Incidence of severe reproductive tract complications associated with diagnosed genital chlamydial infection: the Uppsala Women's Cohort Study.


OBJECTIVE:To estimate the cumulative incidence of severe complications associated with genital chlamydia infection in the general female population. METHODS:The Uppsala Women's Cohort Study was a retrospective population based cohort study in Sweden, linking laboratory, hospital, and population registers. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hospital diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and used multivariable regression models to estimate hazard ratios according to screening status. RESULTS:We analysed complete data from 43 715 women in Uppsala aged 15-24 years between January 1985 and December 1989. Follow up until the end of 1999 included 709 000 woman years and 3025 events. The cumulative incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease by age 35 years was 3.9% (95% CI 3.7% to 4.0%) overall: 5.6% (4.7% to 6.7%) in women who ever tested positive for chlamydia, 4.0% (3.7% to 4.4%) in those with negative tests, and 2.9% (2.7% to 3.2%) in those who were never screened. The corresponding figures were: for ectopic pregnancy, 2.3% (2.2% to 2.5%) overall, 2.7% (2.1% to 3.5%), 2.0% (1.8% to 2.3%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%); and for infertility, 4.1% (3.9% to 4.3%) overall, 6.7% (5.7% to 7.9%), 4.7% (4.4% to 5.1%), and 3.1% (2.8% to 3.3%). Low educational attainment was strongly associated with the development of all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of severe chlamydia associated complications estimated from ours, and other population based studies, was lower than expected. Studies that incorporate data about pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed in primary care and behavioural risk factors would further improve our understanding of the natural history of chlamydia. Our results provide reassurance for patients, but mean that the benefits of chlamydia screening programmes might have been overestimated.


Sex Transm Infect


Low N,Egger M,Sterne JA,Harbord RM,Ibrahim F,Lindblom B,Herrmann B




Has Abstract


2006-06-01 00:00:00














  • Changes in high-risk sexual behaviour among Estonian adults between 1996 and 2006.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe and compare sexual behaviour patterns in 1996 (before the explosion of the HIV epidemic in 2000) and 2006, and the correlates of high-risk sexual behaviour in Estonia. METHODS:Data on selected sexual behaviour characteristics were obtained by interviewing a probability sample of the adult populat...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liivlaid H,Uusküla A

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • The Spectrum projection package: improvements in estimating incidence by age and sex, mother-to-child transmission, HIV progression in children and double orphans.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The Spectrum program is used to estimate key HIV indicators from the trends in incidence and prevalence estimated by the Estimation and Projection Package or the Workbook. These indicators include the number of people living with HIV, new infections, AIDS deaths, AIDS orphans, the number of adults and childr...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stover J,Johnson P,Hallett T,Marston M,Becquet R,Timaeus IM

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the performance and operational characteristics of dual point-of-care tests for HIV and syphilis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis and HIV continue to be important yet preventable causes of perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES:To systematically review, critically appraise and perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the operational characteristics of dual rapid diagnostic t...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Gliddon HD,Peeling RW,Kamb ML,Toskin I,Wi TE,Taylor MM

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Self-sampling for oropharyngeal and rectal specimens to screen for sexually transmitted infections: acceptability among men who have sex with men.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To explore the feasibility and acceptability of self-sampling for oropharyngeal and rectal specimens to screen for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Participant's willingness to self-sample at home was also explored. METHODS:Participants of a study to evaluate the...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wayal S,Llewellyn C,Smith H,Hankins M,Phillips A,Richardson D,Fisher M,Home Sampling Kit Project Steering Group.

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Awareness of post-exposure HIV prophylaxis in high-risk men who have sex with men in New York City.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To understand the factors associated with knowledge of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), bathhouse patrons in New York City (NYC) were surveyed. METHODS:554 men who have sex with men (MSM) at two NYC bathhouses were given a standardised survey focused on ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mehta SA,Silvera R,Bernstein K,Holzman RS,Aberg JA,Daskalakis DC

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • In search of optimal genital herpes management and standard of care (INSIGHTS): doctors' and patients' perceptions of genital herpes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare and contrast attitudes and behaviours of family doctors and patients with regard to genital herpes and its management. METHODS:Family doctors and infected patients were surveyed online to explore disease importance/seriousness, emotional impact, transmission and treatment. The study received ethic...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Romanowski B,Zdanowicz YM,Owens ST

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Sexual behaviour and early coitarche in a national sample of 17 year old Swedish girls.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate sexual behaviour in 17 year old girls, using data from a national survey on adolescent sexuality. METHOD:The study was based on two samples of 17 year olds, comprising 2% of the population born in 1973 and carried out in 1990. A school sample and a sample of school non-attenders were recruited in...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edgardh K

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamics of non-cohabiting sex partnering in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study with implications for HIV transmission.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To develop an analytical understanding of non-cohabiting sex partnering in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using nationally representative sexual behaviour data. METHOD:A non-homogenous Poisson stochastic process model was used to describe the dynamics of non-cohabiting sex. The model was applied to 25 countries in...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Omori R,Chemaitelly H,Abu-Raddad LJ

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Ethnic variations in sexual partnerships and mixing, and their association with STI diagnosis: findings from a cross-sectional biobehavioural survey of attendees of sexual health clinics across England.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Ethnic differences in partnership types and sexual mixing patterns may contribute to elevated STI diagnosis rates among England's Black Caribbean (BC) population. We examined the differences between BC and White British/Irish (WBI) sexual health clinic (SHC) attendees' reported partnerships and sexual mixing...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aicken CR,Wayal S,Blomquist P,Fabiane S,Gerressu M,Hughes G,Mercer CH

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Formative design and evaluation of patient-delivered partner therapy informational materials and packaging.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To develop and evaluate instructional and packaging materials for patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT). METHODS:64 patients participated from an urban US sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. The research comprised three phases: individual interviews to elicit attitudes and beliefs regarding PDPT ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McBride K,Goldsworthy RC,Fortenberry JD

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Is confirmatory testing of Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG test Neisseria gonorrhoeae positive samples required? Comparison of the Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG test with an opa/pap duplex assay for the detection of N gonorrhoeae.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Recently marketed nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) have improved specificity over previous generation assays. A study to assess the necessity for confirmation of Roche cobas 4800 NG positive samples was undertaken by the Public Health Wales Microbiology ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perry MD,Jones RN,Corden SA

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Task force for the urgent response to the epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases in eastern Europe and central Asia.

    abstract::In summary, members of the TF/STD: share the common goal of reducing the STD burden and slowing the spread of HIV in the most affected and vulnerable countries in eastern Europe and central Asia contribute financially, technically, or in kind to the implementation of a joint strategy which aims: to create an enabling ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Waugh MA

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and performance of STI syndromes against aetiological diagnosis, in female sex workers of red light area in Surat, India.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To measure prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV among female sex workers (SWs) in the red light area of Surat, India, and to evaluate the performance of STI syndrome guidelines (for general population women in India) in this group against the standard aetiological diagnosis of...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Desai VK,Kosambiya JK,Thakor HG,Umrigar DD,Khandwala BR,Bhuyan KK

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Risky business: health and safety in the sex industry over a 9 year period.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess whether a previously established low sexually transmitted infection/HIV risk in prostitutes in London has been sustained, and to measure other occupational risks, including mortality. DESIGN:9 year prospective study in west London. SUBJECTS:402 prostitutes recruited from 1985 to 1991, 320 were fo...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ward H,Day S,Weber J

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring the costs and outcomes of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeting men in football club settings: preliminary cost-consequence analysis of the SPORTSMART pilot randomised controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to compare the costs and outcomes of two sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeted at men in football club settings in England, including screening promoted by team captains. METHODS:A comparison of costs and outcomes was undertaken alongside a pil...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Jackson LJ,Roberts TE,Fuller SS,Sutcliffe LJ,Saunders JM,Copas AJ,Mercer CH,Cassell JA,Estcourt CS

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of infectious diseases in Bangladeshi women living adjacent to a truck stand: HIV/STD/hepatitis/genital tract infections.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Little is known about infection rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other diseases that can be transmitted sexually in Bangladeshi women who may be at intermediate levels of risk--that is, women who are not commercial sex workers (CSWs) but whose sexual contacts may include men at high risk for ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibney L,Macaluso M,Kirk K,Hassan MS,Schwebke J,Vermund SH,Choudhury P

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Early syphilis presenting as a painful polyradiculopathy in an HIV positive individual.

    abstract::Neurosyphilis and neurological complications from syphilis may be commoner in HIV disease. With outbreaks of early syphilis in HIV positive individuals being observed over recent years, rare neurological manifestations of secondary syphilis will be observed more commonly. We describe a case of an HIV positive individu...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Winston A,Marriott D,Brew B

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing reported condom use among female sex workers in southern India through examination of condom availability.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:A key indicator of success of HIV prevention programmes is the number of female sex worker (FSW) sex acts protected by condoms. This measure usually relies on FSW reports, which may be biased. We examined condom availability data in five Karnataka districts to estimate the proportion of FSW sex acts potentia...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bradley J,Moses S,Blanchard JF,Rajaram S,Ramesh BM,Verma S,Alary M

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Maintenance of endemicity in urban environments: a hypothesis linking risk, network structure and geography.

    abstract::In industrialised countries, a rapid epidemic phase of HIV transmission has largely given way to more moderated endemic transmission. The dynamics of endemic transmission may differ substantially from those generating epidemic spread. We hypothesise that three elements play an important role in maintaining endemicity ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rothenberg R

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • A new multiplex real-time PCR test for HSV1/2 and syphilis: an evaluation of its impact in the laboratory and clinical setting.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To develop, evaluate and implement a new multiplex real-time PCR test for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV)1, HSV2 and syphilis in a single sample using a single test. METHODS:A multiplex real-time PCR test detecting HSV1, HSV2 and Treponema pallidum was designed, validated and evaluated for a per...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scott LJ,Gunson RN,Carman WF,Winter AJ

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with biologically false-positive reactions with serological syphilis testing in contemporary practice: 10-year experience at a tertiary academic hospital.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Biologically false positive (BFP) reactions are well described in early literature. However, only a few recent reports described the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients with BFP reactions. We reviewed the serological test results of patients tested for syphilis in our hospital in the past deca...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishihara Y,Okamoto K,Shimosaka H,Ono Y,Kanno Y,Ikeda M,Harada S,Kurano M,Okugawa S,Moriya K,Yatomi Y

    更新日期:2020-11-18 00:00:00

  • The clinical and cost-effectiveness of brief advice for excessive alcohol consumption among people attending sexual health clinics: a randomised controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of brief advice for excessive alcohol consumption among people who attend sexual health clinics. METHODS:Two-arm, parallel group, assessor blind, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. 802 people aged 19 years or over who attended one of three sexual health cl...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Crawford MJ,Sanatinia R,Barrett B,Byford S,Dean M,Green J,Jones R,Leurent B,Sweeting MJ,Touquet R,Greene L,Tyrer P,Ward H,Lingford-Hughes A

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pathogen profile in men with inflammation of paraurethral glands.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the pathogen profile in men with inflammation of the paraurethral glands. METHODS:We enrolled 40 patients with first-onset, drug-naive inflammation of the paraurethral glands. Discharge from the lesions was collected for Gram staining. Microscopy was performed for screening for trichomonads an...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fan W,Zhang Q,Jiang T

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis viable load in women by viability-PCR.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:In recent years, studies have demonstrated frequent rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) detection in women, irrespective of reported anal sex or rectal symptoms. However, the clinical relevance and public health implication of rectal CT detection in women remain under debate. Therefore, evaluating CT viability...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Janssen KJH,Wolffs P,Lucchesi M,Dukers-Muijrers NHTM,Hoebe CJPA

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Rapid accurate point-of-care tests combining diagnostics and antimicrobial resistance prediction for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium.

    abstract::In addition to inadequate access to early diagnosis and treatment with antimicrobial agents for patients and sexual contacts, management and control of STIs is significantly challenged by emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), particularly for STIs such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitali...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sadiq ST,Mazzaferri F,Unemo M

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • SMS reminders improve re-screening in women and heterosexual men with chlamydia infection at Sydney Sexual Health Centre: a before-and-after study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 2009, Sydney Sexual Health Centre implemented a short message service (SMS) reminder system to improve re-screening after chlamydia infection. SMS reminders were sent at 3 months recommending the patient make an appointment for a re-screen. METHODS:Using a before-and-after study, the authors compared the...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guy R,Wand H,Knight V,Kenigsberg A,Read P,McNulty AM

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • The application of qualitative research methods to the study of sexually transmitted infections.

    abstract::Qualitative methods have gained support in health sciences research and have a role to play in STI studies. This article reviews the main techniques used by qualitative researchers, with illustrations taken from the field of STIs. ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Power R

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • From community to clients: the professionalisation of HIV prevention among gay men and its implications for intervention selection.

    abstract::Forces at work are described which encourage professionalisation and a reliance on one on one HIV prevention interventions among gay men. Community involvement is intrinsically linked to epidemic phases; when the threat diminishes, so does the community's ability to sustain community level interventions. The area of s...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wohlfeiler D

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Age-disparate partnerships and HSV-2 among adolescent girls and young women in South Africa: implications for HIV infection risk.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:There is an urgent need to understand high HIV-infection rates among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. While age-disparate partnerships have been characterised with high-risk sexual behaviours, the mechanisms through which these partnerships may increase HIV-risk are not fully understood. This study assessed...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maughan-Brown B,George G,Beckett S,Evans M,Lewis L,Cawood C,Khanyile D,Kharsany ABM

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Age at first anal sex and HIV/STI vulnerability among gay men in Australia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To determine whether there is a link between age at first anal intercourse (AFAI) and gay men's HIV/sexually transmissible infection (STI) vulnerability, including tendencies to engage in higher risk sexual behaviour. METHODS:A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted online involving 845 Australian ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lyons A,Pitts M,Grierson J,Smith A,McNally S,Couch M

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00