What is modelled during observational learning?


:In this article, we examine the question of what information is processed during observational learning by evaluating a variety of methods, theories, and empirical data. Initially, we review work involving neuroimaging techniques and infant imitation. We then evaluate data from behavioural experiments involving adults, wherein a variety of attempts have been made to isolate the critical or minimal information constraining the acquisition of coordination. This body of research has included comparisons between video and point-light displays, manipulations to the amount and type of information presented in the display, the collection of point-of-gaze data, and manipulations to the task context in terms of outcome goals. We conclude that observational learning is governed by specific features of the model's action (i.e. motions of the end effector) and the task (i.e. outcome constraints) and, in contrast with traditional theoretical modelling, more global aspects of a model (i.e. the relative motions within and between joints) do not appear to be the primary method for constraining action execution.


J Sports Sci


Hodges NJ,Williams AM,Hayes SJ,Breslin G




Has Abstract


2007-03-01 00:00:00














  • Increased dietary carbohydrate and endurance during single-leg cycling using a limb with normal muscle glycogen concentration.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased availability of blood-borne glucose would improve endurance after carbohydrate loading. A single-leg exercise model was employed, taking advantage of the fact that supercompensation of muscle glycogen occurs only in a previously exercised limb. Endura...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hardman AE,Williams C

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Prediction of visceral fat area at the umbilicus level using fat mass of the trunk: The validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis.

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Demura S,Sato S

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • The association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and noncontact acute ankle sprains.

    abstract::Ankle sprains are one of the most severe musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries during physical activity. Although many risk factors have been offered, it is unclear why some individuals develop noncontact ankle sprains when participating in comparable levels of physical exertion under identical environmental conditions...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shang X,Li Z,Cao X,Xie C,Gu M,Chen P,Yang X,Cai J

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of frequency of encouragement on performance during maximal exercise testing.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to determine the effects of frequency of verbal encouragement during maximal exercise testing. Twenty-eight participants (12 males, 16 females) aged 20.9 +/- 1.5 years (mean +/- s) performed a maximal exercise test (VO2max) on a treadmill without any verbal encouragement. The participants wer...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andreacci JL,LeMura LM,Cohen SL,Urbansky EA,Chelland SA,Von Duvillard SP

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Trunk rotation torques through the hip joints during the one- and two-handed backhand tennis strokes.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to compare kinetically the roles of the lower extremities in generating trunk rotation in the tennis one-handed and two-handed backhand strokes. Fourteen male collegiate tennis players, seven with a preference for the one- and seven with a preference for the two-handed technique, were ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Akutagawa S,Kojima T

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cross-sectional comparison of body composition and resting metabolic rate in Premier League academy soccer players: Implications for growth and maturation.

    abstract::For the first time we aimed to: (1) assess fat-free mass (FFM) and RMR in youth soccer players, (2) compare measured RMR to estimated RMR using previously published prediction equations, and (3) develop a novel population-specific prediction equation. In a cross-sectional design, 99 males from a Premier League academy...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hannon MP,Carney DJ,Floyd S,Parker LJF,McKeown J,Drust B,Unnithan VB,Close GL,Morton JP

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Relative age effect and performance in the U16, U18 and U20 European Basketball Championships.

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arrieta H,Torres-Unda J,Gil SM,Irazusta J

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Correlation between architectural variables and torque in the erector spinae muscle during maximal isometric contraction.

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cuesta-Vargas A,González-Sánchez M

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Statin use and self-reported swimming performance in US masters swimmers.

    abstract::Exercise and treating hyperlipidaemia with statins are two integral components of the American Heart Association guidelines to reduce cardiovascular risk in adults. Since statins can cause myalgias and myopathies, they could affect the duration or intensity of an exercise regimen. To determine the impact of statin use...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Terpak K,Guthrie S,Erickson S

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of a resistance training programme on the grab, track and swing starts in swimming.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of a resistance training programme, designed to improve vertical jumping ability, on the grab, swing and rear-weighted track starts in swimming. Twenty-three female non-competitive swimmers participated (age 19.9 +/- 2.4 years; mean +/- s). The diving techniques...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Breed RV,Young WB

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Is bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy accurate in estimating changes in fat-free mass in judo athletes?

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matias CN,Santos DA,Fields DA,Sardinha LB,Silva AM

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orange ST,Marshall P,Madden LA,Vince RV

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanical Player Load™ using trunk-mounted accelerometry in football: Is it a reliable, task- and player-specific observation?

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to examine reliability and construct convergent validity of Player Load™ (PL) from trunk-mounted accelerometry, expressed as a cumulative measure and an intensity measure (PL · min-1). Fifteen male participants twice performed an overground football match simulation that included four ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barreira P,Robinson MA,Drust B,Nedergaard N,Raja Azidin RMF,Vanrenterghem J

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring self-talk and affective states in sport.

    abstract::In this study, we examined (1) the relationship between self-talk and affect and (2) the nature of motivating self-talk. Ninety high-school athletes completed the Affect Grid and the Self-Talk Grid before practice and competition. Significant positive second-order partial correlations of low to moderate strength offer...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Hardy J,Hall CR,Alexander MR

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Improving the TAMI for use with athletes.

    abstract::Athletes have been shown to have greater movement imagery abilities than non-athletes. However, since these differences were observed using questionnaires where participants subjectively judged the vividness of performing imagined movements, it is possible that responses could be biased by other factors such as social...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Madan CR,Singhal A

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Despite recent popularity of wrist-worn accelerometers for assessing free-living physical behaviours, there is a lack of user-friendly methods to characterize physical activity from a wrist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer. Participants in this study completed a laboratory protocol and/or 3-8 hours of directly observed fr...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montoye AHK,Clevenger KA,Pfeiffer KA,Nelson MB,Bock JM,Imboden MT,Kaminsky LA

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Self-report vs. kinematic screening test: prevalence, demographics, and sports biography of yips-affected golfers.

    abstract::The yips is considered a task-specific movement disorder. Its estimated prevalence, however, is high compared to similar neurological movement disorders, possibly resulting from previous studies' restriction of samples based on skill level, and self-report bias. Alternatively, this high prevalence might be an indicati...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klämpfl MK,Philippen PB,Lobinger BH

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of stance position on kick performance in taekwondo.

    abstract::In taekwondo, the stance position can potentially affect kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse mechanical variables in the roundhouse kick in taekwondo according to three stance positions (0°, 45°, 90°). Nine experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in a random order accordi...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Estevan I,Jandacka D,Falco C

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of acute football activity and physical fitness on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in adolescents.

    abstract::The present study examined the metabolic responses to an acute bout of football and the overall and moderating role of physical fitness on these responses, in adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents (16 girls, 20 boys; 12.6±0.5 y) completed two trials (60-min football and 60-min seated rest) separated by 7-d. Capillary bl...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams RA,Cooper S,Dring KJ,Hatch L,Morris JG,Sunderland C,Nevill ME

    更新日期:2021-01-11 00:00:00

  • Transference effect of vertical and horizontal plyometrics on sprint performance of high-level U-20 soccer players.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding vertical/horizontal plyometrics to the soccer training routine on jumping and sprinting performance in U-20 soccer players. The vertical jumping group (VJG) performed countermovement jumps (CMJ), while the horizontal jumping group (HJG) executed horizontal...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loturco I,Pereira LA,Kobal R,Zanetti V,Kitamura K,Abad CC,Nakamura FY

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies of Parkour practitioners for executing soft precision landings.

    abstract::Parkour landing techniques differ from performances of other sports as they are practiced in urban spaces with uncontrolled surfaces and drop heights. Due to the relatively young age of the sport, few studies have tried to understand how practitioners - called traceurs - succeed at performing these dynamic performance...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maldonado G,Soueres P,Watier B

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    abstract::While sport science can have significant and positive impact on coaches and athletes, there is still a general consensus that the transfer of sport science knowledge to coaching is poor. Given this apparent dilemma, this study investigated the perceptions of sport science from coaches across four different sports (foo...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Diurnal variation in cycling performance: influence of warm-up.

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Atkinson G,Todd C,Reilly T,Waterhouse J

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  • Mental preparation, mental practice and strength tasks: a need for clarification.

    abstract::Mental preparation has long been thought of as an important aspect of physical performance, especially in tasks requiring muscular strength. Recent studies in sport psychology have addressed this issue, mainly through the investigation of 'psych-up' strategies and effects. The overall trend in such experiments support...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Biddle SJ

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • Moving Well-Being Well: Investigating the maturation of fundamental movement skill proficiency across sex in Irish children aged five to twelve.

    abstract::Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are the basic building blocks of more advanced, complex movements required to participate in physical activity. This study examined FMS proficiency across the full range of Irish primary school children (n = 2098, 47% girls, age range 5-12 years). Participants were assessed using the ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Behan S,Belton S,Peers C,O'Connor NE,Issartel J

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Amaro-Gahete FJ,De-la-O A,Jurado-Fasoli L,Espuch-Oliver A,de Haro T,Gutierrez A,Ruiz JR,Castillo MJ

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  • Eccentric flywheel post-activation potentiation influences swimming start performance kinetics.

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cuenca-Fernández F,López-Contreras G,Mourão L,de Jesus K,de Jesus K,Zacca R,Vilas-Boas JP,Fernandes RJ,Arellano R

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of soccer match play on physiological and physical performance measures in soccer referees and assistant referees.

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castillo D,Yanci J,Cámara J,Weston M

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • The development of a reliable amateur boxing performance analysis template.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to devise a valid performance analysis system for the assessment of the movement characteristics associated with competitive amateur boxing and assess its reliability using analysts of varying experience of the sport and performance analysis. Key performance indicators to characterise the dem...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomson E,Lamb K,Nicholas C

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in lower-limb coordination and coordination variability between novice and experienced runners during a prolonged treadmill run at anaerobic threshold speed.

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    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mo S,Chow DHK

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00