Estimating the number of men who have sex with men in low and middle income countries.


OBJECTIVES:To collect and analyse published and unpublished surveillance and research data on the prevalence of same sex sexual activity among male adults (including male-to-female transgenders and sex workers) in low and middle income countries. METHODS:Key indicators were operationalised (ever sex with a man, sex with a man last year, high risk sex last year (as defined by unprotected anal sex or commercial sex)) and a database was designed for data collection. Searches were conducted (PubMed, databases (US Census Bureau, World Bank, conferences)) and regional informants helped. Reference reports were used to assess the methodology and quality of information in each record. The best data available per region were identified and indicator estimates were used to propose regional range estimates. RESULTS:Of 561 studies on male sexual behaviour and/or MSM population characteristics, 67 addressed prevalence of sex between men, with diverse numbers per region and virtual unavailability in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East/North Africa, and the English speaking Caribbean. Overall, data on lifetime prevalence of sex with men (among males) yielded figures of 3-5% for East Asia, 6-12% for South and South East Asia, 6-15% for Eastern Europe, and 6-20% for Latin America. Last year figures were approximately half of lifetime figures, and prevalence of high risk sex among MSM last year was approximately 40-60% in all regions except South Asia, where it is 70-90%. CONCLUSIONS:Data available on the prevalence of male same sex sexual activity across regions are scarce (non-existent in some areas), with validity and comparability problems. In South and South East Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, a lifetime prevalence of 6-20% was estimated, with smaller figures in East Asia. A cross cultural analysis of terminology and practices is needed, as is continued work on epidemiological and social analysis of male-male sexual practices in societies across regions.


Sex Transm Infect


Cáceres C,Konda K,Pecheny M,Chatterjee A,Lyerla R




Has Abstract


2006-06-01 00:00:00










82 Suppl 3


  • Changes in high-risk sexual behaviour among Estonian adults between 1996 and 2006.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe and compare sexual behaviour patterns in 1996 (before the explosion of the HIV epidemic in 2000) and 2006, and the correlates of high-risk sexual behaviour in Estonia. METHODS:Data on selected sexual behaviour characteristics were obtained by interviewing a probability sample of the adult populat...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liivlaid H,Uusküla A

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sex club/party attendance and STI among men who have sex with men: results from an online survey in New York City.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Prior studies have shown that men who have sex with men (MSM) who attend sex clubs or parties are at higher risk for HIV and other STIs than those who do not. We sought to provide data about MSM who attend sex clubs/parties in New York City (NYC) in the era of biomedical HIV prevention. METHODS : We conducted...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meunier É,Siegel K

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sexual health interventions delivered to participants by mobile technology: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The use of mobile technologies to prevent STIs is recognised as a promising approach worldwide; however, evidence has been inconclusive, and the field has developed rapidly. With about 1 million new STIs a day globally, up-to-date evidence is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE:To assess the effectiveness of mobile ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Berendes S,Gubijev A,McCarthy OL,Palmer MJ,Wilson E,Free C

    更新日期:2021-01-15 00:00:00

  • The clinical and cost-effectiveness of brief advice for excessive alcohol consumption among people attending sexual health clinics: a randomised controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of brief advice for excessive alcohol consumption among people who attend sexual health clinics. METHODS:Two-arm, parallel group, assessor blind, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. 802 people aged 19 years or over who attended one of three sexual health cl...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Crawford MJ,Sanatinia R,Barrett B,Byford S,Dean M,Green J,Jones R,Leurent B,Sweeting MJ,Touquet R,Greene L,Tyrer P,Ward H,Lingford-Hughes A

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Black Caribbean adults with HIV in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: an emerging epidemic?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:HIV is now well established in the Caribbean, with prevalence in several countries being surpassed only by those of sub-Saharan Africa. Continuing inward migration from the Caribbean and a high incidence of some bacterial STIs among Britain's black Caribbean communities, suggests a considerable potential for...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dougan S,Payne LJ,Brown AE,Fenton KA,Logan L,Evans BG,Gill ON

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Oral examination: a screening tool for HIV infection?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the predictive values for HIV infection of diagnosis of oral manifestations of the infection. METHOD:Prevalence of oral manifestations was compared in cross sectional blinded clinical examinations of homosexual men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. Data were extrapolated to populations i...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robinson PG,Challacombe SJ,Sheiham A

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • A fruitful alliance: the synergy between Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis in bacterial vaginosis-associated biofilm.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by a change in the microbial composition of the vagina. The BV-associated organisms outnumber the health-associated Lactobacillus species and form a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, possibly explaining the difficulties with antibiotic treatment. A bet...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hardy L,Jespers V,Abdellati S,De Baetselier I,Mwambarangwe L,Musengamana V,van de Wijgert J,Vaneechoutte M,Crucitti T

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Injection drug use, sexual risk, violence and STI/HIV among Moscow female sex workers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:The HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia continues to increase. While injection drug use (IDU) is leading factor, heterosexual transmission is on the rise. Little is known about female sex workers (FSWs) in the region despite the central role of commercial sex in heterosexual sexually...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Decker MR,Wirtz AL,Baral SD,Peryshkina A,Mogilnyi V,Weber RA,Stachowiak J,Go V,Beyrer C

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Developing national outcome standards for the management of gonorrhoea and genital chlamydia in genitourinary medicine clinics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Measuring clinical performance within a framework of clinical governance is increasingly important for monitoring improvements in patient care. Standards for quality indicators must, however, be achievable and evidence based. We describe an approach to the development of national standards for measuring outc...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Low N,Welch J,Radcliffe K

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of respondent-driven and venue-based sampling of female sex workers in Liuzhou, China.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To compare two methods for sampling female sex workers (FSWs) for bio-behavioural surveillance. We compared the populations of sex workers recruited by the venue-based Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method and a concurrently implemented network-based sampling method, respondent-driven samp...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weir SS,Merli MG,Li J,Gandhi AD,Neely WW,Edwards JK,Suchindran CM,Henderson GE,Chen XS

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Herpes simplex virus specific T cell response in a cohort with primary genital infection correlates inversely with frequency of subsequent recurrences.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:During the last decades, a changing epidemiological pattern of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has emerged. Primary infection is now caused as often by HSV-1 as by HSV-2. Once established, HSV can be reactivated leading to recurrent mucocutaneous lesions as well as meningitis. Why some otherwise...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Franzen-Röhl E,Schepis D,Atterfelt F,Franck K,Wikström A,Liljeqvist JÅ,Bergström T,Aurelius E,Kärre K,Berg L,Gaines H

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Early impact of COVID-19 social distancing measures on reported sexual behaviour of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis users in Wales.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To describe the early impact of COVID-19 and associated control measures on the sexual behaviour of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users in Wales. METHODS:Data were obtained from an ecological momentary assessment study of PrEP use and sexual behaviour. Participants were individuals accessing PrEP through ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gillespie D,Knapper C,Hughes D,Couzens Z,Wood F,de Bruin M,Ma R,Jones AT,Williams A,Hood K

    更新日期:2020-09-23 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic implications of 16S ribosomal assay for gonorrhoea.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:In the absence of a single nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) that is both highly specific and sensitive for gonorrhoea, many have put forward the 16S-based assay as a confirmatory test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of PCR based on 16S ribosomal gene in ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verma R,Sood S,Bala M,Kapil A,Das BK,Sharma VK,Samantaray JC

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • A national survey of genitourinary medicine clinic attenders provides little evidence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus in genitourinary medicine clinic attenders and to assess the extent of sexual transmission of the virus. METHODS:A cross sectional, unlinked, anonymous survey in 14 genitourinary medicine clinics situated in England, Wales, and Northern I...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Balogun MA,Ramsay ME,Parry JV,Donovan L,Andrews NJ,Newham JA,McGarrigle C,Harris KA,Teo CG

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Anal HPV detection in men who have sex with men living with HIV who report no recent anal sexual behaviours: baseline analysis of the Anal Cancer Examination (ACE) study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV are at high risk of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), the cause of anal cancer. We assess whether anal HPV DNA detection is related to recent anal sexual activity, what types of anal sexual activity or the persistence of HPV genotypes. METHO...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Ong JJ,Chen M,Tabrizi SN,Cornall A,Garland SM,Jin F,Tee BK,Eu B,Fairley CK

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamics of non-cohabiting sex partnering in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study with implications for HIV transmission.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To develop an analytical understanding of non-cohabiting sex partnering in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using nationally representative sexual behaviour data. METHOD:A non-homogenous Poisson stochastic process model was used to describe the dynamics of non-cohabiting sex. The model was applied to 25 countries in...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Omori R,Chemaitelly H,Abu-Raddad LJ

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Sexual behaviour and early coitarche in a national sample of 17 year old Swedish girls.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate sexual behaviour in 17 year old girls, using data from a national survey on adolescent sexuality. METHOD:The study was based on two samples of 17 year olds, comprising 2% of the population born in 1973 and carried out in 1990. A school sample and a sample of school non-attenders were recruited in...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edgardh K

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with biologically false-positive reactions with serological syphilis testing in contemporary practice: 10-year experience at a tertiary academic hospital.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Biologically false positive (BFP) reactions are well described in early literature. However, only a few recent reports described the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients with BFP reactions. We reviewed the serological test results of patients tested for syphilis in our hospital in the past deca...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishihara Y,Okamoto K,Shimosaka H,Ono Y,Kanno Y,Ikeda M,Harada S,Kurano M,Okugawa S,Moriya K,Yatomi Y

    更新日期:2020-11-18 00:00:00

  • Task force for the urgent response to the epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases in eastern Europe and central Asia.

    abstract::In summary, members of the TF/STD: share the common goal of reducing the STD burden and slowing the spread of HIV in the most affected and vulnerable countries in eastern Europe and central Asia contribute financially, technically, or in kind to the implementation of a joint strategy which aims: to create an enabling ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Waugh MA

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing reported condom use among female sex workers in southern India through examination of condom availability.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:A key indicator of success of HIV prevention programmes is the number of female sex worker (FSW) sex acts protected by condoms. This measure usually relies on FSW reports, which may be biased. We examined condom availability data in five Karnataka districts to estimate the proportion of FSW sex acts potentia...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bradley J,Moses S,Blanchard JF,Rajaram S,Ramesh BM,Verma S,Alary M

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Syphilis screening among female sex workers in Bangalore, India: comparison of point-of-care testing and traditional serological approaches.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We undertook a prospective evaluation of the Qualpro Syphicheck-WB rapid syphilis test to measure its diagnostic performance and utility as a point-of-care (POC) screening test among female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India. METHODS:From August 2008 to May 2009, FSWs without a laboratory-confirmed hist...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Mishra S,Naik B,Venugopal B,Kudur P,Washington R,Becker M,Kenneth J,Jayanna K,Ramesh BM,Isac S,Boily MC,Blanchard JF,Moses S

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Sexually transmitted infections among HIV seropositive men and women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of identified STIs and recognised symptoms of STIs and their association with health status, substance use, and sexual risk behaviour in a sample of HIV seropositive men and women. METHODS:223 men, 112 women, and five transsexual people living with HIV infection completed confide...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kalichman SC,Rompa D,Cage M

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • The application of qualitative research methods to the study of sexually transmitted infections.

    abstract::Qualitative methods have gained support in health sciences research and have a role to play in STI studies. This article reviews the main techniques used by qualitative researchers, with illustrations taken from the field of STIs. ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Power R

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sorting out the new HSV type specific antibody tests.

    abstract::This review will delineate performance characteristics and limitations, as far as they are known, of the new glycoprotein G based, type specific HSV serologies. Several of these tests have been FDA approved in the United States for use in adults. With the departure of Gull/Meridian from the HSV serology market, it is ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ashley RL

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Systematic reviews of point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. Most infections are asymptomatic. Untreated infection in women can lead to severe complications. Screening and treatment of at-risk populations is a priority for prevention and control. OB...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kelly H,Coltart CEM,Pant Pai N,Klausner JD,Unemo M,Toskin I,Peeling RW

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • High yield of reinfections by home-based automatic rescreening of Chlamydia positives in a large-scale register-based screening programme and determinants of repeat infections.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:In a systematic internet-based Chlamydia Screening Implementation Programme in The Netherlands, all chlamydia-positive participants automatically received a testkit after 6 months to facilitate early detection of repeat infections. The authors describe participation in repeat testing and prevalence and det...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Götz HM,van den Broek IV,Hoebe CJ,Brouwers EE,Pars LL,Fennema JS,Koekenbier RH,van Ravesteijn S,Op de Coul EL,van Bergen J

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Can we improve partner notification rates through expedited partner therapy in the UK? Findings from an exploratory trial of Accelerated Partner Therapy (APT).

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To develop two new models of expedited partner therapy for the UK, and evaluate them for feasibility, acceptability and preliminary outcome estimates to inform the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS:Two models of expedited partner therapy (APTHotline and APTPharmacy), known as 'Accelerat...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Estcourt C,Sutcliffe L,Cassell J,Mercer CH,Copas A,James L,Low N,Horner P,Clarke M,Symonds M,Roberts T,Tsourapas A,Johnson AM

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Chlamydia and gonorrhoea in pregnancy: effectiveness of diagnosis and treatment in Botswana.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Millions of patients are prescribed drugs for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries each year, yet the treatment effect of these prescriptions is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES:To determine if the prescribing of erythromycin and ceftriaxone to pregnant women with STI symptoms leads to ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Romoren M,Rahman M,Sundby J,Hjortdahl P

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • A peer-led, community-based rapid HIV testing intervention among untested men who have sex with men in China: an operational model for expansion of HIV testing and linkage to care.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine outcomes of a peer-led, community-based intervention providing rapid HIV testing and case management for linkage to care for untested men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS:Rapid HIV testing was performed by trained peer volunteers of a community-based organisation (CBO) in three citie...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Yan H,Zhang R,Wei C,Li J,Xu J,Yang H,McFarland W

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • An introduction to mathematical models in sexually transmitted disease epidemiology.

    abstract::Mathematical models serve a number of roles in understanding sexually transmitted infection epidemiology and control. This article seeks to provide the non-mathematician with a description of their construction and use and presents illustrative examples from sexually transmitted infection epidemiology. ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Garnett GP

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00