick retinae were cultured, and outgrowing axons were examined morphometrically and immunohistochemically. In addition, the target...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vanselow J,Müller B,Thanos S

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between GABA-containing cells and the cholinergic circuitry in the rabbit retina.

    abstract::As a part of ongoing efforts to understand the cholinergic circuitry in the mammalian retina, we studied the coexpression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1), or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity in the rabbit retina. Double-l...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dmitrieva NA,Lindstrom JM,Keyser KT

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium: identification of ocular mutants.

    abstract::The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) is in its fifth year of a ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-based mutagenesis screen to detect recessive mutations that affect the eye and brain. Each pedigree is tested by various phenotyping domains including the eye, neurohistology, behavior, aging, ethanol, drug, social behavior, ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jablonski MM,Wang X,Lu L,Miller DR,Rinchik EM,Williams RW,Goldowitz D

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Striate cortex increases contrast gain of macaque LGN neurons.

    abstract::Recurrent projections comprise a universal feature of cerebral organization. Here, we show that the corticofugal projections from the striate cortex (VI) to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) robustly and multiplicatively enhance the responses of parvocellular neurons, stimulated by gratings restricted to the classi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Przybyszewski AW,Gaska JP,Foote W,Pollen DA

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of CB2 cannabinoid receptor mRNA in adult rat retina.

    abstract::To date, two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been cloned. The CB1 receptor has been found in a variety of tissues, particularly in the brain. CB2 receptor mRNA is mainly expressed in the immune system, though one group has found it in mouse cerebellum. Previous immunostaining studies in our lab demonstrated t...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu Q,Straiker A,Lu Q,Maguire G

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Visual function in regenerating teleost retina following surgical lesioning.

    abstract::Regeneration of the teleost retina following surgical extirpation of 25% to 100% of the neural retina was investigated in goldfish (Carrasius auratus) and sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). The retina will regenerate following removal of up to 95% of the neural retina, however complete extirpation prevented regeneration. Vi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mensinger AF,Powers MK

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate neurons in the rhesus monkey.

    abstract::Studies of the numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons in primates suggest that the numbers of both types of neurons may vary over a two-fold range from one individual to another. This raises the question of whether the numbers of ganglion cells and LGN neurons are related or var...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spear PD,Kim CB,Ahmad A,Tom BW

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Divergent feedback connections from areas V4 and TEO in the macaque.

    abstract::Extrastriate areas TEO and V4 have been associated with form and color vision. Area V4 has also been suggested to participate in processes concerned with attention, stimulus salience, and perceptual learning. In a continuing effort to elucidate the connectional interactions and microcircuitry of these areas, we descri...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rockland KS,Saleem KS,Tanaka K

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Infants' spontaneous color preferences are not due to adult-like brightness variations.

    abstract::In the present work, we explore the perceptual bases of infants' spontaneous looking preferences among isoluminant chromatic stimuli (Bornstein, 1975). Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, adult subjects made brightness matches between a white standard and each of six isoluminant chromatic stimuli. The c...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teller DY,Civan A,Bronson-Castain K

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • The determination of total cGMP levels in rod outer segments from intact toad photoreceptors in response to light superimposed on background and to consecutive flashes: a second light flash accelerates the dark recovery rate of cGMP levels in control medi

    abstract::In previous experiments we established that a light flash reduced cGMP levels of toad rod outer segments within the transduction time interval, but that recovery of the dark level of cGMP occurred more slowly than reported electrophysiological recovery of membrane potential. We now report that a second light flash acc...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohen AI,Blazynski C

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Visual tracking of moving targets by freely flying honeybees.

    abstract::The ability of freely-flying honeybees to track moving targets was examined by training them to collect a reward on a target, and then videotaping their approach to the target while it was in motion. Training experiments were carried out with several groups of bees, using various colors for the target and the backgrou...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang SW,Wang XA,Liu ZL,Srinivasan MV

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Variability in mitochondria of zebrafish photoreceptor ellipsoids.

    abstract::Ultrastructural examination of photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoids in larval (4, 8, and 15 days postfertilization; dpf) and adult zebrafish identified morphologically different types of mitochondria. All photoreceptors had mitochondria of different sizes (large and small). At 4 dpf, rods had small, moderately stain...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tarboush R,Novales Flamarique I,Chapman GB,Connaughton VP

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Space-time spectra of complex cell filters in the macaque monkey: a comparison of results obtained with pseudowhite noise and grating stimuli.

    abstract::White noise stimuli were used to estimate second-order kernels for complex cells in cortical area V1 of the macaque monkey, and drifting grating stimuli were presented to the sample of neurons to obtain orientation and spatial-frequency tuning curves. Using these data, we quantified how well second-order kernels predi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gaska JP,Jacobson LD,Chen HW,Pollen DA

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Foveal evoked magneto-encephalography features related to the parvocellular pathway.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to use non-invasive magneto-encephalographic techniques, together with visual stimulus paradigms that can psychophysically separate the M- and P-pathways, to examine the physiological relations of the pathways at the fovea with (1) the magneto-encephalography components M70 and M100 (in laten...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang CY,Hsieh JC,Chang Y

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Synaptic inputs to retrogradely labeled ganglion cells in the retina of the cane toad, Bufo marinus.

    abstract::The entire population of ganglion cells in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus was labeled by retrograde transport of a lysine-fixable biotinylated dextran amine of 3000 molecular weight. Synaptic connections between bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells in the inner plexiform layer were quantitatively analyzed, with ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu BS,Gibbins IL

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory components of retinal bipolar cell receptive fields are differentially modulated by dopamine D1 receptors.

    abstract::During adaptation to an increase in environmental luminance, retinal signaling adjustments are mediated by the neuromodulator dopamine. Retinal dopamine is released with light and can affect center-surround receptive fields, the coupling state between neurons, and inhibitory pathways through inhibitory receptors and n...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mazade RE,Eggers ED

    更新日期:2020-02-12 00:00:00

  • Changes in sensitivity of the dark-adapted eye during concurrent light adaptation of the other eye.

    abstract::Thresholds for detection of light by a dark-adapted test eye were measured while the other, non-test eye was either similarly dark adapted or while it was exposed to an intense red adapting field. An interocular effect that depends on the retinal location of the test was found: compared to the threshold during binocul...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Auerbach E,Dörrenhaus A,Cavonius CR

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Distribution of the alpha1 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor on midget and parasol ganglion cells in the retina of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus.

    abstract::The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to influence the responses of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. Consistently, GABA(A) receptor subunits have been localized to different ganglion cell types. In this study, the distribution of the alpha1 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macri J,Martin PR,Grünert U

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Rescue of excitation by inositol following Li(+)-induced block in Limulus ventral photoreceptors.

    abstract::The phosphoinositide (PI) intracellular signaling pathway, which triggers Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, appears to be a central feature of phototransduction in most invertebrate species studied. Procedures designed to inhibit PI-pathway reactions cause suppression of excitation to dim lights. However, in Lim...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson EC,Gray-Keller MP,O'Day PM

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • A novel system for the classification of diseased retinal ganglion cells.

    abstract::Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic atrophy is an early feature of many forms of retinal degeneration, providing a challenge to RGC classification. The characterization of these changes is complicated by the possibility that selective labeling of any particular class can confound the estimation of dendritic remodeli...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tribble JR,Cross SD,Samsel PA,Sengpiel F,Morgan JE

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00