Comparison of nalbuphine and fentanyl anesthesia for coronary artery bypass surgery. Hemodynamics, hormonal response, and postoperative respiratory depression.

Abstract:

:To determine whether nalbuphine might replace fentanyl as the principal opioid for anesthesia during coronary artery bypass surgery, 20 patients undergoing myocardial revascularization were anesthetized with flunitrazepam and with a continuous infusion of either nalbuphine (an opioid agonist-antagonist) or fentanyl (a pure opioid agonist) in equipotent dosage ratio of 333:1. During endotracheal intubation, all patients given nalbuphine, but only one given fentanyl (P less than 0.05), required nitroglycerin to control arterial blood pressure. Two minutes after tracheal intubation, plasma values of epinephrine, norepinephrine, vasopressin, and cortisol did not change in the fentanyl group compared with the awake (baseline) levels, whereas catecholamines and vasopressin significantly increased with nalbuphine compared with the baseline and with the values in the fentanyl group. A steady state of anesthesia (30 min after intubation), when compared with the baseline, was characterized by unchanged systemic and pulmonary blood pressures and increased systemic vascular resistance with nalbuphine, by decreased systemic and pulmonary pressures and resistances with fentanyl, and by comparably decreased cardiac index with both opioids. Hormone values returned to baseline levels but norepinephrine remained significantly higher in the nalbuphine than in the fentanyl group. A bolus injection of either nalbuphine (2.5 mg/kg) or fentanyl (7.5 micrograms/kg) given during the steady-state period of anesthesia provoked only minimal hemodynamic changes. Before skin incision, 7 of 10 patients receiving nalbuphine required nitroglycerin to control arterial blood pressure. After sternotomy, both groups required nitroglycerin, but additional antihypertensive drugs were necessary mainly in the nalbuphine group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

journal_name

Anesth Analg

journal_title

Anesthesia and analgesia

authors

Weiss BM,Schmid ER,Gattiker RI

doi

10.1213/00000539-199111000-00002

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1991-11-01 00:00:00

pages

521-9

issue

5

eissn

0003-2999

issn

1526-7598

journal_volume

73

pub_type

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