Hormonal and reproductive factors and the risk of bladder cancer in women.


:Gender and cigarette smoking are among the most consistent predictors of bladder cancer risk. After adjustment for known risk factors, an excess risk remains for males, suggesting that other factors may be responsible for the gender differences. Given limited data on hormonal or reproductive factors and bladder cancer risk, the authors examined these factors among women in the US Nurses' Health Study cohort. During 26 years of follow-up (1976-2002), 336 incident cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals between hormonal and reproductive factors and bladder cancer risk. Postmenopausal women, compared with premenopausal women, were at increased risk (incidence rate ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 3.78). For postmenopausal women, early age at menopause (/=50 years) was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer (incidence rate ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 2.23). The association between age at menopause and bladder cancer risk was modified by cigarette smoking status (p for interaction = 0.01). The authors observed no significant associations of age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, and exogenous hormone use with bladder cancer risk. Findings suggest that menopausal status and age at menopause may play a role in modifying bladder cancer risk among women.


Am J Epidemiol


McGrath M,Michaud DS,De Vivo I




Has Abstract


2006-02-01 00:00:00














  • Alcohol-containing mouthwashes and oropharyngeal cancer: a spurious association due to underascertainment of confounders?

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shapiro S,Castellana JV,Sprafka JM

    更新日期:1996-12-15 00:00:00

  • Natural history of bone loss over 6 years among premenopausal and early postmenopausal women.

    abstract::The aims of this prospective cohort study were to determine rates of premenopausal and early postmenopausal bone loss, age at onset of bone loss, and whether rates of bone loss depend on baseline bone mineral density (BMD). The cohort of 614 women aged 24-44 years at baseline from the longitudinal Michigan Bone Health...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

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    authors: Bainbridge KE,Sowers MF,Crutchfield M,Lin X,Jannausch M,Harlow SD

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

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    authors: Pineles BL,Park E,Samet JM

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weiss ST,Muñoz A,Stein A,Sparrow D,Speizer FE

    更新日期:1986-05-01 00:00:00

  • Familial aggregation of blood pressure in a rural Chinese community.

    abstract::This study investigated blood pressure in 1,183 Chinese nuclear families (mother, father, and first two children) via a cross-sectional 1994-1997 survey. The mother's, the father's, and the first sibling's blood pressures were each significantly and independently related to the second sibling's blood pressure after ad...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

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    authors: Wang X,Wang B,Chen C,Yang J,Fang Z,Zuckerman B,Xu X

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Taylor TR,Williams CD,Makambi KH,Mouton C,Harrell JP,Cozier Y,Palmer JR,Rosenberg L,Adams-Campbell LL

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Flegal KM,Kit BK,Graubard BI

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

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    authors: Falco RC,Fish D,Piesman J

    更新日期:1996-01-15 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silverman DT,Levin LI,Hoover RN

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

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    authors: Miller FD,Hicks SP,D'Amato CJ,Landis JR

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

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    authors: Saidel T,Sokal D,Rice J,Buzingo T,Hassig S

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Platt R,Polk BF,Murdock B,Rosner B

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mills PK,Beeson WL,Phillips RL,Fraser GE

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Subar AF,Kipnis V,Troiano RP,Midthune D,Schoeller DA,Bingham S,Sharbaugh CO,Trabulsi J,Runswick S,Ballard-Barbash R,Sunshine J,Schatzkin A

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    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

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    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Monto AS,Ross HW

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    authors: Romundstad PR,Davey Smith G,Nilsen TI,Vatten LJ

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Costacou T,Chang Y,Ferrell RE,Orchard TJ

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00