Promoter proximal pausing and the control of gene expression.


:The advent of methods for mapping the location of specific proteins across genomes is substantially enlightening our understanding of gene regulation. One recent discovery is that Pol II is concentrated at the 5' end of thousands of genes in mammalian and Drosophila cells. Before this, much research had focused on understanding how sequence-specific, DNA-binding proteins orchestrate the actions of regulators of chromatin structure and the general transcriptional machinery to control transcription initiation. The concentration of Pol II at the 5' ends of genes indicates that key steps regulating transcription occur after Pol II has associated with a gene's promoter.


Curr Opin Genet Dev


Li J,Gilmour DS




Has Abstract


2011-04-01 00:00:00














  • Invertebrate myogenesis: looking back to the future of muscle development.

    abstract::Recent studies in invertebrates have provided important mechanistic insights into several general aspects of muscle development. Two new genes have been identified that are involved in muscle fusion in Drosophila and a novel maternal component was shown to be responsible for myogenic determination in an ascidian. In a...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baylies MK,Michelson AM

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Retinoid receptors in transcriptional regulation.

    abstract::Our understanding of the mechanism of action of retinoids has been greatly expanded by a series of recent findings. First, the three-dimensional structure of the ligand-binding domain of two retinoid receptors has been solved and suggests that ligand binding induces marked allosteric changes. Second, several co-factor...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Minucci S,Ozato K

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative primate genomics: the year of the chimpanzee.

    abstract::This is the year of the chimpanzee genome. Chimpanzee chromosome 22 has been sequenced and soon will be followed by the whole genome, and thousands of chimpanzee cDNA sequences are available for comparative analysis. Not only does this genomic information allow us to identify human-specific changes in particular genes...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ruvolo M

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Epigenetic regulation of mouse preimplantation embryo development.

    abstract::After fertilization, mouse embryos go through preimplantation development to give rise to blastocyst. Two key molecular events, zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and the first cell lineage specification, are essential for the process. Recent advances in low-input epigenomics profiling techniques allow the analysis of th...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fu X,Zhang C,Zhang Y

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Spatiotemporal mechanisms of morphogen gradient interpretation.

    abstract::Few mechanistic ideas from the pre-molecular era of biology have had as enduring an impact as the morphogen concept. In the classical view, cells in developing embryos obtain positional information by measuring morphogen concentrations and comparing them with fixed concentration thresholds; as a result, graded morphog...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nahmad M,Lander AD

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Turning germ cells into stem cells.

    abstract::Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the embryonic precursors of the gametes of the adult animal, can give rise to two types of pluripotent stem cells. In vivo, PGCs can give rise to embryonal carcinoma cells, the pluripotent stem cells of testicular tumors. Cultured PGCs exposed to a specific cocktail of growth factors give...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Donovan PJ,de Miguel MP

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Genetics of type 1 diabetes.

    abstract::Type 1 diabetes is the most common autoimmune disorder in childhood, characterized by the development of autoimmunity through unknown environmental insults in genetically susceptible individuals. There are now over 50 regions of the genome that harbor type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes, with much of the genetic risk...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Robertson CC,Rich SS

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • miSSING LINKS: miRNAs and plant development.

    abstract::The discovery of hundreds of plant micro RNAs (miRNAs) has triggered much speculation about their potential roles in plant development. The search for plant genes involved in miRNA processing has revealed common factors such as DICER, and new molecules, including HEN1. Progress is also being made toward identifying mi...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hunter C,Poethig RS

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Replication origins in yeast versus metazoa: separation of the haves and the have nots.

    abstract::The recent flood of information concerning Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication origins and the proteins that interact with them contrasts alarmingly to the trickle of progress in our understanding of metazoan origins. In mammalian cells, origins are complex and heterogeneous, and appear to be selected by features of ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gilbert DM

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Incapacitating the evolutionary capacitor: Hsp90 modulation of disease.

    abstract::The nature-nurture argument surrounding the mechanisms of disease causation cannot be resolved, as the roles of genes and environment are inextricably entwined. Environmental fluctuation is clearly a major modifier of phenotype, as well as a promoter of evolutionary change. Both types of variability can be mediated by...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yeyati PL,van Heyningen V

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Reawakening the sleeping beauty in the adult brain: neurogenesis from parenchymal glia.

    abstract::Life-long neurogenesis is highly restricted to specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain and therefore the brain's capacity for spontaneous regeneration is extremely limited. However, recent work has demonstrated that under certain circumstances parenchymal astrocytes and NG2 glia can generate neuronal progeny. ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Péron S,Berninger B

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic control of pituitary development and hypopituitarism.

    abstract::The pituitary gland functions as a relay between the hypothalamus and peripheral target organs that regulate basic physiological functions, including growth, the stress response, reproduction, metabolism and lactation. The development of the pituitary gland has been studied extensively in mice, and has begun to be exp...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhu X,Lin CR,Prefontaine GG,Tollkuhn J,Rosenfeld MG

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Should evolutionary geneticists worry about higher-order epistasis?

    abstract::Natural selection drives evolving populations up the fitness landscape, the projection from nucleotide sequence space to organismal reproductive success. While it has long been appreciated that topographic complexities on fitness landscapes can arise only as a consequence of epistatic interactions between mutations, e...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weinreich DM,Lan Y,Wylie CS,Heckendorn RB

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Mitochondrial fission/fusion and cardiomyopathy.

    abstract::Mitochondria are highly abundant in and essential to the beat-to-beat contractile performance of hearts. However, relatively few cardiac diseases have been attributed to primary mitochondrial dysfunction. The paucity of evidence for 'primary mitochondrial cardiac diseases' may be because such an entity does not exist....

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dorn G II

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Barrett's metaplasia as a paradigm for understanding the development of cancer.

    abstract::The conversion of one cell type to another is defined as metaplasia (or sometimes it is referred to as transdifferentiation or cellular reprogramming). Metaplasia is important clinically and may predispose to the development of cancer. Barrett's metaplasia is one such example and is the focus of the present review. Ba...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Burke ZD,Tosh D

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Stay hydrated: basolateral fluids shaping tissues.

    abstract::During development, embryos perform a mesmerizing choreography, which is crucial for the correct shaping, positioning and function of all organs. The cellular properties powering animal morphogenesis have been the focus of much attention. In contrast, much less consideration has been given to the invisible engine cons...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schliffka MF,Maître JL

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Transcription factors in hematopoiesis.

    abstract::The advent of gene targeting in the mouse has led to rapid advances in the identification of factors controlling gene expression that are essential for normal hematopoietic development. Recent work has also uncovered roles for some of these factors in leukemogenesis and in the global regulation of chromatin structure....

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Engel I,Murre C

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hox gene evolution in nematodes: novelty conserved.

    abstract::The conserved homeobox (Hox) gene cluster is neither conserved nor clustered in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Instead, C. elegans has a reduced and dispersed gene complement that is the result the loss of Hox genes in stages throughout its evolutionary history. The roles of Hox genes in patterning the nematode ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Aboobaker A,Blaxter M

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • microRNAs, the cell's Nepenthe: clearing the past during the maternal-to-zygotic transition and cellular reprogramming.

    abstract::The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is a universal step in animal development characterized by two major events: activation of zygotic transcription and degradation of maternally provided mRNAs. How zygotic gene products instruct the degradation of maternal messages remains a long-standing question in biology. Mi...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Giraldez AJ

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • X-linked mental retardation: many genes for a complex disorder.

    abstract::X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is a common cause of moderate to severe intellectual disability in males. XLMR is very heterogeneous, and about two-thirds of patients have clinically indistinguishable non-syndromic (NS-XLMR) forms, which has greatly hampered their molecular elucidation. A few years ago, internation...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ropers HH

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Towards understanding transcriptional networks in cellular reprogramming.

    abstract::Most of the knowledge we have on the molecular mechanisms of transcription factor mediated reprogramming comes from studies conducted in induced pluripotency. Recently however, a few studies investigated the mechanisms of cellular reprogramming in direct and indirect transdifferentiation, which allows us to explore wh...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Firas J,Polo JM

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Spotting the target: microarrays for disease gene discovery.

    abstract::Microarray technologies enable genome-scale expression measurements. Already proved to be of value for the functional analysis of individual genes and biological processes, the application of expression profiling to disease gene discovery is now growing in importance and practicality. ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meltzer PS

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Baculoviruses: high-level expression in insect cells.

    abstract::Baculoviruses continue to serve as workhorse vectors for the high-level expression of eukaryotic genes in insect cells; however, numerous researchers are also finding novel uses for these vectors by taking advantage of the unique nature of the viruses and their host cells. Concurrently, the technology involved in cons...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Miller LK

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • The evolution of animal microRNA function.

    abstract::MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of small RNAs that function as negative gene regulators in eukaryotes. They regulate diverse biological processes, and bioinformatics data indicate that each miRNA can control hundreds of gene targets, underscoring the potential influence of miRNAs on almost every genetic pathway. ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Niwa R,Slack FJ

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Matching SOX: partner proteins and co-factors of the SOX family of transcriptional regulators.

    abstract::SOX transcription factors perform a remarkable variety of important roles in vertebrate development, either activating or repressing specific target genes through interaction with different partner proteins. Surprisingly, these interactions are often mediated by the conserved, DNA-binding HMG domain, raising questions...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wilson M,Koopman P

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Advances in microfluidic platforms for analyzing and regulating human pluripotent stem cells.

    abstract::Microfluidic devices employ submillimeter length scale control of flow to achieve high-resolution spatial and temporal control over the microenvironment, providing powerful tools to elucidate mechanisms of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) regulation and to elicit desired hPSC fates. In addition, microfluidics allow ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Qian T,Shusta EV,Palecek SP

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • The contribution of admixture to primate evolution.

    abstract::Genome-wide data on genetic variation are now available for multiple primate species and populations, facilitating analyses of evolutionary history within and across taxa. One emerging theme from these studies involves the central role of admixture. Genomic data sets indicate that both ancient gene flow following init...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tung J,Barreiro LB

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Segregation of cell lineage in the neural crest.

    abstract::Following neurulation, neural crest cells emerge from the neural tube and undergo extensive migrations. At the onset of migration, multipotent stem cells exist within the neural crest population. Eventually, these assume one of a number of possible fates, ranging from neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bronner-Fraser M

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Variability of human pluripotent stem cell lines.

    abstract::Human pluripotent stem cells derived from embryos (human Embryonic Stem Cells or hESCs) or generated by direct reprogramming of somatic cells (human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells or hiPSCs) can proliferate almost indefinitely in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into a broad diversity of cell type...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ortmann D,Vallier L

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • TFIIH: a key component in multiple DNA transactions.

    abstract::The transcription factor TFIIH is a versatile, multi-functional protein complex with multiple engagements. Apart from its role in basal transcription, TFIIH is intimately implicated in DNA repair and (probably) in cell cycle control (both of which are required to prevent carcinogenesis) as well as having possible role...

    journal_title:Current opinion in genetics & development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hoeijmakers JH,Egly JM,Vermeulen W

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00