Role of the RNA-dependent protein kinase in the regulated expression of genes in transfected cells.


:The RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2 alpha protein kinase is a highly specific protein-serine/threonine kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2. The kinase plays a central role in translational control. The activity of the kinase is regulated by a variety of naturally occurring effector RNAs which bind to the regulatory domain of the enzyme. Certain RNAs are able to activate the eIF-2 alpha kinase activity inherent within protein P1, a process which involves an autophosphorylation of protein P1, whereas other RNAs are able to antagonize the activation process. Translational repression mediated by the kinase may also be disrupted by RNA binding proteins that sequester activator double-stranded RNAs and by site-directed mutants and homologs of the eIF-2 alpha translation factor substrate. The P1/eIF-2 alpha protein kinase is an important regulator of the translation of plasmid-derived mRNAs in transfected eukaryotic cells.


Pharmacol Ther


Samuel CE




Has Abstract


1992-01-01 00:00:00














  • The role of transporters in cellular heme and porphyrin homeostasis.

    abstract::Heme, a complex of iron and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), senses and utilizes oxygen in nearly all living cells. It is an essential component of various hemoproteins, including those involved in oxygen transport and storage (hemoglobin, myoglobin), electron transfer, drug and steroid metabolism (cytochromes), and signal t...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Krishnamurthy P,Xie T,Schuetz JD

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of the tumor vasculature and oxygenation to improve therapy.

    abstract::The tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as a major factor influencing the success of therapeutic treatments and has become a key focus for cancer research. The progressive growth of a tumor results in an inability of normal tissue blood vessels to oxygenate and provide sufficient nutritional support to t...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Siemann DW,Horsman MR

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cocaine use disorder: A look at metabotropic glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters.

    abstract::Glutamate transmission is an important mediator of the development of substance use disorders, particularly with regard to relapse. The present review summarizes the changes in glutamate levels in the reward system (the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, hippocampus, and ventral tegmental area) obs...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Niedzielska-Andres E,Pomierny-Chamioło L,Andres M,Walczak M,Knackstedt LA,Filip M,Przegaliński E

    更新日期:2021-01-09 00:00:00

  • Protein kinase inhibitors and antibiotic resistance.

    abstract::While antibiotics revolutionized the treatment of infectious disease in the 20th century, bacterial resistance now threatens to render many of them ineffective. Aminoglycosides are a class of clinically important antibiotics used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive and -negative organisms. They are ...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Burk DL,Berghuis AM

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Challenges to congenital genetic disorders with "RNA-targeting" chemical compounds.

    abstract::Patients of congenital diseases such as Down syndrome (DS) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have abnormalities in their chromosomes and/or genes. Therefore, it has been considered that drug treatments can serve to do little for these patients more than to patch over each symptom temporarily when it arises. Althou...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ogawa Y,Hagiwara M

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Synaptic plasticity and phosphorylation.

    abstract::A number of neuronal functions, including synaptic plasticity, depend on proper regulation of synaptic proteins, many of which can be rapidly regulated by phosphorylation. Neuronal activity controls the function of these synaptic proteins by exquisitely regulating the balance of various protein kinase and protein phos...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lee HK

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic targets in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    abstract::Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive, fatal disease. Current treatments including prostanoids, endothelin-1 (ET-1) antagonists, and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, have sought to address the pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction associated with the condition. These treatments ...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rhodes CJ,Davidson A,Gibbs JS,Wharton J,Wilkins MR

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Neuroimmune communication in hypertension and obesity: a new therapeutic angle?

    abstract::Hypertension is an epidemic health concern and a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Although there are available treatment strategies for hypertension, numerous hypertensive patients do not have their clinical symptoms under control and it is imperative that new avenues to treat or preven...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Kloet AD,Krause EG,Shi PD,Zubcevic J,Raizada MK,Sumners C

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • The role of receptor structure in determining adenosine receptor activity.

    abstract::Adenosine produces a wide variety of physiological effects through the activation of cell surface adenosine receptors (ARs). ARs are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, and currently, four subtypes, the A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, and A3AR, are recognized. This review focuses on the role of receptor structure in...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Olah ME,Stiles GL

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Minor groove binders as anti-infective agents.

    abstract::Minor groove binders are small molecules that form strong complexes with the minor groove of DNA. There are several structural types of which distamycin and netropsin analogues, oligoamides built from heterocyclic and aromatic amino acids, and bis-amidines separated by aromatic and heterocyclic rings are of particular...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barrett MP,Gemmell CG,Suckling CJ

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • A role for 5-HT in the action of antidepressant drugs.

    abstract::Administration of antidepressant drugs to rodents appears to decrease 5-HT2 receptor function while transmission through postsynaptic 5-HT1 receptor synapses may be enhanced. Antidepressant drugs also alter 5-HT mechanisms in humans; some of these changes are congruent with effects noted in animal studies. Thus certai...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cowen PJ

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Good or bad: Application of RAAS inhibitors in COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular comorbidities.

    abstract::The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (CoV) called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidities have significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The use of angiotensin-converting ...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang JJ,Edin ML,Zeldin DC,Li C,Wang DW,Chen C

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Binge-eating disorder: Clinical and therapeutic advances.

    abstract::Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder with estimates of 2-5% of the general adult population. Nonetheless, its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Furthermore, there exist few therapeutic options for its effective treatment. Here we review the current state of binge-eating neurobiology an...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hutson PH,Balodis IM,Potenza MN

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Measurement of sister chromatid exchanges and their relationship to DNA damage, repair and cell killing.

    abstract::We have concentrated on how SCE is measured, how it correlates with other measures of cellular damage, and how SCE can be used as a tool to study cell cycle kinetics. We have not discussed the biological significance of SCEs, i.e. why they occur spontaneously, and what role, if any, in cellular preservation they play....

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Deen DF,Morgan WF,Tofilon PJ,Barcellos-Hoff MH

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • C-type natriuretic peptide in vascular physiology and disease.

    abstract::Natriuretic peptides play a critical role in coordination of fluid/electrolyte balance and vascular tone. The renal effects of circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are distinct from the paracrine effects of vascular C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). CNP is widely expressed t...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Scotland RS,Ahluwalia A,Hobbs AJ

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Nutraceuticals and osteoarthritis pain.

    abstract::Arthritis is a chronic disease of joints. It is highly prevalent, particularly in the elderly, and is commonly associated with pain that interferes with quality of life. Because of its chronic nature, pharmacological approaches to pain relief and joint repair must be safe for long term use, a quality many current ther...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang A,Leong DJ,Cardoso L,Sun HB

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical benefits and pharmacology of scutellarin: A comprehensive review.

    abstract::Stroke and myocardial infarction are among the most common causes of mortality and disability in the world. The ischemic injury underlying these illnesses is complex, involving intricate interplays among many biological functions including energy metabolism, vascular regulation, hemodynamics, oxidative stress, inflamm...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang L,Ma Q

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • New hope for cancer treatment: exploring the distinction between normal adult stem cells and cancer stem cells.

    abstract::For decades, intensive studies have attempted to identify the mechanisms underlying malignant tumor growth. Despite significant progress, most therapeutic approaches fail to eliminate all tumor cells. The remaining tumor cells often result in recurrence and metastasis. Recently, the idea of a cancer stem cell was prop...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhao RC,Zhu YS,Shi Y

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • TSPO in diverse CNS pathologies and psychiatric disease: A critical review and a way forward.

    abstract::The use of Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) as a clinical neuroimaging biomarker of brain injury and neuroinflammation has increased exponentially in the last decade. There has been a furious pace in the development of new radiotracers for TSPO positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and its use has now been exte...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guilarte TR

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Organization of multiple cytochrome P450s with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in membranes.

    abstract::Microsomal P450-mediated monooxygenase activity supported by NADPH requires an interaction between flavoprotein NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome P450. These proteins have been identified as the simplest system (with the inclusion of a phospholipid (PL) component) that possesses monooxygenase function; ho...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Backes WL,Kelley RW

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological properties of the stimulant khat.

    abstract::The chewing of the stimulant leaf khat is a habit that is widespread in certain countries of East Africa and the Arabian peninsula. During the last decade, important progress has been made in understanding the pharmacological basis for the effects of khat. It is now known that the CNS action of this drug is due to the...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kalix P

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise and endothelial function: role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and oxidative stress in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients.

    abstract::Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that aerobic exercise, one of lifestyle modifications, reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of exercise remain unclear. Hypertension is associated with alte...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Higashi Y,Yoshizumi M

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • GABAB receptors as drug targets to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    abstract::For many years, acid-suppressive therapy has been at the forefront of treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), yet despite the advent of the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) some patients continue to experience persistent GERD symptoms. Therapeutic (non-surgical) options for such patients are currently limited. T...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lehmann A

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Glycine transporter inhibitors as a novel drug discovery strategy for neuropathic pain.

    abstract::Injury to peripheral or spinal nerves following either trauma or disease has several consequences including the development of neuropathic pain. This syndrome is often refractory against conventional analgesics; and thus, novel medicaments are desired for its treatment. Recent studies have emphasized that dysfunction ...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dohi T,Morita K,Kitayama T,Motoyama N,Morioka N

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Multi-target strategies for the improved treatment of depressive states: Conceptual foundations and neuronal substrates, drug discovery and therapeutic application.

    abstract::Major depression is a debilitating and recurrent disorder with a substantial lifetime risk and a high social cost. Depressed patients generally display co-morbid symptoms, and depression frequently accompanies other serious disorders. Currently available drugs display limited efficacy and a pronounced delay to onset o...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Millan MJ

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Intracellular trafficking of integrins in cancer cells.

    abstract::Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors, which principally mediate the interaction between cells and their extracellular microenvironments. Because of their pivotal roles in cancer proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis, integrins have been recognized as promising targets for cancer treatment. As ...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Onodera Y,Nam JM,Sabe H

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Potential role of female sex hormones in the pathophysiology of migraine.

    abstract::Clinical evidence indicates that female sex steroids may contribute to the high prevalence of migraine in women, as well as changes in the frequency or severity of migraine attacks that are in tandem with various reproductive milestones in women's life. While female sex steroids do not seem to be involved in the patho...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gupta S,Mehrotra S,Villalón CM,Perusquía M,Saxena PR,MaassenVanDenBrink A

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Extracellular vesicles and their nucleic acids for biomarker discovery.

    abstract::Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogenous population of vesicles originate from cells. EVs are found in different biofluids and carry different macromolecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, providing a snap shot of the parental cells at the time of release. EVs have the ability to transfer molec...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Momen-Heravi F,Getting SJ,Moschos SA

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of tumorigenic Wnt signaling by cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and their pharmacological inhibitors: A basis for novel drugs targeting cancer cells?

    abstract::Canonical Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway with a prominent role in embryogenic development, adult tissue homeostasis, cell polarization, stem cell biology, cell differentiation, and proliferation. Furthermore, canonical Wnt signaling is of pivotal importance in the pathogenesis of a number of cancer types ...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Roos J,Grösch S,Werz O,Schröder P,Ziegler S,Fulda S,Paulus P,Urbschat A,Kühn B,Maucher I,Fettel J,Vorup-Jensen T,Piesche M,Matrone C,Steinhilber D,Parnham MJ,Maier TJ

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological modulation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, a new therapeutic target in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

    abstract::In mediating the transfer of cholesteryl esters (CE) from antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) to proatherogenic apolipoprotein (apo)-B-containing lipoprotein particles (including very low density lipoprotein [VLDL], VLDL remnants, intermediate density lipoprotein [IDL], and low density lipoprotein [LDL]), t...

    journal_title:Pharmacology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Le Goff W,Guerin M,Chapman MJ

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00