The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-immune system homeostatic hypothesis.

Abstract:

:Decades of research have established that the biological functions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) extend far beyond its role as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Gary et al. [Gary, K.A., Sevarino, K.A., Yarbrough, G.G., Prange, A.J. Jr., Winokur, A. (2003). The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) hypothesis of homeostatic regulation: implications for TRH-based therapeutics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305(2):410-416.] and Yarbrough et al. [Yarbrough, G.G., Kamath, J., Winokur, A., Prange, A.J. Jr. (2007). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the neuroaxis: therapeutic effects reflect physiological functions and molecular actions. Med Hypotheses 69(6):1249-1256.] provided a functional framework, predicated on its global homeostatic influences, to conceptualize the numerous interactions of TRH with the central nervous system (CNS) and endocrine system. Herein, we profer a similar analysis to interactions of TRH with the immune system. Autocrine/paracrine cellular signaling motifs of TRH and TRH receptors are expressed in several tissues and organs of the immune system. Consistent with this functional distribution, in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests a critical role for TRH during the developmental stages of the immune system as well as its numerous interactions with the fully developed immune system. Considerable evidence supports a pivotal role for TRH in the pathophysiology of the inflammatory process with specific relevance to the "cytokine-induced sickness behavior" paradigm. These findings, combined with a number of documented clinical actions of TRH strongly support a potential utility of TRH-based therapeutics in select inflammatory disorders. Similar to its global role in behavioral and energy homeostasis a homeostatic role for TRH in its interactions with the immune system is consonant with the large body of available data. Recent advances in the field of immunology provide a significant opportunity for investigation of the TRH-immune system homeostatic hypothesis. Moreover, this hypothesis may provide a foundation for the development of TRH-based therapeutics for certain medical and psychiatric disorders involving immune dysfunction.

journal_name

Pharmacol Ther

authors

Kamath J,Yarbrough GG,Prange AJ Jr,Winokur A

doi

10.1016/j.pharmthera.2008.09.004

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2009-01-01 00:00:00

pages

20-8

issue

1

eissn

0163-7258

issn

1879-016X

pii

S0163-7258(08)00187-3

journal_volume

121

pub_type

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