Physical studies on membrane lipids of Bacillus stearothermophilus temperature and calcium effects.

Abstract:

:Bacillus stearothermophilus was grown at the optimal temperature range (center, 65 degrees C), below it (48 and 55 degrees C), and above it (68 degrees C), in a complex medium with or without 2.5 mM Ca2+. The Ca(2+)-supplement improves growth at sub- and supraoptimal temperatures and extends it to higher temperatures (Jurado et al. (1987) J. Gen. Microbiol. 133, 507-513). The phospholipid composition of cultures obtained in the different growth conditions was studied. Phosphatidylethanolamine was always the major phospholipid (40 to 50% of the total phospholipid). Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a phosphoglycolipid (pgl) and two minor phospholipids (not identified) were also found in the polar lipid extract. The pgl shows a threefold concentration increase as the growth temperature raises from 48 to 68 degrees C. The thermotropic behavior of membrane lipids was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by means of two fluorescent probes of fluidity, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and 1,3-di(2-pyrenyl)propane (2Py(3)2Py). The results reveal similar features and clearly show a shift of the temperature range of the phase transition to higher values and an increased structural order of the bilayer, as the growth temperature rises from 55 to 68 degrees C, but an opposite effect was observed from 48 to 55 degrees C. Although the Ca(2+)-supplement to the growth medium has no detectable effect, the addition of Ca2+ to the buffer of liposomes (Ca(2+)-liposomes) has a significant ordering effect at all growth temperatures. These liposomes show a shift of the transition range to higher temperatures and the fluorescent parameters (DPH polarization and intramolecular excimerization of the 2Py(3)2Py) detected an order increase of the probes environment, along and above the main phase transition. Spectra of 31P-NMR and polarized light microscopy clearly show that the lipid extracts exhibit, in all the conditions, typical lamellar phase geometry. We concluded that B. stearothermophilus controls the membrane lipid composition to compensate for the destabilizing effect of high temperatures on the membrane organization or to provide an appropriate packing of phospholipid molecules in a stable bilayer. At high temperatures, Ca(2+)-stimulatory effect on growth is presumably due to a direct Ca2+ interaction with the membrane phospholipids, inducing an increased structural order on the bilayer. The increase of the phase transition temperature in the total lipid extracts as compared with the respective polar lipid fractions probably indicates a stabilizing effect of neutral lipids on membrane bilayers.

journal_name

Arch Biochem Biophys

authors

Jurado AS,Pinheiro TJ,Madeira VM

doi

10.1016/0003-9861(91)90457-t

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1991-08-15 00:00:00

pages

167-79

issue

1

eissn

0003-9861

issn

1096-0384

pii

0003-9861(91)90457-T

journal_volume

289

pub_type

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