The influence of orthosis stiffness on paraplegic ambulation and its implications for functional electrical stimulation (FES) walking systems.


:This study examines the evidence which supports the importance of maintaining relative abduction for effective reciprocal walking in high level paraplegic patients. In comparisons of orthoses, where this can only be achieved mechanically, those with higher lateral rigidity consistently showed greater levels of walking efficiency. The influence on hybrid systems of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the gluteal muscles, where the primary function is to maintain abduction, also showed reductions in overall energy cost, reductions in upper limb effort, or both. Examination of the effect of increasing lateral rigidity of a purely mechanical orthosis by 10% showed that significant energy cost reductions were achieved (30% reduction in Physiological Cost Index) for patients with thoracic lesions experienced in reciprocal walking. A review of FES research suggested that for the modern healthcare sector the cost effectiveness of purely mechanical systems make them an attractive means of routinely providing the functional and therapeutic benefits of walking for high level paraplegic patients. In the prevailing climate of strict budgetry control a case is made for concentrating more research resources on improving still further walking efficiency, and resolving the outstanding problems of functionality and cosmesis in such systems for reciprocal walking.


Prosthet Orthot Int


Stallard J,Major RE




Has Abstract


1995-08-01 00:00:00












  • Multichannel functional electrical stimulation--facts and expectations.

    abstract::Clinically applied multichannel stimulation was visualized in the very beginnings of FES. A short survey of existing multichannel systems was taken and compared to initial expectations. While much still remains to be done to get multichannel stimulation out of the research environment and into the clinical routine, th...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vodovnik L,Grobelnik S

    更新日期:1977-04-01 00:00:00

  • Technical note--test instructions for the technical testing of mono-functional myoelectrically-controlled prosthetic hands. A proposal.

    abstract::To get an acceptable standard of prostheses and orthoses in Sweden, the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped is testing this group of aids. One important part of the work is to draw up test instructions. In response to a request from the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped, the Laboratory of Rehabilitation Engineer...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ingvarsson B,Karlsson I,Ottosson LG,Thyberg M

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of body-powered upper limb prostheses by able-bodied subjects, using the Box and Blocks Test and the Nine-Hole Peg Test.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The functional performance of currently available body-powered prostheses is unknown. OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study was to objectively assess and compare the functional performance of three commonly used body-powered upper limb terminal devices. STUDY DESIGN:Experimental trial. METHODS:A total of 21 ab...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haverkate L,Smit G,Plettenburg DH

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Corrigendum.

    abstract::The benefits of using a vacuum-assisted socket system to improve balance and gait in elderly transtibial amputees by C Beatriz Samitier, Lluis Guirao, Maria Costea, Josep M Camós, and Eulogio Pleguezuelos. Prosthetics and Orthotics International 2016; 40: 83-88, DOI: 10.1177/0309364614546927. ...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章,已发布勘误



    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Standing balance in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes: A literature review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this article is to review literature and determ...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Seth M,Lamberg E

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Heel lifting as a conservative therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip: based on the rationale of Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy.

    abstract::Patients with osteoarthritis of the hip were treated with a conservative therapy of heel lifting. Orthoses were applied on 35 hips in 33 subjects and the cases were followed for 23 months on average. Dramatic pain relief was reported, but the time required to reduce or completely relieve pain increased according to th...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohsawa S,Ueno R

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Graphical representation of the five point Locomotor Capability Index.

    abstract::The Locomotor Capability Index (LCI) is widely used for assessing goals and achievements of patients receiving prostheses. The Stanmore-Kingston Splat method for graphical display of the results has previously been described and is based on four levels of achievement for each of the 14 tasks in the index. Recently a m...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fulton J,Wertheim D,Hanspal R,Geake T

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored prostheses using osseointegrated fixation: Myth or reality?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In principle, lower limb bone-anchored prostheses could alleviate expenditure associated with typical socket manufacturing and residuum treatments due to socket-suspended prostheses. OBJECTIVE:This study reports (a) the incremental costs and (b) heath gain as well as (c) cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored ...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frossard LA,Merlo G,Burkett B,Quincey T,Berg D

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • The DEKA Arm: its features, functionality, and evolution during the Veterans Affairs Study to optimize the DEKA Arm.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIM:DEKA Integrated Solutions Corp. (DEKA) was charged by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency to design a prosthetic arm system that would be a dramatic improvement compared with the existing state of the art. The purpose of this article is to describe the two DEKA Arm prototypes (Gen 2 and Gen ...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Resnik L,Klinger SL,Etter K

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Compliance to service standards for congenital upper limb deficiency: the Northern Ireland experience.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 2003, the British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine (BSRM) published guidelines on amputee and prosthetic rehabilitation, including those with congenital limb deficiency. OBJECTIVES:The aim of the study was to evaluate the service provided by the Regional Disablement Service (RDS) to children with conge...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hillan J,Graham LE

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • The ICEROSS concept: a discussion of a philosophy.

    abstract::Prefabricated ICEROSS (Icelandic Roll On Silicone Socket) sockets have been in use in Iceland since early 1986. Use of custom-made silicone sockets began several years earlier, and a paper devoted to the subject was presented at the 1984 AOPA Assembly by the author of this article. The ICEROSS system is primarily used...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kristinsson O

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Biomechanical differences between experienced and inexperienced wheelchair users during sport.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:During functional wheelchair movement there are several types of stroke pattern that a manual wheelchair user (MWCU) can utilize in order to propel. OBJECTIVES:To examine the biomechanical differences between disabled (WCU) and able-bodied (NWCU) children whilst taking part in functional activities at the C...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Starrs P,Chohan A,Fewtrell D,Richards J,Selfe J

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Reflections and future directions for psychological science in Prosthetics and Orthotics International.

    abstract::In the inaugural edition of Prosthetics and Orthotics International in 1977, Dr Sidney Fishman identified the Psychological Sciences as one of six indispensable areas of skill and knowledge in professional prosthetic-orthotic practice. Since then, there have been substantial changes and developments in the complexity ...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Desmond D,Gallagher P

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • SMARTWheel: From concept to clinical practice.

    abstract::Wheelchair prescription is complex with thousands of choices and options. Theoretically, a higher quality or innovative wheelchair that is appropriately matched to the user and their unique needs will increase participation. It is well accepted that there is an alarmingly high incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome, and ...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Cooper RA

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of orthoses in the treatment of idiopathic toe walking: A randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Orthotic treatment of idiopathic toe walking is complicated by the lack of a known etiology. This study compared control of toe walking using an articulated ankle-foot orthosis versus a rigid carbon fiber footplate attached to a foot orthosis. OBJECTIVES:Ascertain differences between two orthoses in the con...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Herrin K,Geil M

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • A model to facilitate implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health into prosthetics and orthotics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is a classification of human functioning and disability and is based on a biopsychosocial model of health. As such, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health seems suitable as a basis for constructing models defin...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jarl G,Ramstrand N

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Biomechanical improvements following foot strike biofeedback training for a patient using a passive dynamic ankle-foot orthosis during running.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Passive dynamic ankle-foot orthoses have potential to facilitate return to running after a lower limb trauma. However, transitioning patients to new movement patterns that enhance passive dynamic ankle-foot orthoses benefits can pose a challenge. The purpose of this case study was to report biome...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoder AJ,Mazzone BN,Miltenberger RS,Farrokhi S

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in the corticospinal tract after wearing prosthesis in bilateral transtibial amputation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:After amputation, the brain is known to be reorganized especially in the primary motor cortex. We report a case to show changes in the corticospinal tract in a patient with serial bilateral transtibial amputations using diffusion tensor imaging. Case Description and Methods: A 78-year-old man had a transtibi...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lee SY,Kang SH,Kim DK,Seo KM,Ro HJ,Kim JK

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Interface pressures and shear stresses: sagittal plane angular alignment effects in three trans-tibial amputee case studies.

    abstract::Interface pressures and shear stresses at different sagittal plane angular alignment settings were measured on 3 trans-tibial amputee subjects ambulating with patellar-tendon-bearing total contact prostheses. Substantial socket-shank angular alignment modifications in the sagittal plane had minimal effect on stance ph...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanders JE,Daly CH

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • The social and economic outcome after upper limb amputation.

    abstract::This paper reports a study of 66 upper limb amputees in County Funen, Denmark who were visited in their homes by the author. The purpose of this study was to evaluate for the same period of time the social and economic outcome for a population of upper limb amputees compared with the normal population. The number of a...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kejlaa GH

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of a vibratory lumber orthosis on walking velocity in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::This paper explores the use of biofeedback to improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) and, in particular, reports on the design and testing of a new vibratory orthosis. The orthosis causes a rhythmic vibratory stimulus to be applied to one or other side of the lumbar region. The stimulus is synchronized with stepping...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghoseiri K,Forogh B,Sanjari MA,Bavi A

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Importance of neurological evaluation before reverse shoulder arthroplasty in patients with previous poliomyelitis.

    abstract::We present a case report of a patient, affected by post-polio syndrome and cuff tear arthropathy of his right shoulder, who underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty. A previous radial deficiency was unmasked in the post-operative follow-up, with passive elbow bending when the forearm was put in an antigravitational pos...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castoldi F,Lollino N,Caranzano F,Assom M

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Development and characterisation of electromechanical muscles for driving trans-humeral myoelectric prostheses.

    abstract::Recently, attempts have been made to construct actuators with similar behaviour to natural muscles. However the results have been inadequate for application to practical prostheses. For example, muscle wire, which has too low an efficiency to be powered by batteries and McKibben muscles which require two power supplie...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Escudero AZ,Alvarez J,Leija L

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • The assessment and description of amputee activity.

    abstract::The activity achieved by a lower limb amputee is usually assessed by clinical judgement or physiological tests. The former is seldom absolute, being affected by factors such as patient age, and is expressed in categories which may not be equivalent to those used by other observers. Physiological testing provides a mea...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Day HJ

    更新日期:1981-04-01 00:00:00

  • The immediate effects of fitting and tuning solid ankle-foot orthoses in early stroke rehabilitation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Ankle-foot orthoses are known to have a generally positive effect on gait in stroke, however the specifc type of AFO and the time point at which it is provided are highly variable in the currently available literature. OBJECTIVE:The objective was to determine the immediate spatiotemporal and kinematic effec...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carse B,Bowers R,Meadows BC,Rowe P

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • A newly developed socket design for a knee disarticulation amputee who is an active athlete.

    abstract::This case report describes a newly developed socket design for a world class knee disarticulation athlete. To meet the demands concerning especially the suspension of the prosthesis a new type of socket was developed. The socket is made from carbon fibres and polyaramid fibres and is designed with a slit in the socket...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tingleff H,Jensen L

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • The efficacy of powered orthoses on walking in persons with paraplegia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Powered orthoses are a new generation of assistive devices for people with spinal cord injury, which are designed to induce motion to paralyzed lower limb joints using external power via electric motors or pneumatic or hydraulic actuators. OBJECTIVE:Powered gait orthoses provide activated movement of lower ...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Arazpour M,Hutchins SW,Ahmadi Bani M

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of powered gait orthosis on walking in individuals with paraplegia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The important purpose of a powered gait orthosis is to provide active joint movement for patients with spinal cord injury. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a powered gait orthosis on the kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters in paraplegics with spinal cord injury. STUDY DE...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Arazpour M,Ahmadi Bani M,Kashani RV,Tabatabai Ghomshe F,Mousavi ME,Hutchins SW

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Results of the pilot phase of a clinical evaluation of computer aided design of trans-tibial prosthesis sockets.

    abstract::This study served as a pilot to develop the methodology for a larger number of clinical trials. Ten trans-tibial amputees compared sockets made by conventional methods with sockets made using computer aided socket design (CASD). Prosthetists, paired for experience, fitted each subject with one prosthesis using each me...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holden JM,Fernie GR

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Step count accuracy of StepWatch and FitBit One™ among individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Step counts, obtained via activity monitors, provide insight into activity level in the free-living environment. Accuracy assessments of activity monitors are limited among individuals with lower-limb amputations. OBJECTIVES:(1) To evaluate the step count accuracy of both monitors during forward-linear and ...

    journal_title:Prosthetics and orthotics international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arch ES,Sions JM,Horne J,Bodt BA

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00