Antimicrobial host defense in the upper gastrointestinal tract.


BACKGROUND:With the exception of fungi, microbial infections are rare in the oesophagus. Herein, we aimed to systematically assess the distribution and quantity of different antimicrobial host factors as well as, for the first time, functional mucosal antimicrobial activity in the upper gastrointestinal tract. METHODS:We investigated biopsies from the healthy oesophagus, three different locations in the stomach and the duodenum in a total of 12 individuals. Using real-time PCR with external standards, we compared absolute expression of mRNA encoding antimicrobial peptides including defensins, cathelicidin, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, psoriasin, and elafin. In addition, we performed immunostaining for human-beta-defensin-1 (HBD1), elafin, and psoriasin. To test functional relevance, we assessed antimicrobial as well as antifungal activity of cationic extracts from biopsies against E. coli ATCC 25922 and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. RESULTS:In contrast to HBD1 which was similarly expressed in all tissues, inducible beta-defensins in the healthy oesophagus were much higher compared with the stomach and duodenum (for HBD2-4: P<0.01). In addition, the antiproteases elafin and psoriasin were also predominantly expressed in the oesophagus (P<0.005). In contrast, LL-37 and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein were only marginally expressed. Cationic tissue extracts from both the oesophagus as well as the stomach showed potent antibacterial activity against E. coli. Consistent with susceptibility to Candida infection, the esophageal extracts exhibited a weaker activity against C. albicans (P=0.026). CONCLUSION:Despite dominant expression of antimicrobial host peptides, oesophageal tissue shows a weakened potency to kill C. albicans. These data suggest an important role of yet unknown antimicrobial molecules.


Hosaka Y,Koslowski M,Nuding S,Wang G,Schlee M,Schäfer C,Saigenji K,Stange EF,Wehkamp J




Has Abstract


2008-12-01 00:00:00














  • The effect of transcutaneous nerve stimulation on intraductal biliary pressure in post-cholecystectomy patients with T-drainage.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on intraductal biliary pressure (IDP) in basal conditions and after intravenous morphine and oral meal stimulation. DESIGN AND METHODS:Fifteen patients (5 male, 10 female) aged 31-83 years (mean 61.5 +/- 13.7 years) with prior chol...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Błaut U,Marecik J,Hartwich A,Herman RM,Laskiewicz J,Thor PJ

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Endoscopic therapy + β-blocker vs. covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for prevention of variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients with hepatic venous pressure gradient ≥16 mmHg.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Currently, monitoring hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) have been proved to be the best predictor for the risk of variceal bleeding. We performed the study to evaluate the effect of endoscopic therapy + β-blocker vs. covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for the pre...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo H,Zhang F,Yin X,Zhang M,Xiao J,Wang Y,Zhang B,Zhang W,Zou X,Zhuge Y

    更新日期:2020-08-28 00:00:00

  • Sarcopenia as prognostic factor for survival after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Body composition has emerged as a prognostic factor for end-stage liver disease. We therefore investigated muscle mass, body fat and other clinical-pathological variables as predictors of posttransplant survival. METHODS:A total of 368 patients, who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) a...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pinto Dos Santos D,Kloeckner R,Koch S,Hoppe-Lotichius M,Zöller D,Toenges G,Kremer WM,Zimmermann T,Mittler J,Lang H,Düber C,Galle PR,Weinmann A,Sprinzl MF

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of albumin-bilirubin score to predict hepatic encephalopathy in patients underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy is one of the main factors limiting the development and application of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Our study aimed to verify the efficacy of the albumin-bilirubin score, an objective and simple scoring system, to predict post-TIPS he...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin X,Gao F,Wu X,Cai W,Chen X,Huang Z

    更新日期:2020-06-11 00:00:00

  • Deleterious effect of proton pump inhibitors on the disease course of cirrhosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Proton pump inhibitors(PPIs) are widely prescribed to patients with liver cirrhosis. We hypothesized that long-standing PPI use is associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis(SBP) and accelerated development of disease-specific complications and liver-related death. METHODS:A 5-year follow-up observat...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Janka T,Tornai T,Borbély B,Tornai D,Altorjay I,Papp M,Vitális Z

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Anticardiolipin antibodies in chronic viral hepatitis. Do they have clinical consequences?

    abstract::Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of acquired autoantibodies that react with anionic phospholipids, such as cardiolipin. Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACAs) are frequently found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune disorders and can react with the phospholipid alone or b...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Yuste JR,Prieto J

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Transforming growth factor-beta gene therapy ameliorates experimental colitis in rats.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To modulate experimental colitis by the direct intramuscular injection of cDNA expression vector encoding transforming growth factor-beta 1. METHODS:Colitis was induced in rats by the intracolonic administration of 0.25 ml 50% ethanol containing 30 mg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Three and 10 days later th...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giladi E,Raz E,Karmeli F,Okon E,Rachmilewitz D

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for anastomotic recurrence after primary ileocaecal resection in Crohn's disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Ileocaecal resection is the most common operation performed in Crohn's disease. Our study aimed to identify the risk factors for anastomotic recurrence following primary ileocaecal resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analysed data from all Crohn's disease surgical patients in a single colorect...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aaltonen G,Keränen I,Carpelan-Holmström M,Lepistö A

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Beneficial microbes: health or hazard?

    abstract::Normal microbial flora support the health of the host by diverse mechanisms. When antibiotics, stress, disease or medications disrupt normal microflora, the ability to ward off infection by pathogens is compromised. The use of beneficial microbes (also known as biotherapeutic agents, probiotics, synbiotics) has been s...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: McFarland LV

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Labour productivity losses caused by premature death associated with hepatitis C in Spain.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection places a huge burden on healthcare systems. There is no study assessing the impact of HCV infection on premature deaths in Spain. The aim of this study was to estimate productivity losses because of premature deaths attributable to hepatitis C occurring in Spain dur...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliva-Moreno J,Peña-Longobardo LM,Alonso S,Fernández-Bolaños A,Gutiérrez ML,Hidalgo-Vega Á,de la Fuente E,Fernández-Rodríguez CM

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Nitric oxide--a mediator of inflammation or mucosal defence.

    abstract::Nitric oxide (NO) can exert both protective and proinflammatory actions in the gastrointestinal tract. NO, formed physiologically by constitutive NO synthases, regulates vascular tone, protects the microvasculature from injury, and modulates adhesion of inflammatory cells. In contrast, expression of an inducible isofo...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Whittle BJ

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of Fas antigen in liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatitis B and C.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Cells infected with the hepatitis B or C virus can be eliminated by an immune response mediated by cytotoxic T cells. Recently, the Fas Ligand has been detected on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, and is thought to induce cells to apoptosis by adhering to the Fas antigen. METHODS:To evaluate the role of th...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oksuz M,Akkiz H,Isiksal YF,Seydaoglu G,Serin M,Kayaselcuk F,Abayli B,Tuncer I

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Decision making and outcome of pregnancies in female patients with inflammatory bowel disease: findings from a community-based practice.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to evaluate information provided on pregnancy, personal decision making, disease course, and outcome of pregnancy from a patient's perspective in a population of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) attending two general hospitals. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A questionnaire w...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Hoekstra J,van Roon AHC,Bekkering FC,van Tilburg AJP,West RL

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Identifying HCV genotype 1 patients at risk of relapse.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this analysis was to identify predictors of relapse in genotype 1 patients after 48 weeks of treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of data from treatment-naive genotype 1 patients with an end-of-treatment response after 48 weeks of treatment with peginte...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deschênes M,Bain VG,Lee SS,Sherman M,Cooper CL,Yoshida EM,Marotta PJ,Krajden M,Usaty C,Balshaw R,Peltekian KM,Canadian Pegasys Study Group.

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Intra-oesophageal pH profiles and pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole and esomeprazole: a crossover study in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    abstract:AIM:To compare the effect of pantoprazole and esomeprazole on intra-oesophageal pH and investigate their pharmacokinetics in patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). METHODS:Double-blind, randomized, two-period crossover study. Caucasian men with symptomatic GORD (n=48) were selected on the ...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Simon B,Müller P,Pascu O,Gatz G,Sander P,Huber R,Mascher H

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Brain electrical activity mapping of EEG for the diagnosis of (sub)clinical hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease.

    abstract::We studied the role of brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) in the assessment of neuropsychiatric disturbances in 48 cirrhotic patients without clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy (no HE, n = 19), with subclinical HE (grade 0, denoting pathological psychometric tests, n = 13) and mild-to-moderate HE (grade...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kullmann F,Hollerbach S,Lock G,Holstege A,Dierks T,Schölmerich J

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Acid-base disturbance in patients with cirrhosis: relation to hemodynamic dysfunction.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Acid-base disturbances were investigated in patients with cirrhosis in relation to hemodynamic derangement to analyze the hyperventilatory effects and the metabolic compensation. METHODS:A total of 66 patients with cirrhosis and 44 controls were investigated during a hemodynamic study. RESULTS:Hyperventilator...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Henriksen JH,Bendtsen F,Møller S

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Post-ERCP pancreatitis and hyperamylasaemia: the role of operative and patient factors.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Pancreatitis and hyperamylasaemia are common complications of ERCP and this study was designed to explain which operative and patient factors predispose to them. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A 1 year prospective study of consecutive patients in a single operator centre with detailed attention to technical f...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dickinson RJ,Davies S

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of Fibrotest and PGAA for the diagnosis of fibrosis stage in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The PGAA index was one of the first composite liver fibrosis markers. This study aims, prospectively, to confirm the diagnostic value of PGAA and Fibrotest in patients with alcoholic liver disease and to compare their diagnostic performances. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We prospectively included 200 conse...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Naveau S,Essoh BM,Ghinoiu M,Marthey L,Njiké-Nakseu M,Balian A,Lachgar M,Prévot S,Perlemuter G

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical and endoscopic aspects of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Uganda.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis is characterized by hepatic periportal fibrosis (Symmers' fibrosis), portal venous obstruction that leads to portal hypertension and its complications, and splenomegaly. Demonstration of pathological lesions due to Schistosoma mansoni can be achieved by using different techniq...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ravera M,Reggiori A,Cocozza E,Ciantia F,Riccioni G

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma with histologically proven portal vein infiltration: what is the outcome?

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Technical feasibility and safety of portal vein (PV) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for cancer has been confirmed, but oncological benefits remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the long-term outcomes of PD with PV/SMV resection and proven histol...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martin D,Petermann D,Fontanella S,Pu Y,Halkic N,Demartines N,Schäfer M

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Association of gastric disease with polymorphisms in the inflammatory-related genes IL-1B, IL-1RN, IL-10, TNF and TLR4.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to investigate if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a series of inflammatory genes were associated with the development of the most common pathologies thought to precede gastric cancer development namely; Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastritis and intestinal metaplasia....

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murphy G,Thornton J,McManus R,Swan N,Ryan B,Hughes DJ,O'Morain CA,O'Sullivan M

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical significance of a scoring formula of liver injury for the preoperative evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to establish a clinical scoring formula of liver injury (SFLI) using the matter element analysis method, in order to provide the necessary information for the preoperative assessment and treatment of liver cirrhosis in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We collected preoperati...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu W,Zheng J,Xing R

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • 'Biliary stenting alone versus biliary stenting plus sphincterotomy for the treatment of post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy bile leaks'.

    abstract::Strong evidence is presented in this randomized, prospective study that biliary stenting alone is as effective as biliary stenting with sphincterotomy in the treatment of uncomplicated post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy bile leaks. ...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carr-Locke AD

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Faecal calprotectin: a marker of inflammation throughout the intestinal tract.

    abstract::Only a small proportion of patients with abdominal discomfort have organic disease, but a correct diagnosis can seldom be made by simple clinical examination. Additional diagnostic procedures must be employed, but these are expensive and demanding and carry a certain risk. Assessment of faecal concentrations of the ne...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 评论,社论


    authors: Aadland E,Fagerhol MK

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • A radical view of the stomach: the role of oxygen-derived free radicals and anti-oxidants in gastroduodenal disease.

    abstract::Following the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, the last decade has seen major advances in our understanding of gastroduodenal disease. However, our knowledge remains incomplete and the exact mechanism by which H. pylori causes inflammation and ulceration is still not known. The role of H. pylori in relation to other ...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Phull PS,Green CJ,Jacyna MR

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Spontaneous regression of peritoneal carcinomatosis from a rectal cancer.

    abstract::Spontaneous regression of adult solid tumours is rare. Here, we present the case of a 51-year-old man who underwent a curative resection for an adenocarcinoma of the rectum in 1989. He remained well until 12 months after surgery when he developed a large-fixed mass proximal to the anastomosis, which was treated with r...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdelrazeq AS,Lund JN,Leveson SH

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evolution of clinical and radiological features at diagnosis of achalasia during a 19-year period in central France.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Symptoms of achalasia are often misinterpreted, resulting in delayed diagnosis. The aims of our study were (1) to estimate the evolution of clinical and radiological features of a large population of achalasic patients between two successive periods; and (2) to determine the influence of symptoms on diagnost...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: d'Alteroche L,Oung C,Fourquet F,Picon L,Lagasse JP,Metman EH

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the adverse effects of octreotide on wound healing.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analogue, has been used in the treatment of various disorders. Octreotide has significant detrimental impacts upon wound healing. We tested the hypothesis that hyperbaric oxygen therapy may overcome octreotide-mediated suppression of wound healing. DESIGN:Prospective, r...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yildiz S,Uluutku H,Gunay A,Yildirim I,Yildirim S,Gurbuz AK

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of recognizing depression with a standardized questionnaire (CES-D) versus patient reporting of depression after a single-standardized question on the outcomes of treatment for hepatitis C with pegylated interferon-α-2b and ribavirin.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Depression may worsen during antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus, resulting in noncompliance treatment. AIM:The aim was to compare the response and compliance rates between the groups of veteran patients using two different methods of identifying depression, either the Centers for Epidemiology Studies...

    journal_title:European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Phillips FH,Prebis M,Grumbeck C,Hale T,Cubillas R,Brown GR

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00